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Full text of "The general biographical dictionary : containing an historical and critical account of the lives and writings of the most eminent persons in every nation ; particularly the British and Irish ; from the earliest accounts to the present time .."

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»  1^  " 

t.   I 

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VOL.  IX. 

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.ft        T*,>  A         'S¥~'^       *«»• 



:..  ^•     /^   ...        .  /.T   ''    ,  1//,  >      I  .^  •-..        ^^•     ft       >0-    ■>.^.   -■    •  ..  >       •   »;^.-       T 





or  TBI 


or  THS 







VOL.  IX. 


pmHTSO  FOR  J.  1IIGHOL8  AMD  tOM ;  F.  C.  AND  J.  RIVINGTON  j  T.  PAYNi:  | 
S.  I.BA  \  W.  L0WNDB8 ;  WHITE,  COCHRANBy  AND  CO.  |  J.  DEIOHTON ; 
■UR8T,  BBB8,  ORME,  AND  BROWN  |  CADBLL  AND  DA  VIES  j  C.  LAW  |  J.  BOOKER  } 
J.  COTBELL;     CLARKB   AND    SONS;     J.  AND  A.   ARCH;     J.  BABRI8}   BLACK» 

FARBYy    AND   CO.;    \*J;SS!!ISjJ\3^^J^A.^'^^^^*    CURTIS^   AND  FBNNBB; 
B.  H.  BVAN8i^^^|^x4^^;  J|.  HA^DlNQ^f.^^^^^  J.  JOHN- 

BON  A»l>  CO.\^Mfr^^lifm ^  ,«^««»ff-:.>r  h^i 




V^EBES»  the  author  of  a  well-known  and  beautiful  alle^^ 
gory  in  Greek,  entitled  "  A  Picture  of  Human  Life,"  is 
supposed  to  have  flourished  about  400  B.  C.     The  piec^ 
is  aientioned  by  some  of  the  ancient  writers,  by  Lucian, 
Diogenes  Laertius,  Tertullian,  and  Suidas  ;  but  of  Cebes 
himself  we  have  no  account,  unless  that  he.  is  once  men^* 
tioned  by  Plato,   and  once  by  Jtenjjphon.     The  former 
says  of  him,    in  his  "  Ph^ddy^'i'ihsktyi^:  was  a  sagacious 
investigator  of  truth,  and  n^er  ^ss^epted  without  the  most 
convincing  reasons;    the  laVtftjr,.Jo  rbis  "  Memorabilia," 
jranks  bim  among  the  few  ini^^ted' of  .^derates,  who  ex- 
celled the  rest  in  the  innoceiifGir  of  .their  lives  ;  but  the 
abbe  Sevio  and  professor  Meiners  have  endeavoured  to 
prove  that  the  ^^  Picture"  is  the  work  of  a  more  modern 
author.     Brucker  seems  to  be  of  a  different  opinion.  .  It  is 
evidently  Socratic  in  its  moral  spirit  and  character,  although 
not  without  some  sentiments  which  appear  to  have  been 
borrowed  from  the  Pythagorean  school.     It  was  translated 
by  the  rev.  Joseph  Spence  for  Dodsley's  "  Museum,"  and 
was  after  wards- inserted  in  his  "  Preceptor,"  and  in  other 
moral  collections.     There  are  many  separate  editions  of 
the  original,  but  for  above  a  century,  it  has  usually  been 
printed  with  Epictetus's  "  Enchiridium,"   for  the  use  of 

CECCO  b'ASCOLI,  is  the  adopted  name  of  Francis, 
or  Francesco  Stabili,  a  native  of  Ascoli,  in  the  nOarch  of 
Ancona,  in  the  thirteenth  and  fourteenth  centuries,  wha 

>  Fabricii  Btbl,  Onec— Morcri.— Brucker^ 

Voi^IX.  B     . 

2  C  E  C  C  O. 

acquired  considerable  reputation,  unfortunately  for  himself, 
as  a  critic  and  poet.     Among  the  many  anachronisms  and 
contradictions  in  the  accounts  given  of  bis  life,  which  Tira* 
boftchi  has  endeavoured  to  correct,   we  find  that  when 
young,  he  was  professor  of  astrology  in  the  university  of 
Bologna,  that  be  published  a  book  on  that  science,  which 
being  denounced  to  the  Inquisition,  he  escaped  by  re- 
canting what  w^  offiensive ;  but  that  the  same  accusations 
being  afterwards  renewed  at  Florence,  he  was  condemned 
to  be  burnt,  and  suffered  that  horrible  death  in  1327,  in 
the  seventieth  year  of  his  age.     We  have  already  seen, 
in  former  lives,  that  it  waa  no  uncommon  thing  for  enraged 
authors  to  apply  to  the  secular  arm  for  that  revenge  which 
they  could  not  otherwise  have  inflicted  on  one  another. 
The  pretence  for  putting  this  poor  map  to  death,  was  hts 
**  Commentary  on  the  Sphere  of  John  de  Sacrabosco,'*  in 
which,  following  the  superstition  of  the  times,  he  asserted 
that  wonderful  things  might  be  done  by  the  agency  of  cer- 
tain demons  who  inhabited  the  first  of  the  celestial  spheres. 
This  was  foolish  enough,  but  it  was  the  prevalent  folly  of 
the  times,  and  Cecco  probabVy  believed  what  he  wrote. 
That  he  was  not  an  impostor  wiser  than  those  whom  he 
duped,  appears  from  his  conduct  to  Chstrles,  duke  of  Ca* 
labria,  who  appointed  him  his  astrologer,  and  who,  having 
consulted  him  on  the  future  conduct  of;  his  wife  and  daugh- 
ter, Cecco,  by  bis  art,  foretold  that  they  would  turn  out 
very  abandoned  characters*     Had  he  not'  persuaded  him- 
self into  the  truth  of  this,  he  surely  would  have  conciliated 
so  powerful  a  patron  by^  a  prediction  of  a  mpre  favourable 
kind ;  and  this,  as  may  be  supposed,  lost  him  the  favour  of 
the  duke.     But  even  the  loss  of  bis  friend  would  not  have 
brought  him  to  the  stake,  if  he  bad  not  rendered  himself 
unpopular  by  attacking,  the  literarj'  merit  of  Dante  and 
Gnido  Cavalcanti,  in  his  poem  entitled  **  A<;erba.*'     This 
provoked  the  malice  of  a  famous  physician,,  named  Dlno 
•del  Garbo,  who  never  desisted  until.he  procured  him  to  be 
capitally  condemned;      This  poem  *'  Acerba,"    properly 
**  Acerbo,*'   or  "Acervo,**    in  Latin  ^c^rvuj,   is  in  the 
sesta  rtma  divided  into  five  books,  and  each  of  these  into 
a  number  of  chapters,  treating  of  the  heavens,  the  ele- 
ments, virtues,  vices,  love,   animals,   minerals,   religion, 
&c« '  The  whole  is  written  in  a  bad  6tyle,  destitute  of  har- 
inony>  elegance^  or  grace,;  and,  according  to  a  late  au- 
thor, much  of  the  plan^  as  well  as  the  materials,  a;re  t^^t^ 

.    C  E  C  C  0»  4 



(torn  the  **  Trcsor'*  Tof  Brunekto  Latini.  It  i$,  bbwever.  It 
work  Id  demand  with  collecton^  and  although  often 
printed,  most  of  the  editions  are  now  very  scarce.  The 
first  was  printed  at  Venice  in  1476^  4tOf  with  the  canimeH«> 
tary  of  Nicolo  Massetti^  and  was  reprinted  in^  1478, 
Haym  (in  the  edition  of  his  Bibliotecai  1771)  speaks  of-^ 
first  edition  as  early  as  1458,  which  We  apprehend  no  bib** 
liographer  has  seen.' 

CECIL  (WiLUAM))  lord  Burleighi  an  illustrious  stateii^ 
man  of  the  sixteenth  century,  descended  from  the  ancient 
and  honourable  family  of  Sitsilt,  or  Cecily  of  Alterennes^ 
in  Herefordshire,  was  the  son  of  Richard  Cecils,  mastei* 
of  the  robes  to  Henry  VIII.  by  Jane,  daughter  and  heiress 
of  William  Hickingtoa,  of  Bourne,  co.  Lincoln,  esq<  He 
wae  born  in  the  house  of  his  grandfather,  David  Cecily  at 

>  •  ■ 

*  This  Richard,  by  the  interest  of  for  life.     In  1544  he  purchased  the 

his  fAth^r,  David  Cecil,  or  Cyssel,  of  manor  of  Esyns^^on,  in  the  county  of 

bttaif<ird,   in  LiDCOhiitiire,   esq.  vm  Eutland,  then  also,  in  the  crown,  as 

■referred  io  the  eighth  year  of  Henry  a   parcel  of   the  earl  of  VVarwick't 

VllL  to  be  one  of  the  pages  of  the  lands,  and  the  following  year  be  sur- 

erowd.      In    1520  he  waited  on  the  rendered    his    custody    of   Vt'^ai^ck<* 

king  at  that  famous  interview  with  the  castle.     He  remained  yeoraan  ef  tbtf 

king  of  France,  between  Calais  ^nd  robes  to  king  £dward  VI.  to  the  las( 

Gaiennet;  and  ?n  1530,  being  groom  day  of  his  life,  which  was  the  nine-* 

of  the  robes  to  that  king,  obtained  a  teeoth  of  May,  1552 ;  and  dying  M 

gnuit  of  the  office  of  constable  of  War-  ooart»  his  body  was  interred  in  ^  the 

wick-castle,    then  in  the  crown.      In  (larish  church  of  St.  Margaret's  W^st- 

1435,  being  one  of  the  grooms  of  the  minster.     In  the  month  of  April)  1553^ 

:  wardrobe,  be  had  n  grant  of  the  office  a  commission  Was  issued  to  sir  RU 

of  bayliff  of  the  king's .  water  called  chard  Cotton,  sir  Ralph  Sadler,  and 

Wittlesey-mere,-  and  the  ctstody  of  sir  Walter  Miidmay,  knights,  together 

the  swans,  and  of  those  waters  called  with  Edmund  Pidgeon,   clerk  of  the 

Great  Crick  and  Merys,  in  the  coun-  wardrobes,  any  three  or  two  of  them, 

ties  of  Cambridge,  Lincolfli-  Hunting-  io  take  an  account  of  Jane  Cecil,  and 

don,  a|id  Korthamptob,  for  the  term  eir  WiiUam  Cc«il,  knt.  administratcrft 

^  thirty  3^artf,  after  the  expiratioo.of  af  the  testameat  of  Richard  Cecil,  for 

the  term  granted  to  David  Cyssell  his  certain  robes,  apparel,  and  jewels  of 

father.    In  1539  he  waa  sheriff  of  Rut-  the  king,  in  the  custody  df  the  said 

In    1540,   beiiig   written  Richard.      His  widow,   who  surviVfd- 

Richard  Cecyll  of  BuHey,  in  the  county  b im  thirty-five  yea  rs,  was  a  very*  graTe, 

of  Northampton,  esq.  he  had  a  grant  religious,  and  vhtuous  lady,  delighting 

ta  him,  Me  heirs,  aad.  AfMgoi  for  ever,  much  in  wovkt  of  |iiety  and  charity^ 

of  the  site  of    8t«  Michael's  priory  as  well  ia  her  Itfe^time  as  at  her  de« 

near  Stamford,  and  the  church,  and  cease,  March  10,  1581,  aged  eighty- 

S$9  acres  of  arable  fatndi  lying  Hi  the  seven.     The  lord-treasurer  Bu^lei|h 

parish  of  St  Mafttii%,  in  Stainfiard,  in  caused  ta  he  erected  at  the  upper  ekid 

the  county  of  Northampton.     In  1542,  of  the  north  chancel  in  St.  Martin's 

being  then  yeoman  of  the  wardrobe,  church  at  Stamford,   a  nOble  monti- 

be  was  made  yeoman  of  (he  king's^  «nentto  the  memory  of  his  paventsj  and. 

manors  of  NakfcingtOa^  Yarwel,  and  by  it  is  his  own. 
tTpton,  la  the  countv  of  Northampton, 


I  Tiraboichit-«<Jtfattri«^>-43iDgaeA6  fiSst  Lit.  4'Italie;  valJUl--^osbeim  in 
iiscniaaas,  ^ 

S  2* 

4  CECIL.. 

Bourne,  in  Lincolnshire,  Sept.  13,  1520,  and  wali  first  edu* 
cated  at  the  grammar-school  at  Grantham,  whence  he 
afterwards  removed  to  Stamford.  On  May  27,  14^35,  he 
entered  of  St.  John^s-coliege,  Cambridge,  and  was  no  less 
distingaished  by  the  regularity  of  his  life,  than  by  an  un- 
commonly diligent  application  to  his  studies.  Finding 
several  persons  of  eminent  talents  at  that  time  students 
there,  this  inspired  him  with  such  a  thirst  for  learning, 
that  be  made  an  agreement  with  the  bell-ringer  to  call  him 
up  at  four  o'clock  every  morning,  and  this  sedentary  life 
brought  on  a  humour  in  his  legs,,  which,  although  removed 
with  some  difficulty,  his  physicians  considered  as  one  of 
the  principal  causes  of  that  inveterate  gout  with  which  he 
was  tormented  in  the  latter  part  of  his  life.  Dr.  Nicholas  , 
Medcalfe,  who  was  at  this  time  master  of  the  college,  was 
his  principal  patron,  and  frequently  gave  him  money  to 
encourage  him  ;  but  the  strong  passion  he  had  to  excel  his 

*  contemporaries,  and  to  distinguish  himself  early  in  the 
university,  was  the  chief  spur  to  his  endeavours.  At  six- 
teen he  read  a  sophistry  lecture,  and  at  nineteen  a  Greek 
lecture,  not  for  any  pay  or  salary,  but  as  a  fi;entleman  for  . 
bis  pleasure,  and  this  at  a  time  when  there  were  but  few 
who  were  masters  of  Greek,  either  in  that  college  or  in 
the  university.  But  though  he  applied  himself  with  so 
much  assiduity  to  Greek  literature,  he  laid  up  at  the  same 
Vime  a  considerable  stock  of  general  knowledge,  having 
then  no  particular  predilection  to  any  single  branch  of 

About  1^41,  his  father  placed  him  in  Gray's-inn,  with 
a  view  to  the  profession  of  the  law,  he  pursued  the 
same  indefatigable  application,  until  by  an  accidental  dis- 
play of  his  knowledge,  he  became  known  at  court.'  One 
O'Neil,  an  Irish  chief,  brought  to  court  two  of  his  chap- 
Jains,  who  falling  in  with  Mr.  Cecil,  engaged  in  a  dispute 
with  hin^  on  the  power  of  the  Roman  pontiff,  in  which  he  • 
had  so  much  the  superiority,  that  the  matter  was  men- 

^  tioneid  to  Henry  VIIL  who  expressed  a^  desire  to  see  him, 
admired  his  abilities,  and  gave  him  the  reversion  of  ti>e 
place  of  custos  brevium. 

,  Such  early  encouragement  diverted  Mr.  Cecil  from  the 
profession  of  the  law,  and  bis  marriage  with  the  sister  of 
the  celebrated  sir  John  Cheke,  who  introduced  him  to  the 
earl  of  Hertford,  afterwards  duke  of  Somerset,  probably 
directed  bis  views  to  politics.    In  the  beginning'  of'  the 

CECIL.  5 

reign  of  Edward  VI.  he  came  into  possession  of  bis  office 
of  Gustos  brevium,  worth  240/.  a  year^  and  having  married^ 
as  his  second  wife,  Mildred,  daughter  of  sir  Anthony  Cook, 
bis  interest  at  court  became  more  considerable.  In  1547, 
bis  patron  the  protector  duke  of  Somerset,  bestowed  on  hioji 
the  place  of  master  of  requests,  and  took  him  with  him 
in  his  expedition  into  Scotland,  in  September  of  tbat  year, 
where  he  was  present. at  the  battle  of  Musselburgh,  and 
y^vy  narrowly  escaped  a  cannon-shot.  On  his  retuqi  to 
court,  Edward  VI.  advanced  him  to  the  high  post  of  secre- 
tary of  state,  which  he  enjoyed  twice  in  that  reign,  iirst 
in  1343,  and  then,  after  an  interval,  in  1551,  but  histo- 
rians are  not  agreed  in  these  dates,  although  what  we  have 
given  appear  to  be  pretty  near  the  truth.  When  the 
party  was  formed  against  the  protector,  Mr.  Cecil  shared 
in  his  fail,  which  followed  soon  afterwards,  and  was  sent 
to  prison  in  November  1549,  where  he  remained  three 

On  his  being  liberated,  he  was  again  introduced  to  court, 
where  his  acknowledged  abilities  regained  him  his  office^' 
under  the  duke  of  Northumberland,  the  enemy  and  ac* 
complisher  of  the  ruin  of  his  old  patron  the  duke  of  So- 
merset. This  re-appointment  took  place,  as  we  have  no* 
ticed,  in  September  1551,  and  in  October  following  he 
was  knighted,  and  sworn  of  the  privy-council.  He  has 
been  much  blamed  for  this  transfer  of  his  services,  as  a  sa- 
crifice of  his  gratitude  to  his  interest;  and  many  excuses, 
palliations,  and  even  justification^^  have  been  urged  for 
him.  The  best  seems  to  be  tbat  his  pretensions  to  the 
promotion  were  founded,  not  on  his  servility  and  depen- 
dence on  one  or  the  other  of  these  great  men,  but  on  his  su- 
Eerior  fitness  for  the  office.  It  is  universally  allowed  that 
e  possessed  great  abilities,  and  his  credit  now  increased 
with  the  young  king»  for  whom  he  is  said  to  have  written 
many  of  those  papers,  &c.  which  are  generally  attributed 
to  Edward.  The  princess  Mary  affected  on  one  occasion 
to  discover  this,  for  when  a  letter  from  bis  majesty  was 
presented  to  her  on  her  obstinate  adherence  to  the  popish 
religion,  she  cried,  <^  Ah !  Mr.  Cecil's  pen  took  great 
pains  here.** 

-Sir  William  Cecil  acted  with  such  caution  and  prudence 
in  the  various  intrigues  for  the  crown  on  the  death  of  king 
£dif arcl,  ^at  on  qu^e^  Mary's  accession,  altjiQugh  known 
to  be  a  ^^ous  protestant,  he  remained  unmolested  in 

(8  C  E  C  i  L, 

parson,  property,  or  reputatioD.  Rapiii  has  givien  a  very 
unfair  colouring  to  air  William^s  conduct  at  this  critical 
period.  After  stating  that  he  waited  upon  the  queen,  was 
graciously  received,  and  might  have  kept  his  employment, 
if  he  would  have  complied  so  far  as  to  have  declared  him- 
self of  her  majesty's  religion,  he  closes  with  the  following 
remark ;  *^  He  was  nevertheless  exposed  to  no  persecution 
on  account  of  his  religion,  whether  his  artful  behaviour 
gave  no  advantages  against  him,  or  his  particular  merit 
procured  him  a  distinction  above  all  other  protestants/^ 
As  ta  the  artfulness  of  his  behaviour,  it  will  best  appear 
from  the  answer  he  gave  to  those  honourable  persons,  who 
by  eommand  of  the  queen  communed  with  him  on  this 
vubject,  to  whom  he  declared,  **  That  he  thought  himself 
bound  to  serve  Ged*  first,  and  next  the  queen  ;  but  if  her 
service  should  put  him  out  of  God*s  service,  he  hoped  her 
siajest}'^  wouM  give  him  leave  to  chuse  an  everlasting,  ra*. 
jther  than  a  momentary  service ;  and  as  for  the  queen,  she.- 
had  been  his  so  gracious  lady,  that  he  would  ever  serve 
and  pray  for  her  in  his  heart,  and  with  his  body  and  goods 
be  as  ready  to  serve  in  her  defence  as  any  of  her  loyal 
subjects,  so  she  would  please  to  grant  him  leave  to  use  his 
conscience  to  himself,  and  serve  her  at  large  as  a  private 
man,  which  he  chose  rather  than  to  be  her  greatest  coun- 
sellor.'^ The  queen  took  him  at  his  word,  and  this  was 
all  the  art  that  sir  William  used  to  procure  liberty  of  con* 
science  for  himself;  unless  we  should  call  it  art,  that  he 
behaved  himself  with  much  prudence  and  circumspection 
afterwards.  Nor  is  it  true,  as.  insinuated  by  Rapin,  that 
|ie  was  the  only  protestant  unmolested  in  this  reign. 
Among  others,  the  names  of  sir  Thomas  Smith,  and  the 
celebrated  Roger  Ascham,  may  be  quoted  ;  but  as  Mary's 
bigotry  increased  with  her  years,  it  may  be  doubtful  whe-" 
ther  those  would  have  been  long  spared.  Almost  the  last 
act  of  her  life  was  an  attempt  to  kindle  the  flames  of  per*- 
(secution  in  Ireland. 

-  Daring  the  reign  of  Mary,  sir  William  Cecil  representedi 
the  county  of  Lincoln  |  and  vfas  active  in  the  mollifying  of 
a  bill  for  confiscating  the  estates  of  those  who  had  fled  the 
kingdofn  for  their  religion,  and  while  thus  employed,  h^ . 
parriec|  pn  a  private  correspondence  with  the  princess  Eli- 
xabeth|  the  presumptive  heir  to  the  crown.  In  thesQ 
transactions  he  seems  to  have  abated  somewhat  of  thi^t 
caution  imputed'  to  him  by  bistoriapsy  and  certainly  ei^'? 

CECIL.  r 

countered  iS6me  danger ;  bat  hia  charaoteri  boId»  spirited^ 
and  open,  seems  to  have  afforded  him  proteotiou,  while 
he  refers  his  coUra,ge  to  a  higher  source.  In  bis  diary,  hd 
$ayS|  *^  I  spoke  my.  mind  freely,  whereby  I  incurred  sbme 
displeasure^     But  better  it  is  to  obey  God  than  man." 

All  this  was  very  gratefully  acknowledged  by  Elizabeth,. 
oa  her  accession  to  the  throne,  November  i6,  1558.     The 
first  service  that  he  rendered  her  was  on  that  day,  when 
he  presented  her  with  a  paper,  consisting  of  twelve  parti* 
culars,  which  were  necessary  for  her  to  dispatch  imme« 
diately.     At  the  time  of  her  sister*s  decease,  queen.  £liza-» 
beth  was  at  her  manor  of  Hatfield,  whither  most  of  the 
leading  men  repaired  to  her ;  and  on  the  20th  of  the  same 
month,  her  council  was  formed,  when  sir  William  Cecil 
was  firit  sworn  privy«counsellor  and  secretary  of  state ; 
and  as  he  entered  ^us  early  into  his  sovereign's  favour,  so 
lie  continued  in  it  as  long  as  he  lived  {  which  if  in  one 
tense  it  does  honour  to  the  abilities  and  services  of  Cecily 
It  was  in  another  no  less  glorious  to  the  queen  his  mistress, 
who,  in  thu  respeet,  did  not  act  from  any  spirit  of  par^p 
tiaiity  or  of  prepossession,  but  with  that  wisdom  and  pru^ 
dence  which  directed  her  judgment  in  all  things.      She 
saw  plainly  that  sir  'William  Cecil's  interests  were  inter** 
woven  with  her  own,  and  that  he  wns  fittest  td  be  her 
GounseUor  whose  private  safety  mmt  depend  upon    the 
success  of  the  counsel  he  gave ;  and  though  there  were 
other  persons,  who  were  sometimes  as  great  or  greater  fa- 
vourites than  Cecil,  yet  he  was  the  only  minister  whom 
she  always  conduhed,  atid  whose  advice  she  very  rarely 
r^ected.     The  first  thing  he  advised  was  to  call  a  parlia-* 
ment,  for  the  settlement  of  religion ;  and  caused  a  plan  of 
refbrnnation  to  be  drawn  with  equal  circumspection  and 
moderation;  for,  though  no  man  was  a  Inore  sincere  pro* 
testant,  yet  he  had  no  vindictive  prejiidides  against  papists^ 
nor  did  he  on  the  other  hand  lay  any  greater  weight  upon 
indifferent  things,  than  he  judged  absolutely  necessary  fot . 
preserving  decency  and  order*     It  was  his  opinion  that 
withont  aiB  established  church,  the  state  could  not  at  that 
time  sdi>sist ;  and  whoever  considers  the  shdtre  he  bad  in 
establishing  it,  aod  has  a  just  veneration  for  that  wise  and . 
etcelient  establishment,   c^not  but  albw  that  the  most 
grateful  reverenee  is  due  to  bis  memory*.    ^ 

The  reaamder  of  his  adminietratien  would  in  fact  be  a 
history  of  that  memoiabte  I1»ig%  end  in  such  a  sketch  ai^ 

«  CECIL. 

the  present,   we  can'adtert  only  to  the  leading  events: 
He  had  not  been  long  seated  in  his  high  office,  before 
foreign  affairs  required  his  care.     France,  Spain,  and  Scot-^ 
land,  all  demanded  the  full  force  of  his  wisdom  and  skill. 
Spain  was  a  secret  enemy ;  France  was  a  declared  one,  and 
^ad  Scotland  much  in  her  power,     fiy  the  minister's  ad« 
vice,  therefore,  the  interest  of  the  reformed  religion  in 
Scotland  was  taken  under  Elizabeth's  protection.     This 
produced  the  convention  of  Leith  ;  and  Cecil,  as  a  remu- 
neration for  his  services  in  this  affair,  obtained  the  place 
of  master  of  the  wards,  Jan.  10,  1561,  an  office  which  he 
did  not  take  as  a  sinecure,  but  of  which  he  discharged  the 
load  of  business  with  patience  and  diligence  to  the  satis- 
faction of  all.   In  his  management  of  the  house  of  commons, 
«ir   William  exhibited  equal  caution,  address,  and  capa- 
city«     The  question  of  the  future  succession  to  the  crown 
was  often  brought  forward,  sometimes  &om  real  and  welln 
founded  anxiety ;  soinetimes  from  officiousness  ;  and  oftea 
from  factious  motives.     On  this  subject  both  the  sovereign 
and   the  minister  preserved    an  unbroken   reserve',  from 
which  neither  irritation  nor  calumny  could  induce  bim  to 
depart.    Perhaps  this  reserve,  on  his  part,  arose  from  his 
deference  to  the  queen,  but  ir  seems  more  likely  that  bis 
advice    influenced  her  behaviour   on  this  critical  point. 
There  were  no  less  than  three  claimants  publicly  men« 
tioned,  vis.  the  queen  of  Scots,  the  &mily  of  Hastings, 
and  the  family  of  Suffolk ;  and  the  partizans  of  each  of 
these  were  equally  vehement  and  loud,   as   appears  by 
**  Leicester's  Commonwealth,"    Doleman's  **  Treatise  of 
the  Succession,''  and  other  pieces  on  the  same  subject. 
The  queeu  observed  a  kind  of  neutrality^  but  still  in  such 
a  manner  as  sufficiently  intimated  she  favoured  the  first 
title,  or  rather  looked  upon  it  as  the  best,  notwithstanding 
the  jealousies  she  had  of  her  presumptive  successor.     This 
appeared  by  her  confining  John  Hales,  who  wrote  a  book 
in  defence  of  the  Suffolk  line,  and  by  imprisoning  one 
Thornton,  upon  the  complaint  of  the  queen  of  Scots,  for 
writing  against  her  title.     The  secretary  kept  hims^f  clear 
of  all  this,  and  never  gave  the  least  intimation  of  bis  own 
.  sentimcrnts,  farther  than  that  he  wished  the  question  of  the 
successipn  might  rest  during  the  queen's  life,  or  till  she 
thought  proper  to  determine  it  in  a  legal  way.        .     . 

Sir  William  early  penetrated  into  the  hostile  feelings  of 
Fhilip  IL  of  Spaing  but  i^e  advised  his  mistress  to  keep  ou 

CECIL.  9 

her  guard  against  that  monarch ;  and  yet  not  to  break  with 
him.  With  France  he  proposed  other  measures  ;  the  pro- 
testaDts  had  there  created  very  powerful  internal  dissen- 
tions,  and  England,  he  thought,  might  avail  herself  of 
that  hostility  with  effect,  while  it  opened  a  probability  of 
success,  and  afforded  an  opportunity  for  our  troops  to  gain 
experience,  and  our  navy  strength.  His  rival,  Leicester, 
in  vain  misrepresented  and  censured  the  advice  now  given, 
for  the  purpose  of  destroying  the  queen's  confidence  in 
him ;  and  a  plot  laid  by  that  subtle  favourite  for  overthrow- 
iog  hira  utterly  failed,  through  her  majesty's  penetration 
and  spirit.     The  affair  is  thus  related : 

Some   Spanish  ships,  having  great  treasure  on  board, 
put  into  the  English  ports  to  secure  it  from  the  French,' 
and  afterwards  landed  it,  the  queenSi  officers  assisting,  and 
the  Spanish  ambassador  solemnly  affirming  ,it  was  his  mas* 
ter's  money,  and  that  he  was  sending  it  into  the  Nether- 
lands  for  the  pay  of  his  army.    The  secretary,  in  the  mean 
time,  received  advice  that  this  was  not  true,  and  that  it 
was  the  money  of  some  Genoese  bankers,  who  were  in  the 
greatest  terror  lest  the  duke  of  Alva  should  convert  the 
same  to  his  master's  use,  in  order  to  carry  on  some  great 
deMgn,  which  the  court  ol  *Spain  kept  as  an  impenetrable 
secret     Cecil  tberefoiie  advised  the  queen  to  take  the 
money  herself,  and  give  the  Genoese  security  for  it,  by 
which  die  would  greaiiy  advantage  her  own  affairs,  distress 
the  Spaniards,  relieve  the  Netherlands,  and  wrong  nobody. 
The  queen  took  his  advice,  and  when  upon  this  the  duke 
of  Alva  seized  the  effects  of  the  English  in  the  Netherlands, 
she  made  reprisals,  and  out  of  them  immediately  indemni- 
fied her  own  merchants.     The  Spanish  ambassador  at  Lon- 
don behaved  with  great  violence  upon  this  occasion,  giving 
secretary  Cecil  ill  language  at  the  council*table,'  and  li^ 
belling  the  queen,  by  appeahng  to  the  people  again^' 
their  sovereign's  administration.     This  produced  a  great 
deal  of  disturbance,  aad  Leicester  and  his  party  took  care 
lo  have  it  published  every  where,  that  Cecil  was  Ae  sole 
author  pf  this  couusd.  '  While  things  were  in: this  ferment, 
Leicester  beld  a. private  consultation  with  the  lords  he  had 
drawn  to  his  inteiest,  wherein  he  proposed  that  they  should 
lake  this  occasion  o£rem6viog  a  man  whom  they  unani-^ 
Biously  bated.  /Some  of  the  iords^inquiring  how.  this  eoukt 
be  dpiie  I .  sir  JiJieholaa  TJbrogmorton  answered,  <<  Let  him 
be  charged  with  some  matter  or  other  in  council  when  the 

10  a  E  0  L  L, 

queen  is  not  present,  cooamit  him  to  the  Tower  thereupon, 
and  when  he  is  once  in  prison  we  shall  find  things  enow 
against  him.''  It  so  happened^  that  about  this  time  a  fla- 
grant libel  being  published  against  the  nobility,  lord  Lei- 
cester caused  Cecil  to  be  charged  before  the  council, 
either  with  being  the  author  of  it,  or  it's  patron ;  of  which 
be  offered  no  other  proof  than  that  it  bad  been  seen  oa 
Cecirs  table.  This  the  secretary  readily  confessed,  but 
insisted  that  be  looked  upon  it  in  the  same  light  they, 
did,  as  a  most  scandalous  invective;  in  support  of  which 
be  produced  his  own  c<^y  with  notes  on  the  margin,  af** 
firming  that  he  had  caused  a  strict  inquiry  to  be  made 
after  the  author  and  publisher  of  the  work.  All  this,  how- 
ever, would  have  been  but  of  little  use  to  him,  if  the 
queen  bad  not  had  private  notice  of  their  design.  While 
therefore  the  secretary  was  defending  himself,  she  sud- 
denly and  unexpectedly  entered  the  council-room,  ami 
having  in  few  words  expressed  her  dislike  of  such  cabals, 
preserved  her  minister,  and  shewed  even  Leicester  himself 
that  he  could  not  be  overthrown.  The  affair  of  the  duke 
of  Norfolk^s  ruin  followed,  not  long  after  he  bad  been 
embarked  in  the  faction  against  Cecil ;  and  therefore  we 
find  this  minister  sometimes  charged,  though  very  un- 
justly, with  being  the  author  of  his  misfortunes,  a  calumny 
from  which  be  vindicated  bimiself  with  candour,  clearness, 
and  vivacity,  as  equally  abhorring  the  thoughts  of  revenge, 
and  hazarding  the  public  aafety  to  facilitate  bis- private 
advantage.  Cecil,  indeed,  had  no  greater  share  in  the 
duke's  misfortune,  than  was  necessarily  imposed  upon  him 
by  bis  office  of  secretary^  and  which  consequently  it  was 
not  in  bis  power  to  avoid ;  to  which  we  may  add,  that  the 
duke  hiaiself  was  in  some  measure  accessary  thereto,  by 
acting  under  the  delusive  infiuence  of  liis  capital  enemy  as 
well  as  Cecil- s.  The  duke'a  infatuated  conduct,  after 
having  once  received  a  pardon,  rendeced  his  practices  too 
dAUgerous  to  be  again  forgiven.  It  eannot  be  doubted  that 
this  great  nobleman  was  the  tool  of  the  .views  of  the  ce^ 
tholic  party :  and  there  is  reason  to  believe  that  t||^e  pie» 
vious  design  of  ruining  Cecil  was  to  get  rid  of  him  before, 
this  plan  was  ripe,  from  a  just  fear  of  his  penetration,  and 
hia  power  to  defeat  it.  CeciPs  fidelity  was  followed  by 
isucb  public  and  some  severe  private  revenge.  His  son«4 
ia^^law^  lord'Chrfovd,  pat  his  threat  intQ  exesoiion  of  rain^ 

CECIL.  11 

ing  his  daughter,  by  forsaking  her  bed,  and  wasting  the 
fortune  of  her  posterity,  if  the  duke^s  life  was  not  spared. 

Tbe  queen  was  so  sensible  of  the  great  importance  of  Ce« 
cil's  service  on  this  occasion,  that,  however  sparing  of  her 
honours,  she  raised  him  to  the  peerage  by  tbe  title  of  Baron 
of  Burleigh  in  February  1671,  when  he  had  not  much  to 
support  his  rank,  for  in  a  confidential  letter  written  about 
this  time,  he  calls  himself  **  tbe  poorest  lord  in  England.** 
Tbe  queen^s  favour  did  not  in  other  respects  add  to  his 
.comfort,  nor  protect  him  from  new  attempts  to  destroy  him. 
A  conspiracy  of  the  private  kind  was  now  formed  against 
bis  life :  and  the  two  assassins,  Barmsy  and  Matter,  charged 
it,  at  their  execution,  on  the  Spanish  ambassador,  for  which 
and  other  offences  the  ambassador  waa  ordered  to  quit  the 
kingdom.  As  a  consolation,  however,  for  these  dangers, 
he  was  honoured  with  the  order  of  tbe  garter  in  June  1572; 
and  in  September  following,  on  the  death  of  tbe  marquis 
of  Winchester,  was  appointed  k)rd  high  treasurer. 

The  weight  of  business  that  now  lay  upon  him,  and  the 
variety  of  his  duties,  was  such  as  it  seems  almost  incredible 
that  one  man  could  discbarge ;  fet  he  went  through  then 
all  with  the  utmost  strictness  and  punctuality.  AH  his 
power,  talents,  industry,  aad  fortitude,  could  not  however 
at  all  times  place  him  above  anxiety  and  disgust  at  tbe 
intrigues,  troubles,  and  dangers  that  surrounded  him.  He 
bad  even  thoughts  of  a  resignation,  which  the  queen  would 
not  bear  of.  The  popish  and  Spanish  factions  were  his 
incessant  enemies ;  and  the  favourite  Leicester  never 
slackened  in  his  arts  to  lower  and  counteract  him.  His  vi^ 
gour  however  was  not  lessened ;  and  tbe  next  great  af&ir 
in  which  he  was  engaged  required  it  all.  The  trial  of  the 
queen  of  Scots  approached ;  and  the  lord  treasurer  is 
charged  with  having  been  a  strong,  promoter  of  this  mea- 
sure. Of  an  affiiir  which  has  engaged  the  pens  and  pas» 
sions  of  so  many  able  historians,  it  would  be  impossible  iu 
this  place  to  diacusa  the  merits.  We  shall  only  add  in  the 
words  of  au  aUe  authority,  whom  we  hav«  in  various  in*' 
stances  fi»Uowed^  that  tbe  measure  was  a  tremendously 
strong-  one  i  but  there  might  be  a  state*necessity  for  it* 
Biirleigb  was  not  a  man  of  blood ;  Mary's  intrigues  were 
incesaaut ;  and  her  constant  intercourse  and  machinations 
with  a  truly  dangerous,  powerful,  and  unappeasable  foe** 

tioiv  QOt0|!ioUI^' 

12  CECIL. 

In  March  1^87,  the  lord  treasurer  lost  his  motlier  at  a 
grreat  age,  with  which  he  was  nuch  effected ;  and  on  April 
4,  1589|  be  lost  his  beloved  wife,  daughter  of  sir  Anthony 
Cook,  whose  death  he  mourned  with  the  deepest  regret^. 
He  had  but  lately  been  delivered  from  the  fatigue  of  draw* 
ing  up  schemes  for  the  defence  of  the  country  against  ^he 
threatened  Spanish  armada.  Not  long  afterwards  he  again 
requested  to  resign,  but  the  queen  still  refused  to  spare  hifs 
services,  and  the  remaining  part  of  his-  life  was  spent  in 
the  unabated  discharge  of  his  high  office.  In  1592  he 
managed  the  concerns  of  a  supply,  which  he  furthered  in 
the  upper  house  by  a  speech  of  great  knowledge  and  ta- 
lent. In  short,  even,  at  this  late  period  of  his  age,  almost 
all  the  important  affairs  of  state  we»e  under  his  guidance, 
and  ecclesiastical  affairs,  in  particular,  required  much  of 
his  moderating  wisdom.  Besides  the  catholic  party,  he 
had  to  contend  with  some  of  the  ablest  of  the  puritans,  who 
maintained  a  hostility  of  a  different  kind  with  the  esta^ 
blished  church.  Matters  of  finance,  and  the  affairs  of  the 
admiralty,  were  all  continually  referred  to  him ;  and  he  let 
nothing  pass  him  .without  due  consideratipD.  The  maxim 
.which  aided  him  through  these  complicated  concerns  was 
this,  that  ^*  the  shortest  way  to  do  many  things  was  only 
to  do  one  thing  at  once." 

•  The  last  memorable  act  of  his  life  was  the  attempt  to 
bring  about  a  peace  with  Spain,  in  which  he  was  vehe-* 
mently  opposed  by  Essex,  then  in  the  fire  of  youth,  which 
might  animate  him  to  daring  deeds  to  gratify  his  own  am- 
])ition.  The  young  soldier  w^s  warm  in  the  debate,  which 
induced  the  venerable  minister  to  pull  out  a  prayer-book^ 
and  point  to  the  words  ^*  Men  of  blood  shall  not  live  out 

^  This  lady  was  wonderfully  learn-  be  bought  in  the  name  of  the  dean  of 

ed,  especially  ito  the  Greek  tongue,  as  Westminster,  and  by  bim  aitsfgned  td 

^appears  from  tbe  testimony  of  the  tbe  college.    She  likewise   gave  tb* 

lard  Burleigh  himself,  and  of  several  Haberdashers*  company  in  London,  a 

other  great  men,  and  of  which  sHe  left  sum  to  enable  them  to  lend  to  six  poor 

clear  evidence,  in  a  letter  penned  by  men  twenty  pounds  a-piece  every  twft 

ber  in  that  language  to  the  university  years ;  and  a  charity  of  the  like  kin4 

of  Cambridge,  upon  her  sending  thi-  of  twenty  marks,  to  six  poor  people 

ther  a  Hebrew  Bible,  by  way  of  pre-  at  Waltham  an<i  Cheshunt  in  Hertford- 

ftnt  to  the  library.  She  had  read  most  shire.    Four  times  every  year  she  re« 

of  the  Greek  fathers  with  great  dili>  lieved  all  the  poor  pri&oners  in  Lon- 

gence  and  critical  accuracy,  and  was  den,  and  many  other  acts  of  benevp. 

one  of  the  greatest  patronesses  of  her  lence  she  did,  with  as  great  secrecy  as 

time,  maintaining  for  many  years  two  generosity ;  so  ths^  she  seems  to  have 

scbolars  at  St.  John's  college  in  Cam-  well  deserved  all  the  praises  that  have 

bridge ;  and  before  her  death  rendered  been   by    different  writers   beftowedf 

this  perpetual,  by  procuring  lands  to  '  upon  her  memory. 

C  EC  I  L.  .     13 

Balf  tbeir  days."— At  length  worn  out  with  age,  and  more 
than  forty  years^  uninterrupted  and  unexampled  labours  in 
the  state,  on  the  4th  of  August,  1598,  about  four-  in  the 
morning,  in  the  presence  of  twenty  children,  friends  and 
servants,  he  yielded  up  the  ghost  with  wonderful  serenity, 
being  upwards  of  seventy-seven  years  old. 

With  regard  to  his  person,  though  he  was  not  remark^ 
My  tall,  nor  eminently  handsome,  yet  his  person  was 
always  agreeable,  and  became  more  and  more  so,  as  he 
grew  in  years,  age  becoming  him  better  than  youth.  The 
hair  of  his  head  and  beard  grew  perfectly  white,  and  he 
preserved  almost  to  his  dying  day  a  fine  and  florid  com^ 
plexion.  His  temper  contributed  much  towards  making 
faim  generally  beloved,  for  he  was  always  serene  and 
cheerful ;  so  perfect  a  master  of  his  looks  and  words,  that 
what  passed  in  his  mind  was  never  discoverable  from  either; 
patient  in  hearing,  ready  in  answering,  yet  without  any 
quickness,  and  in  a  style  suited  to  the  understanding  &f 
him  to  whom  he  spoke.  Idleness  was  his  aver^on  ;  and 
though  from  twenty-five  years  of  age,  at  which  he  v^as 
sworn  a  privy  counsellor,  being  then  the  youngest,  as  at 
his  death  the  oldest  in  Europe,  he  laboured  under  a  great 
weight  of  public  business ;  yet  when  he  had  any  vacant 
moments  he  spent  them  not  in  trifles,  or  in  pursuit  of  sen^ 
sual  pleasures,  but  in  reading,  meditating,  or  writing.  He^ 
had  a  perfect  knowledge,  not  only  of  forergn  countries, 
but  of  foreign  courts  ;  knew  the  genius  of  every  prince  in 
Europe,  his  counsellors  and  favourites.  At  home  he  kept 
exact  lists  of  all  the  great  officers,  and  particularly  of  the 
sages  in  the  law.  He  was  acquainted  with  the  course  of 
every  court  of  judicature  in  England,  knew  its  rise,  juris* 
diction,  ^nd  proper  sphere  of  action ;  within  which  he  took 
care  that  it  should  act  with  rigour,  and  was  no  less  careful 
that  it  should  ndt- exceed  its  bounds*  He  wrote  not  only 
elegant  Latin  in  prose,  but  also  very  good  verses  in  that; 
and  in  the  English  language.  He  understood  Greek  as. 
well  as  niQSt  men  in  that  age ;  and  was  so  learned  in  divi* 
nicy,  that  divines  of  all  persuasimis  were  desirous  of  suh* 
mitting  to  his  judgniient*.     Mis  peculiar  diversions  were 

*  He  was  Tisry  mach  pressed  by  uoanimous  opinion  apon  some  of  tiie 

ijniie  diviaes  of  his  time,  who  waited  disputed  points.    They  i^turned,  bow- 

tn  him  id  a  body,  to  make  some  al-  ever,  to  him  tery  soon,  wit  hoot  baiog 

teratioosjn  the  Liturfy.    He.  desired  able  to  agree.     **  Why,  gentiemeii)'* 

them  to  go  into  the  next  room  by  said  he,  "  how  can  yoa  expect  that  I 

tbaoMlves,.  and  briiig  him  an  their  shall  alter  mny  point  in  dispute,  when 

14  CECIL. 

the  fitttdy  of  the  state  of  England^  and  the  pedigrees  of  its 
nobility  and  gentry :  of  these  last  he  drew  whole  books 
with  Us  own  band,  so  that  he  was  better  versed  in  descents 
and  families,  than  moat  of  tb^  heralds ;  and  would  often 
sarprize  persons  of  distinction  at  his  table,  by  appearing 
better  acquainted  with  their  manors,  parks,  woods,  &c* 
than  they  were  themselves.  To  this  continual  application, 
and  to  his  genius,  naturally  comprehensive,  was  owing  that 
fund  of  knowledge,  which  made  him  never  at  a  loss  in  any 
eompany,  or  upon  any  subject  It  was  also  owing  to  this 
that  he  spoke  with  such  wonderful  weight  on  all  public  oc- 
casions, generally  at  the  endf  of  the  debate,  but  without 
fepetition  of  what  was  said  before,  stating  the  matter 
clearly,  shewing  the  convenience  sought,  the  inconve-^ 
niences  feared ;  the  means  of  attaining  the  former,  and 
the  methods  by  which  the  latter  might  be  avoided,  with  a 
succinctness  and  accuracy  whichy  perhaps,  hardly  ever  fell 
lo  any  other  man^s  share.  But  what  was  still  more  snr^ 
prising,  was  the  great  facility  with  which  he  did  this ;  for 
he  required  no  preparation,  \\o  time  for  his  most  laboured 
speechesi  nor  ever  turned  a  book  for  bis  most  learned 
writings,  but  thought,  and  spoke,  digested,  and  dictated^ 
without  any  hesitation,  with  the  greatest  perspicuity  of  sei^ 
timent,  and  the  utmost  fulness  of  diction. 

With  regard  to  his  domestic  habits,  be  had  during  <)uee^ 
£lizabeth*s  reign,  four  places  of  residence ;  bis  lodgings 
at  court,  his  house  in  the  Slraod,  his  family  seat  at  Bur- 
leigh, and  his  own  favourite  seat  at  Theobalds.  At  his 
house  in  London  he  had  fourscore  persons  in  family,  ex* 
elusiveily  of  those  who  attended  him  at  court.  His  €%-- 
penees  there,  as  we  have  it  from  a  person  who  lived  mauy 
years  in  his  family,  were  thirty  pounds  a  week  io  his  »b* 
.  ience,  and  between  forty  and  fifty  when  present  At 
iTheobalds  he  bad  thirty  persons  in  family;  and  besides  a 
constant  allowance  in  charity,  he  directed  ten  pounds  n 
week  to  be  laid  out  in  keeping  the  poor  at  work  iu  his  gar- 
dens, &c.  The  expences  of  his  stables  were  a  thousand 
marks  a  year:  so  that  as  be  had  a  great  income,  and  left  • 
good  estate  to  his  children,  he  was  not  afraid  of  keeping  ' 

vmV.  who  must  b6  more  oompetont,  traosUtion'of  Cicero's  Epitiles,  says, 

from  your  situatioo»  to  judge  than  I  tlial  this  great  statesman  made  tfa^ 

can  pdstibly  be,  eaonot  agree  among  "  bis  glassa,  bis  mle,  bis  owtissso»» 

yovrsolvoa  io  what  manoer  you  vouM  and  his  pooket-book»*' 
bava  mt  ailtf  it?"    Dr.  Watl,  in  hit 

C  E  E  I  L.  15^ 

up  also  at  style  suited  tdhis  offices.  He  also  kept  a:5tand- 
ing  table  for  gentlemen,  and  two  other  tables  for  persons 
•of  meaner  coadition,  wtiich  were  alwaj^s  served  alike,  whe- 
ther he  were.iu  town  or  out  of  town.  About  his  person  he 
had  people  of  great  distinction,  and  had'  twenty  gentlemen 
retainers,  who  had  each  a  thousand  pounds  a  year ;  and  as 
many  among  his  ordinary  servants,  who  were  worth  from 
1000/.  to  3,  5,  1 0,  and  20,00a  Twelve  times  he  enter- 
tained the  queen  at  his  house  for  several  weeks  together, 
at  the  expeoce  of  2  or  30002.  each  time.  Three  fine  housea 
he  built,. one  in  London,  another  at  Burleigh,. and  the  third 
at  Theobalds :  all  of  which  were  less  remarkable  for  their 
largeRess  and  magnificence,  than  for  their  neatness  and 
excellent  contrivance.  Yet  with  all  this  mighty  expence, 
it  was  the  opinion  of  competent  judges,  that  an  avaricious 
•man  woald  have  made  more  of  bis  offices  in  seven  yearg, 
than  he  did  in  forty.  At  hia  death  he  left  about  4<X)0/.  a 
year  in  land,  1 1,000/.  in  money,  and  in  valuable  effect 
iboot  14,000/. 

He  was  considered  as  the  best  parent  of  his  time,  for  he 
had  all  hi»  children,  and  their  descendants,  constantly  at 
his  table ;  and  in  their  conversation  lay  the  greatest  plea^ 
sure  of  bis  life,  especially  while  his  mother  lived,  who  was 
able  to  see  the  fifth  descent  £rbm  herself,  there  being  ho 
degree  of  relation,  or  consanguinity,  which  at  festival  times 
were  not  to  be  found  at  lord  Burleigh's  table.  It  was  there 
that,  laying  aside  all  thoughts  of  business,  he  was  .so 
affable,  easy,  and  merry,  that  he  seemed  never  to  have 
thought  of  any,  and  yet  this  was  the  only  part  of  his  life 
which  viFas  enturely  free  therefrom  ;  and  his  frankness  and 
famiHiMrity  brought  so  many  persons  of  high  rank  to  bis 
house,  as  did  him  great  credit  and  service,  in  respect  to 
his  friends,  he  was.  always  easy,  cheerful,  and  kind ;  aild 
whatever  their  condition  was,  he  talked  to  them,  as  if  they 
had  been  his  equals  in  ei^ery  respect ;  yet  it  is  said,  that 
be  was  held  a  better  enemy  than  friend  ;  and  that  tfaxsi  was 
so  weU  known,  that  some  opposed  him  from  a  view  of  in- 
terest. It  is  certain,  that  those  who  were  most  intimate 
with  him,  had  no  sort  of  influence  over  him,  and  did.not 
care  to  ask  him  for  any  thing ;  because  he  did  not  readily 
grant,  and  was  little  pleased  with  such  sort  of  suits.  One 
reason  of  this  was,  that  most  of  those  whom  he  preferred 
became  his  enemies^  becanse  he  would  not  gratify  them  in 
fiurther  pretensions^    His  seov^ets  he  justed  with  none,  in* 

16  CECIL. 

dulged  a  general  conversation^  and  woald  not  sufier  affairs 
of  state  to  be  canvassed  in  mixed  company,  or  wh^u  friends 
were  met  to  divert  themselves.     With  respect,  to  bis  ene- 
mies, he  never  said  any  thing  harsh  of  tbeoi:,  farthered  on 
every  occasion  their  reasonable  requests,  and  was  so  far 
from  seeking,  that  he  neglected  all  opportunities  of  re- 
venge ;  always  professing,  that  he  never  went  to  bed  out 
of  charity  with  any  man  ;  and  frequently  sa3'ing,  that  pa* 
tience;  and  a  calm  bearing  of  aspersions  and  injuria,  had 
wrought  him  more  good  than  his  own  abilities.     He  was 
far,  however,  from  being  an  ungrateful  man,  for  without 
intreaty  he  would  serve  bis  friends  as  far  as  it  w&s  just ; 
and  for  his  servants;  and  those  about  him,  he  was  very 
careful  of  their  welfare,  mostly  at  his  own  expence.     He 
never  raised  his  own  rents,  or  displaced  his  tenants  ;  and  as 
the  rent  was  when  he  bought  land,  so  it  stood  ;  insomuch, 
that  some  enjoyed,  for  twenty  pounds  a  year,  during  his 
whole  life,  what  might  have  been  let  for  two  hundred  : 
yet  in  his  public  character  he  was  very  severe ;  and  .as  he 
never  meddled  with  the  queen's  treasure  himself*  «a  he 
would  see  that  it  was  not  embezzled  by  others ;  for  it  was 
his  saying,  that  whoever  cheated  the  crown  oppressed  the 
people.     In  the  midst  of  all  his  grandeur  he  was  ever  easy 
of  access,  free  from  pride,  and  alike  complaieajnt  to  all 
degrees  of  people:  for  as  be  was  grave  in  council,  exact 
in  courts  of  jiistice,  familiar  towards  his  friends,  outwardly 
and  inwardly  fond  of  his  children,  so.  when  he  went  inio 
the  country  iie  would  converse  with  all  his  servants  s^ 
kindly  as  if  he  had  been  their  equal ;  talk  to  country  peo- 
ple in  their  own  style  and  manner,  and  would  even  conde- 
scend to  sooth  little  children  in  their  sports  and  plays  ;  so 
gentle  was  his  temper,  and  so  abundant  his  good-nature^ 
At  Theobalds  he  had  fine  gardens,  which  cost  him  a  great 
deal  of  money,  and  which  were  laid  out  according  to  his 
own  directions.     He  had  a  little  mule,  upon  which  he  rode 
up  and  down  the  walks ;  sometimes  he  would  look  on  those 
who  were  shooting  with  arrows,  or  playing  with  bowls; 
but  as  for  himself,  he  never  took  any  diversion,  taking  that 
word  in  its  usual  sense.     He  had  two  or  three  friends,  who 
were  constantly  at  his  table,  because  he  liked  their  com* 
pany ;  but  in  all  his  life  he  never  had  one  favourite,  or 
suffered  any  body  to  get  an  ascendant  oyer  him.     His 
equipage,  his  great  house-keeping,  his  numerous. depend- 
ents^ were  the  effects  of  his  sense,  wd  not  at  all  of  his 

4StCiV.  17 

^iofAi  "Idr  tie  deliglttedlittle  in  any  of  dfem'^s  tnd*Wfaen- 
^ver  lie  bad  any  time  to'  spare,  he  fled,  as  his  expression 
was,  to  The6baids;  and  baricfd  himself  in  privacy. 

The  quben^s  regstrd  to  lord  Burleigh/thonjgh  sincere  and 
permanent,'  was  occasionally  intermtked  with  n6  sdtiall  de- 
gree of  petulance  and  itt  buittonr.  He  Was  severely  ris-^ 
proached  by  her  in  1*594,  on  account  of  the  state  of  ai&ir$ 
in  Ireland  ;  'tod,  on  another  occasion, '  when  he  persisted^ 
against  her  will,  in  a  design  of  quitting  the  court  for  a  feW' 
days, '  for 'tjie  purpose  of  taking  physic,  she  called  hini 
**a  froward  old  fool."  He  fell  also  under  her  majesty^s 
diBif^eastire  because  hfe  disagreed  with  her  in  opinion  con- 
cerning aftf  affair  which  rented  to  the  earl  of  Essex.  Havl 
iBg*stipp6rted  the  earl's  claim, -in  opposition  to  the  queen^ 
her  iiidignattoh  was  so  'much  excited  against  the  trea- 
surer, that  ^he  treated  him  as  a  miscrearft  and  a  coward. 
Lord  BuH^ig^h -being  in  the  latter  part  of  his  life  much 
subject  to  die  gout,  sir  John  Harrington  observe;;,'  in  d 
letter  to  hl^  lordship,  that  he  did  not '  invite  the  stay  o^ 
such  ag^d^t'by  rich' Wines,  or  strong  'ipic^s.  It  i$  pro- 
Imble  tluit  the  frequent  return  of  this  disorder,  in  conjunc- 
tion with  the  weight  of  business,  and  the  general  infirmi- 
ties of  ige,  bontributed  td  the  peevishness  into  which  he 
was '  som^^^me^  betrayed.  In  a  conversation  Which  he  had 
with  Mons.  de  FouqueroUes,  an  agent  from  Henry  the 
Fourth^'  king  of  FfaUce,  he  lost  himself  so  much,  as  to 
reflect  in  the  grossest  tei^ms  upon  that  monarch.  This 
was,  indeed,  an  astonishing  act  of  imprudence,  in  a  man 
of  his  years  and  experience  ;  and  affords  a  striking  instance 
of  the  errors  and  inadvertencies  to  which  the  wisest  and 
best  persons  are  liable.  When  the  lord  treasurer  died, 
queen  Elisabeth  was  so  much  aflbcted  with  the  event,^  that 
she  took  it  very  grievously,  shed  tears,  and  separated  her- 
selj^  for  a  time,  from  all  company. 

Besides  fbese  lesser  feilihgs  of  this  great  man,  he  has 
been  accused  of  illiberality  to  the  poet  Spenser,  which 
perhaps  may  be  attributed  to  his  dislike  of  Leicester,  under 
wbose'patronage  Spensef  bad  come  forward,  but  perhaps 
more  to  his  want  of  relish  fbr  poetry.  On  the  other  hand, 
our  historians  are  generally  agreefd  in  their  praises  of  his 
high  character,  Smollett  only  has  endeavoured  to  lessen 
it^  but  as  this  is  coupled  with  a  disregard  for  historical 
truth,  the  attempt  is  entitled  to  little  regard,  and  the  ad- 
vocates for  Mary  queeti  of  Scots  cannot  be,  supposed  to 

Vol.  IX.  C 

19  p  E  c  :(  L. 

forgive  the  share  be  bad  in  h^r  fate^    LQi^'Qrfofd  W 
given  lord  Burleigh  a  place  among,  bis  ^^  Bpyi^tj^nd  Noble 
Authors/^  but  at  the  same  time  justly  phserves^  ti^t  he^is.oM 
^f  those  grcjajt  naines,  better  kpq.wq  itir  the  ai>nal^^bi^  coun- 
try tl^an  i\%  tb(»e  pi  the  republic  of  letters*     ^qsUUfl  lord 
Burleigh^s  answer  t^  a  Latii^iibei  published  abroad,  w|»iqb 
be  entitjied  *^  S(ah4,ers  and  Lies,'*  and  ^  A  MediuitJHQifi  of 
tbe  State  of  l^nglaad,  during  the  teign  of  Queen  ]£U2»3i.heih,'' 
IJprd  Orford  mentions  ^^  La  Cooiiplairite  de  T  Ao^  pecbe^ 
^esse,''  in,  French  verse,  extant  in  the.king's  libmry ;  ^VCaih 
inina  duo  Latin^  in  Qbitum  I^argaret^D  Neyilla^,,  Regiss 
tlaiherinte  i  Cnblci^ilis ;"  <^  C^armen  Latinumin  MenHMBiam 
Tho.  Challonerii  Equitis  auratji,  prsfixupa.ejps^^n^  LjibtQ  do 
restaurat^  Republica ;''  ^A  Preface  to  Qjieeo  Catberiiw 
Parr's  Lamenitation  of  a  Sinner."     Wbeu  $vr  WMUWkCeoil 
accompanied  the  duke  of  Somerset  on  his  expi^ditigatQ 
^otland,  he  ft^rnished  materials  for  an  aQCOUi>t;,;af;tbat 
lyfai::,  which  w^s.. published  by  William  Patteoi  under  tha 
title  of  ^<  Diarium  Expeditions  Scpiiq®/'  London  iS^h 
12ipo.    This  i$  supposed  to  be  tb^,  reason  ^by;lord  Bur^ 
leigb  is  reckoned  by  HoUnsbed .  ajpi^q^g  the  EDgli^b  lu3to^ 
rjans^    **  The  first  paper  or  memorials  pf  sir  WiJUswi,  Cecily 
anno  primp  Eliz."     This,  whiclvis  only  a  ps^per  ofndemon 
randums,  is  printed  in  Somers's  trfict^^ ,  from  ^a  fvaiHisciipii 
i(n  tbe  Cotton  library,     "A  Speech;  in  ParliaAien^t,  15^3.*! 
"^bis  Was  first  published  by  Strype  in  his  Annal^  Mid  bar 
$i^ce  been  inserted  in  the  ParUanientary,  History.  .  *^  Lord 
]^urleigh's  Precepts,  or  directions  for  the  well-ordering  .and 
carriage  of  a  man'si  life,"  16&7.     ^^  A  Meditation  on  the 
Peatb  of  his  Lady.''     Mr.  Ballard^  in  his  Memoirs  of  Bri-% 
ti^h  Ladies,  has  printed  this  Meditation  from  an  oqginal . 
formerly  in  tbe  possession  of  Jam^^s  Wes^,.esq^  but  now  in 
the  British  Museum*    Lord  Burleigh  was  supposed  to  ba 
the  author  of  a  thin  pamphlet,  in  defence  of  the  putnisb^ 
ments  inflicted  on  the  Roman  catholics  in  the  reign  of 
^ueen  Elizabeth :  it  is  called  '<  The  Execution  of  Justice 
in  England,  for  maintenance  of  public  and  Christian  peace, 
against  certain  stirrers  of  sedition,  and  adherents  to  tbe 
traitors  land  enemies  of  the  reali^,  without  any  persectmoii 
of  them  for  questions  of  religion,  as  it  is  falsely  reported^ 
^c.'^  London,  1583,  second  edition.  Other  political  pieces 
were  ascribed  to  him,  apd  even,  tbe  celebrated  libel,  eu^ 
titled  '^Leicester's  Comioonwealtb."     It  was  asserted,  tbair 
the  hints,  at  least^  wer^  furni9h«td  by  him  for  that  ccoipo^ 

0  I  C  I  L.  f9 

Mon.  Biift  tio  pfddf  lisfi '  b^en  ^itetl  of  thid  assertion, 
and  it  was  not  founded  on  any  degre€l6f  probability.-  Hit 
lordship  drei/r  up  kV&d  a  ifumber  of  pedigrees^  some  of 
which  are  prei^^d  in  the  archbishop  of  Canterbury's 
Kbrary  at  Lambeth;  Th«ie  contain'  tbe  genealogies  of  the 
kings  of  England,  from  William  tht  Oonqueror  to  Edward 
the  Fourth;  of  queen  Anne  Boleyn;  and  of  several  princely 

houses  in  Germany. 

Out  ot  tbe  large  multitude  of  lortl  Burleigh's  letters^ 
which  ar«f  extant  in  various  places,  many  have  found  their 
way  to  the  press..  Thirty-three  are  priiited  in  Pecfc*«  De- 
siderata CuriosH,  and  three  in  Howard's  Collections.  Many, 
more  may  be  met  with*  in^Di*.  Forbes%  Haynes%  and, 
Murdin's  State  Papers.  The  two  last  publications  are  spe-^. 
ciiicaliy  tahen  frbn^  the  original  letters^  and  other  authen* 
tie  memorials  left  by  lord  Burleigh,  and  noW  remaining  at 
Hatfield^hou^e,  in  tiie  libniry  of  the  earl  of  Salisbury  J. 
Haynes*s  oollection,  which  was'publis^ed  in  1740,  extendii- . 
from  1542!  to  157a.  Jiordin's,  which  appeared  in  1759^* 
reaches  Irorii  1571  to  1 59a  Both  these  publications  throw 
great  light  M  the  periodto  Which  they  relate,  and  have. 
been  of  eminent  service  to  Our  recent  historians.  The 
whole  course  t)f  the  pro*fec|dings,  relative  to  Mary  queeii' 
of  Scots,  is  {iardcularly  displayed  rn  these  collections';  oii 
whicli  aecount  much  use  has  lately  been  made  of  them  by 
Br.  Gilbert  Stuart  In  the  originctl  papers  of  Mr.  Anthony 
Bacon,  are  several  letters  of  lord' Burleigh,  from  which' 
various  extracts  have  be?en  given  by  Dr.  Birch,  in  his  •^Me* 
moirs  of  tbe  Reign  of  Queen  Elizabeth.*'  There  is  also  in 
the  Nugs  Antique,  a  tetter  6t  advice.  Written  by  his  lord-« 
ship  in  1578,  to  Mr.  Harrington  (afterwards  sir  John  Har- 
rington), then  a  student  at  thie  university  of  Cambridge.  Itl 
die  earl  of  Hardwicke's  miscellaneous  State  Papers,  besides 
a  number  of  letters  addresi^d  to  Cecil,  there  are  seven  of 
his  own  writing,  relative  to  important  public  concerns.' 
Ohe  of  them  shews  in  a  striking  view,  the,  friendly  beba* 
viour  of  lord  Burleigh  to  the  earl  of  Leicester,  when  that 
ndbleman  laboured  under  the  queen's  displeasure,  and 
reflects  great  honour  on  the  old  treasurer's  memory.  It  is 
strange,  says  the  earl  of  Hardwicke,  that  Camden  passes  it 
over  in  silence :  but,  ind<$ed,  adds  his  lordship,  that  histo- 
rian's omissions  are  very  unpardons^ble,  cpnsid^ring  the 
lights  he  had.  As  to  lord  Burleigh'^s  unpublished  papeis^- 
they  are  still  exceedingly  num^rd^^  and  are  extant  in  the' 


80  ,  C  £  e  I  La 

British  Miuieum,  in  the  Ubr^ries.of  the  earls  of  Salisburjr 
and  Hardwickei  and  in  other  plaoes.  . 

His  lordship  was  btiried  :at  Stamford,  where  an  elegant 
moc^uaient  i»  ereo^  to  bis  memorj^.  By  bis  first  wife  be 
had  jiis  0on  and  heir  Thomas  eiiri  of  Exeter,  and.  by.  bi» 
secofid  a  nuinerou^  issue,  who  all  died^before  him  except 
the  subject  of  the  following,  article,  to- wbont  he  .addressed 
those  valuable  "  precepts^  so  often  repiinted.  Few  meft 
knew  better  than  >  lord  BurFeigh  how  to  adtise  the  young. 
Peacham,  in  .his<  ^^  Gentleman,'*  informs  us  that  when  any^ 
one,  came  to  tho; lords,  of  the  council  for  a  licence  to  traveiy 
he  would  first  examine  him  of :  England,  and  if  he  fpunci 
hiaa  ignorant,^  he  ii^ould  bid  him .  stay  at  home,  ^iid.  kiK>w. 
his  own  country  iBrst«  ^ 

CE^CIL  (RO^BE^T),  earl  of  Salisbury,  s^n  to  the  pre*. 
ceding,  was  born,  p^robably,  about  the  year  \6S0,  andr 
being  of  a  weakly  cqmstitution,  was  tenderly  brought  up 
by  his  mother^  and  educated  under  a  careful  and  excellent 
tutor  till  he  was  sent  to  Str^Job^'S  college,  €ambridgev 
Here  he  had  conferred  upon  hinrii  the  degree  of*  M.  A^  and^ 
was  afterwards  incorporated^  same  degree  at  Oxford. 
In  the  pariiaments  of  1585  and  }59r6  he  served  for  the  city 
of  Westminster ;  as  he  did  aftervKi^rd^i  in  1588,  1592, 15d7, 
i^nd  1600,  for  the  county  of  Hertford.  In  1388. he  was* 
one  of  the  young  no.bility  who  went  volunteers  en  board 
the  English  fleet  sent  against  the  Spanish  armada.  Hef 
lyas  &  courtier  from  his'cradle,  having  the  advantage  of  the 
instructions  and  experience  of  his  illustrious  fat l^r|'«nd 
living  in  those  times  when  queen  Elizabeth  had  most  need 
of  the  ablest  persons,  was  employed  by  her  in  .a^ifsof 
the  highest  importance,  and  received  the  honour  of  kn-ight* 
hood  in  the  beginning  of  June  1591,  and  in  August  fol- 
lowing Was  sworn  of  the  privy>counciK  In  1596  he  wa& 
appointed  secretary  of  state,  to  the  great  disgust  of  the 
earl  of  Essex,  who  was  then  absent  in  the  expedition 
against  Cadiz,  and  had  been  zealous  for  the  promotion  ojf 
sir  Thpnhias  Bodley.  Whilst  he  was  in  that  post  h^  shewed 
«a  indefatigable  address  in  procuring  foreign  intelligence 
fcom  all  parts  of  the  world,  holding,  at  his  own  charge,  a 
correspondence  with  all  ambassadors  and  neighbouring 
states.     By  this  means  he  discovered  queen  Elizabeth's! 

' »  Biog.  Brit.— Sir  £.  Brydgfs's  edition  of  Cbllins.— -Park's  edition  of  Rayal 
arid  Noble  ^utlkom— fitrype's- AritmlS)  Meno^idkU,  anrf  Lirtt,  passim,  Ice.^— > 
I<p^*t  ilIiuitni(kHis,/vol.  Ui^iM^»i)tsidcrBta,  fcc 

C  fi  C  1  L.  Si\ 

enemies  abroftdy  and  prkate  congpiracies  at  hbmei  and 
was  on  tbis  account  as  highly  valued  by  th^  queen  as  ha 
was  hated  by  the  popish  parly*,  who  vented  their  mailed 
against  him  in  several  libels,  both  printed  and  manusctiptj 
and  threatened  to  murder  him  ;  to  some  of  which  he  re* 
turned  an  answer,  both  in  Latin  and  English,  declaring. 
that  he  despised  all  their  threats-for  the  service  of  so  good 
a  cause  as  be  was  engaged  in,  tbat  of  religion  and  his 
country.  .       i 

In  1 597  he  was  eonstituted  chancellor  of  the  dueby  of 
Lancaster.  In  February  1597-8  be  went  to  Fra.nce  with 
Hr.  Herbert  and  sir  Thomas  Wylkes,  to  endeavour  to  di<^ 
vert  Henry  IV.  from  the  treaty  at  Vervins;  and  in  May 
1599,  succeeded  his  father  in  the  office  of  master  of  th^ 
court  of  wards,  for  which  he  resigned  a  better  place,  that 
of  chancellor  of  the  duchy,  being  so  restrained  in  the  eourf? 
of  wards,  by  new  orders,  that  be  wfis,  as  he  expressed  it, 
ft  ward  himself.  He  succeeded  his  ^ther  likewise  in  the 
post  of  principal  minister  of  state,  and  from  that  time 
public  aiiairs  seem  to  have  been  entirely  under  his  (}irecs-^ 
tion«  During  the  last  years  of  his  queen,  he  supported 
her  deelining"  age  with  such  vigour  and  prudence  as  at 
once  enabled  her  to  assist  her  allies  the  States  General^ 
when  tb^y  were  ingloriously  abandoned  by  France,  and  to 
defe(»t  a  dangerous  rebellion  in  Ireland,  which  was  che« 
rished  by  powerful  assistance  from  Spain.  But  though  he 
was  a  faithful  servant  to  his  mistress,  yet  he  kept  a  secret 
correspondence  with  her  successor  king  James,  in  which 
he  was  once  in  great  danger  of  being  discovered  by  the 
queen.  As  her  majesty  was  taking  the  air  upon  Blacks 
heath,  near  her  palace  at  Greenwich,  a  post  riding  by,  she 
inquired  from  whence  M  came ;  and  being  told  from 
Scotland,  she  stofyped  her  coach  to  receive  the  packeti 
Sir  Robert  Cecil,  who  attended  her, .  knowing  there  were 
in  it  some  letters  from  his  correspondents,  with  great 
presence  of  mind,  called  immediately  for  a  knife  to  opedi  * 
it,  that  a  delay  might  not  create  suspicion.  When  be 
eame  to  cut  it  open,  he  told  the  queen  that  it  looked  and 
smelt  very  ill,  ai^d  therefore  was  proper  to  be  opened  and 
aired  before  she  saw  what  it  contained  ;  to  which  her  ma- 
jesty consented,  having  an  extreme  aversion  to  bad  smells. 
Upon  her  deoease  he  was  the  first  who  publicly  read  iiee 
will,  and  proclaimed  king  James  $  and  his  former  services 
to  tbat.pripgei  or  the  interest  of  sir.George  Hume,  afters 

S»  C  E  C  X;  L^ 

imr<l9  enrl  of  Dunb«T,.  so  effectually  ifeeoinmeDded  him  to* 
bbmajesty*  tb&t  he  took/ him  into  the  highest  degree  of 
favour,  and  continued  his  office  of  principal  iiiini&-<» 
ter  $  and  though  in  that  reign  public  affairs  were,  not  car* 
ried  on  with  the  same  spirit  as  in  the  last,  the  fault  ^eanaol 
justly  be  charged  on  this  minister,  but  an  the  king,  whoae 
tixmd  temper  iaduced  him  to  have  peince  with  all  the  world, 
md  esptiicially  with  ^Spain  at  jany  rate,  .  But  though  sic 
Robert  Cecil  was  far  from  approving,  in  his  heart,  the 
measures  taken. for obtiMing  that  inglorious  peace,  yet  he 
ap  far  ingratiated,  lumself  with. his  sovereign  that  he  waa 
raised  to  gveaier  honours.^  being  on  May  1^,  1603,  created 
baron  of  Essenden^  in  Rutlandshire;  on  the  20th  of  Au-« 
gusi;,  1604,  viscount  Cranborne,  in  Dorsetshire  (the  first: 
<tf  that  degree. who  bore  a.coronet),  and  on  May  4,  1605^. 
earl  of  Salisbury.    .     . 

.  He  shewed  himself  upoa  all  occasions  a  zealous  servant: 
to  his  prince,  without  neglecting  at  the  same  time,  fcha. 
Tisal  advantage  of  his  cOuatry,  and  never  heartily  espousing; 
the  Spanish  interest,  though  it  wiis  the  only  one  coun^. 
tenanced  by  king  James;  and  isome  of  the  courtiers,  by. 
encouraging  it,  acquired  great  riches.  .  The  court  of  Spain, 
was  so  sensible  of  his  disinclination  to  them,  that  they. cut 
deavoured  to  alienate  the  king's  favour  from  him  by  meana. 
of  the  queen  ;  and  it  was  moved  there  in  council^.tojsend 
complaints  to  England  of  his  malignant  bumoor,  or.eftTjir 
to  the  Spanish  nation  ;  upon  which,  if  he  did  not  alter  hui 
conduct,  then  a  shorter  course  should  be  taken  with  him^^ 
by  destroying  him«  Afterwards  they  entertained  great 
hopes  of  him,  and  resolved  to  omit  no  means  to  gain  biwt^ 
over  to  their  side.  But  when  all  the  popish  designs  wera. 
defeated  by  the  discovery  of.  tbiQ  gunpowder  plot,  which:. 
bas  since  been  represented  by  some  of  that  party  as  a  po»»: 
litical  contrivance  of  his,  his  activity  in  the  detection  :.o{ 
it,  and  zeal  for  the  punishment  of  Uiose  concerned  in  it^i 
enraged  them  to  such  a  degree,  that  several  of  the  papista^ 
formed  a  combination  against  him.  .  This,  however,  tak<# 
}ng  no  effect,  they  again  attempted  to  ruin  him  in  the 
king's  favour^,  by  reporting  that  he  had  a  pension  of  fortyi 
thousand  crowns  froas  the  States  of  the  United  Provinces, 
for  being  their  special  favourer  and  patron.  They  hraaded 
him  likewise  with  the  appellation  of  a  puruao,  a  nasne  pe*' 
culiarly  odious  to  king  Jfames.  At  last  they  conspieed  tor, 
iiiurdei;  him  by  a  mssquet-aiiot  out  of  ^e  Ss^voy,.  or  aomei 

c  E  ci  r  l:  23 

bouse  near,  fts  be  was  'going  by  Wate)r  to  court.'  But  these 
nefarious  designs  proved  abortive^  though  it  apt)ear8  they 
bad  not  desisted  from  them  in  1609.  Upon  the  death  of 
rir  Thomas  Sackville,  earl  of  Dorset,  lord-high-trea&urer, 
jn  April  1603,  he  liucceeded  hiitk  in  that  post ;  and  his  ad- 
▼anceiuent  ^to  ifc  Was  universally  applauded,  a  great  re- 
formation being  expected  from  him  in  the  exchequer,, 
which  be  accohlitigly  effected.  Finding  it  almost  totally 
exhaosted,  he  devised  s^teral  means  for  replenishing  it 
with  monley,  particularly  by  causing  the  royal  manors  tp 
be  surveyed,  which  berot^  were  but  imperfectly  knbWn ; 
by  reviving  the  custody  of  crown  lands;  by  commissions 
of  assets^  by  taking  cafe  to  have  the  king*s  woods  an4 
timber  viewed,  numbered,  marked,  atid  vsdued  ;  by  haying 
an  exact  survey  made  of  the  copyholds  held  of  the  crowhn 
which  be  ordered  to  be  printed;  by  compounding  with  . 
the  copyholders  of  the  inheritance,  and  the  possessors  of 
wastes  and  commons,  originally  appertaining  to  th^  king; 
by  appointing' commi^i^ioners  to  gather  in  the  fines  arising^ 
from  penal  laws,  and  such  as  accrued  from  the  king^s  ma^ 
Bors;  by  improvitig  the  customs  from  66,000/.  to  120,000/. 
and  afterwards  to  135,000/.  perann.  and  by  surrendering 
up  his  patent  of  master  of  the  wards  to  the  king,  for  bit 
benefit  and  advantage. 

His  indefatigable  api^lication  to  business  having  ruined 
bis  constitution,  he  died  at  Marlborough  in  his  return  from 
Bath,  May  24, 1612,  and  wad  buried  at  Hatfield.  He  was 
undoubtedly  a  Very  able  minister,  but  not  very  popular 
while  living,  nor  characterised  with  much  praise  since  his 
death.  Dr.  Birbh,  however,  appears  his  ablest  advocate^ 
nt  hh  ^^  Historical  View  of  the  Negociations,''  &c.  and  his 
researches  behig  carried  farther  than  perhaps  those  of  any 
modern  writer,  what  be  istdvances  seems  more  entitled  to 
eredit.  »    •  / 


It  will  b^  but  justice,  says  Dr.  Birch,  to  the  character  of 
so  eminent  a  person  as  the  earl  of  Salisbury,  to  consider 
him  as  he  now  appears  to  us  from  fuller  and  more  impar* 
ttal  lights  than  the  ignorance  or  envy  of  his  own  time 
would  admit  of ;  and  which  tnay  be  opposed  to  the  general 
invectives  ahd  unsupported  libels  of  Weldon.  and  Wilson, 
the  scandalous  cbroniclefs  of  the  last  age.  He  was  evi-^ 
deutly  a  man  of  quicker  pairts,  and  a  more  spirited  writer 
and  speaker  than  his  father,  to  whose  experience  he  was 
dt  the  same  time  obliged  for  his  education  and  introducti(Hi 

24  c^i^qii^ 

iDtQ  public  bqsin<ps9>  in  the^mwf^ex^&xt.of  which  he  was 
stccQunte'dj  an^  perhaps  justly^  more  subtle^  and  less  open, 
^nd  ibis  opinion  of  his  bia$s  to  artifice  and  dissiouilatioa 
was  greatly  owing  to  the  singular  address  which  he  shewed 
in  penetrating  into  the  secrets  and  reserved  poj^ers  of  the 
foreign  ministers  with  whom  be  treated.;  and  l^  evading^ 
with  uncommon  dexterity,  such  points  as  they,  pressed,  whei| 
it  was  not  convenient  to  give  them  too  explicit  an  answer^ 
|Iis  correspondence  with  king  James^  during^  the  life  o^ 
queen  Elizabeth,  was   so  closely, and  arifully 'mauaged, 
that  he  escaped  a  discovery,  which  would  have  ruined  big 
interest  with  his  royal  mistress^  though  he  afterwards  justi«* 
iied   that  cprres;p6ndence  from  a  regard  to  her  service^ 
.  ^*  For  whjit,"  says  he,  "  could  more  quiet  the  expectatioi^ 
of  a  successor,  so  many  ways  invited  to  jefilousy,  thai\ 
^hen  he  saw  her  ministry,  that  were  most  inward  with  her, 
ivbolly  bent  to  accommodate  the  present  auctions  of  states 
for  his  future  safety,  when  Gocl  should  see  his  time  v '— ^ 
He  was  properly  a  sqle  minister,  though  not  under  the 
denpniination  of  ^  fs^vourite,  his  master  having  a  mucl^ 
greater  £^we  of  than  love  for  him  ;  and  he  drew  all  business, 
both  foreign  and  domestic,  intq  his  own  hands,  and  suf* 
fered  no  ministers  to  be  employed  abroad  but  who  we^re 
his  dependents,  and  with  whom  he  kept  a  most  constant^ 
^nd  exact  correspondence:  but  the  men  whom  be  pre- 
ferred to  such  employments,  justified  his  choice,  and  di^l 
credit  to  the  use  he  made  of  his  power.     He  appears  to 
havei  been  invariably  attached  to  the  true  interest  of  big 
country,   being  above   corruption   from,   or  dependency 
upqn,  any  foreign  courts ;  which  renders^  it  not  at  all  sur- 
prising, that  he  should  be  abused  by  them  all  in  ih^r 
turns;  as  his  attention  to  all  tb^e  motions  of  the  popish 
factiou  made  him  equally  odious  to  them.     He  fully  un- 
derstood the  English  constitution,  and  the  just  limits  of 
the   prerogative  \  and  prevented  the  fatal  consequences 
which  might  hs^ve  arisen  from  the  frequent  disputes.between. 
king  James  I.  and  his  parliaments.     In  short,  he  was  as 
good  a  minister  as  that  prince  would  suffer  him  to  be,  a^d 
as  was  consistent  with  his  own  security  in  a  factious  and 
corrupt  court ;  and  he  was  even  nec;ligent  of  his,  personal 
Safety,  whenever  the  interest  of  the  public  w?is  at  stafcje. 
Ris  post  of  lord  treasurer,  at  a  time  when  the  exchequer 
was   exhausted  by  the  king's  boundless  profusion,  was  at- 
iended  with  infinite  tro^jble  to  biQ^i  in  goncertin|;  schemei 


feur  raisiing  the  sunpli^ ;  and  the  manlier  in  which  he  was 
obliged  to  raise  tbeiny  with  the  great  fortaoe  which  he  ac«* 
cumulated  to  himselty  in  a  measure  beyond  perhaps  the 
visible  profits  of  bis  places,  exposed  him  to  much  detrae* 
tion  and  popular  clamoar,  which  followed  him  to  his  grare) 
riiough  experience  shewed,  that  the  nation  sustained  an 
important  loss  by  bis  death ;  since  he  was  the  only  minister 
of  state  of  real  abilities  during  the  whide  course  of  that 
reign.  He  has  been  thought  too  severe  and  vindictive  in 
the  treatment  of  bis  rivals  and  enemies :  but  the  part 
which  he  acted  towards  tbe  earl  of  Essex,  seems  entirely 
the  result  of  his  duty  to  his  mistress  and  the  nation.  It 
must,  however,  be  confessed,  that  his  behaviour,  towards  ^ 
tbe  great  but  unfortunate  sir  Walter  Raleigh  is  an  smpu* 
tatioii  upon  him,  which  still  remains  to  be  cleared  up ;  and 
it  probably  may  be  done  from  the  ample  memorials  of  his 
administration  in  the  Hatfield  library. 

A  more  elaborate  apology  for  the  earl  of  Salisbury  wa* 
written  soon  after  bis  decease,  and  addressed  to  king  Jame% 
by  sir  Walter  Cope.     This  may  be. seen  in  Gutch's  *^  CoU 
lectanea  Curiosa,^^  vol.  I.  from  which,  as  well  asfrom  the 
account  of  his  death  in  Peck's  ^^  Desiderata,*'  the  ambi^ 
tious  may  derive  a  salutary  lesson.  .  His   '^  Secret  Cor-* 
respondence'V  with  king  James,  was  published  by  lord  H»les 
in  1766,  and  the  conclusion  which  his  lordship  thinks  the 
reader  will  draw  is,  that  Salisbury  was  no  less  solicitous  to 
maintain  his  own  power  than  to  settle  the  succession  to 
bis  aged  benefactress  queen  Elizabeth.     Various  letters, 
speeches,  memorials,  &o.  from  his  pen  are  mentioned  in 
^ur  authorities.     Lord  Salisbury  married  Elizabeth,  sister 
t%  tbe  unhappy  Henry  Brooke^  lord  Cobham,  thy  whom, 
who  died  in  1591,  he  had  a  daughter  Frances,  married  to 
Henry  Clifford,  earl  of  Cumberland,  and  an  only  son,  Wil^* 
}iam,  second   earl  of  Salisbury^     His  descendant,  James^ 
the  seventh  earl  of  Salisbury,  was  advanced  to  tbe  title  of 
marquis  ip  1789. ' 

.  CECIL  (RiCHAjiB),  a  late  clergyman  of  the  cfhurcbof 
^England,  w§s  born  in  Cbiswell^treet,.  London,  on  Nor, 
jB,  1748.  His  father  and  grandfather  wcare  scadet-dyers  to 
the  East  India  company.  His  mother  was  the  only  child 
uf  Mr.  Grosvenor,  a  merchant  of  London,  and  was  a  strict 
■  -       •  '  '  * ' 

*  Biog.  Brit— Park's  Royal  and  Noble  ^utbori.— Secret  Correspondence,  b]r 
air  D.  Dalrymple,  l*i66,  12mo.— Birch's  Nefocuiti«RS.^*»l{istx>r3r  of  Q.  £lliza« 
^idb,  andilife  of  Prii^oe  Heniy.-^^Uamnfitoa'i  ^oS«  Mtiqiipw 

2ff  C  E  C  I  li, 

dissenter,  but  bis  father  belonged  to  the^tiiblished  cburch. 
In.  bis  early  years  bis  father  intended  him  for  business,  but 
the  son  bad  a  stronger  predilection  for  general  literature ; 
and  tbe. success  o£  some  juvenile  attempts,  inserted  in  the 
periodical  journals,  withr  a  taste  for  thustc  and  painting, 
diverted  bim  stilly  more  from  trade.  At  iejigtb  his  father 
detennined  to  give  bim  an  university  education,  and,  by  th^ 
advice  of  Dr.  Pbanuel  Bacon,  an  old  acquaintance,  sent 
hiin  to  Oxford,  where  he  entered  of  Queen^s  college.  May 
19,  177 S.  Before  this  he  had  fallen  into  a  course  of  read* 
ing  which  dispelled  the  religious  education  of  bis  infancy, 
and  bad  made  bim  almost  a  confirmed  infidel.  Previously, 
however,  to  going  to  the  university,  he  had  recovered  from 
this  infatuation,  and  became  noted  for  that  pious  conduct 
and  principles  which  he  maintained  through  life.  With 
his  studies  be  combined  his  former  attachment  to  the  fine 
arts,  particularly  music  afnd  painting,  and  might  be  deemed 
a  connoisseur  in  both,  and  upon  most  subjects  of  polite 
literature  manifested  a  critical  taste  and  relish  for  the  pro-^. 
ductions  of  genius  and  imagination,  of  both  which  he  bad 
himself  no  small  portion.  In  1776  he  was  ordained  dea- 
coh,  and  in  1777  priest,  having  only  taken  his  baohelor^s 
degree,  after  whidi  he  withdrew  his  name  from  the  college 
books,  and  exercised  his  talents  as  a  preacher  in  some 
cbu robes  in  Lancashire.  Soon  after,  by  the  interest  of 
some  friends,  two  small  livings  were  obtained  for  bim  at 
Leiwes  in  Susse:it,  together  in  value  only  about  80/.  a  year. 
These  he  did  not  long  enjoy,  a  rheumatic  affection  in  his 
head  obliging  bim  to  employ  a  curate,  the  expence  of  which 
required  the  whole  of  the  income,  but  he  continued  ta 
hold  them  for  some  years,  and  occasionally  preached  %l 
Lewes.  Removing  to  London,  he  officiated  in  different 
churches  and  chapels,  particularly  the  chapel  in  Orange-r 
street  and  that  in  Long-acre,  &c.  In  1780  he  was  invited 
to  undertake^the  duty  of  due  chapel  of  St.  John's,  in  Bed- 
ford-row, and  by  the  assistance  of  some  friends  who  ad* 
vanced  considerable  sums  of  money.  Was  enabled  to  repair 
it,  and  collected  a  most  numerous  and  respectable  congre^ 
gation.  But  formany  years  he  derived  little  emolument 
ftom  it,  as  he  devoted  the  produce  of  the  pews  most  con- 
scientiously to  tbedtscharge  of  the  debts  incurred.  Eveii 
in  1798,  a*  debt  of  500/,  remained  on  it,  which  his  friends 
and  hearers,  struck  with  bis  honourable  conduct,  gene-* 
rously  defrayed  by  a  subscription.    Ici  this  year  appeared 

C  E  C  I  L.  27 

timt  ocHnplaint,- of  tbe  schirrQaft  kind,  wbicfa  mora  otr  lest 
afflicted  him  with  excruciating  pain  during  the  femainde^ 
of  his  hfe,  and  frequently  interrupted  hig  public  laboursy 
but  which  he  bore  with  incredible  patience  and  constancy, 
la  ISOO  he  was  presented  by  the  trustees  of  John  Thornton^ 
esq.  to  the  livings  of  Chobbam  and  Ksley  in  Sunsey,  by 
which  150/.  was  added  to  bis  income^  the  xenatnder  of 
their  produce  being  required  to  provide  a  substitute  at  St« 
John's  chapel,  and  defraying  the  necessary  travelling  ex- 
pences.  In  these  parishes,  notwithstanding  the  precarioua 
statepf  bis  health,  he  pursued  his  ministenal  labours  with 
unabated  assiduity,  and  conciliated  the  affections  of  hia 
people  by  his  affectionate  addresses,  as  well  as  by  an  ac« 
commodation  in  the  matter  of  tithes,  which  prevented  all 
disputes.  In  1807  and  1808  two  paralytie  attacks  under^ 
mined  his  constitution,  and  at  length  terminated  in  a  fit  of 
apoplexy,  ivhich  proved  fatal  August  15,  1810.  Few  men 
have  left  a  character  iiKMre  estinisdble  in  every  quality  that 
regards  personal  merit,  or  public  services,  bat  for  the  de-*' 
tailof  these  we  must  refer  to  the  '^Memoirs''  prefixed  tor 
an  edition  of  his  Works,  in  4  vols.  8vo,  published  in  1811' 
for  the  bepefit  of  his  family.  Such  was  the  regard  in  which* 
be  was  held,  that  the  whole  of  this  edition  of  1250  copies, 
was  subscribed  fot  by  his  friends  andcongregatien.  The 
first  volume  contains  bis  *^  Life  of  Mr.  Cadc^an,'*  printed 
separately  in  1793;  that  of  ^<  John  Bacon,  esq^  the  oele« 
brated  sculptor,''  in  1801  ;  and  that  of  tiie  <^  Rev.  John 
Newton"  in  1808.     VoL  If.  contains  bis  ^'  Miscellanies,^' 

Eractical  tnictk»  pciblished  in  the  course  of  his  life;  vol.  IIL 
is  *' Serniions,"  and  vol.  IV,  bis  ^^  Remains,'^  consisting 
of  remarks  made  by  Mr.  Cecil  in  conversation  with  the 
editor  (the  rev*  Josiah  Pratt,  B.  D«)  or  in  discussions  when 
he  was  present,  with  an  appendix  communicated  by  some 
friends.  *  . 

CECILIA  (St.)9  the  reputed  patroness  of  music,  .was  a' 
B^Bian  virgin  of  distinguished  birth,  who  lived  in  the 
second  century.  She  was  eminent  for  her  piety,  and  bad 
vcHBved  virginity,  but  contrary  to  her  inclinations,  was 
espoused  by  her  parents  to  a  heathen  noblenan  of  the 
name  of  Valerian,  whom  she  is  said  to  hwe  kept  from  her 
bed,  by  informing  him  that  she  had  an  angel  appointed  to 
protect  her,  and  she  engaged  that  Valerian  should  see  this 

^  Memoir  at  above* 



angel,  hi  case  be  would  prepare  himsdf  for  such  a  favouf 
by  becoming,  a  Christian.  .Vaierian  consented,  saw  the 
angel,  abstained  from  Cecilia  as  a  wife,  and  was  converted 
along  with  bis  brother  Tiburtius.  Valei'ian  and  Tiburtius 
suffered  martyrdom,  and  Cecilia  was  honoured  witU  tba 
same  death  some  days  after.  .These  martyrdoms  are  va^ 
riously  placed  under  M.  Aurelius,  between  176  and  180, 
and  under  Alexander  Severus,  about. 231.  The  body  of 
St.  Cecilia  was  found  by  pope  Pascal  I.  in  the  cemetery  of 
a  church  called  by  her  name,  which  occurs  as  early  u 
the  sixth  century;  and  her  body  and  her  husband^  s,  found 
in  the  same  place,  were  translated  in  821  to  a.  monastery 
founded  by  pope  Pascal  iu  honour  of  the  martyrs  Tibur^ 
tius  and  Maximus,  near  the  church  of  St  Cecilia  in  Rome^ 
usually  called  in  Trastevcre^  to  distinguish  it  from  two 
others  dedicated  to  the  same  saint 

Musical  and  other  historians  have  not  been  able  to  as^ 
sign  any  better  reason  for  honouring  St.  Cecilia  as  the  pa* 
troness  of  music,  than  what  may  be  found  in  her  ^^  Acts,'* 
which  still  exist  in  Surius,  but  are  now  considered  as  of  no 
authority.  Yet  as  they  were  credited  in  more  creduloua 
times,  painters  fixed  upon  organs  as  the  appropriate  em* 
blem  of  this  saint ;  musicians  chose  her  for  their  patroness^ 
and  poets  have  described  her  as  the  inventress  of  the  or« 
gan,  and  a$. charming  angels  to  leave  their  celestial  spheres^  ' 
in  order  to  listen  to  .her  harmony^  The  earliest  notice  of 
ber  as  the  tutelar  saint  of  music  seems  to  have  been  in  tb^ 
works  of  the  great  painters  of  the  Italian  school ;  some  re^ 
presenting  her  as  performing  on  the  harp,  and  others  oi^ 
the  organ.  Raphael,  in  his  celebrated  portrait  of  the  saint^ 
has  placed  in  her  hands  a  column  of  organ  pipes,  or  rather 
the  front  of  a  portable  instrument  called  the  regals,  which 
in  Roman  catlK>lic  times  used  to  be  carried,  by  one  persoqk 
and  played  by  another  in  processions.  But  of  the  celebra-- 
tion  of  her  birth-day  by  assemblies  of  musicians,  we  have 
been  able  to  discover  no  instance  earlier  than  the  latter  end 
of  the  seventeenth  century,  when  there  was.  a  rage  a^mong 
the  votaries  of  music  for  celebrating  the  birth-day  of  this 
saint,  November  22,  not  only  in  Loiidon,  but  in  all  tht^ 
considerable  cities  and  provincial  towns,  in  the  kingdom, 
where  music  was  cultivated.  Dryden's  Ode  to  St.  Ce<^Ui|iM 
has  led  Mr.  Malone  into  a  prolix  and  probably  very  accu*; 
rate  history  of  this  saint,  and  into  a  chronological  account 
of  aU  the  great  Cecilian  festivals  held  in  Loudon  from  168^ 

C  £  C  I  t  I:  A.  ^  aa 

to  1 740,  with  «  list  of  all'  the  odea^  ^ritti^h  ex|>r€»9ly  ib^ 
the  celebration  of  St.  Cecilia,  by  whom  written^  aiidbj. 
whom  set  to  oiusic.  ^  •     ? 

CEDRENUS  (George),  a  Grecian  monk,  who  lived  in 
the  eleventh  century,*  wrote  annals,  or  an  almdged  history,! 
from  the  beginning  of  the  world  to  the  reign  :o£  Jsaae.Conv»« 
nenus,  empercar  of  Constantinople,  who  suc^oeededt -Michael 
IV.  in  1057.'  This  work  is  no  more  than  aiicextract  fromt 
several  historians,  and  cH^iefly  from  Ge<h^ras  SynoeUus/ 
whose -chronology  he  has  followed  from  ihe  creation  to  xhet 
reign  of  Dioclesian.  Theopbanes  is  another  Jaistorian  he 
has  made  use  of  from  DiocWian  to  Mic^adlrCuropalatbeSi. 
The  neKt  he  borrows  from  is  Tbrapesius  Soj^iitzes  from 
Curopalates  to  his  own  time.  This  compiiatton^'.  altbmtgh 
not  executed  with  much  judgoieut,  was^prob^biyooce-iti 
request.  It  was  translated  into  Latin  .b)?iX3^)imdeir,  Basii^ 
1566,  and  was  again  printed  at  Pliria  ih  16147,  ^^-vols.  folioy 
with  the  Latin  version  of  Xylsgad^,  and  the. notes. of  father 
Goar,  arDemioican.*  ,     • 

CELEIJTJNE  V.  (Peter),  Pope,  and  the  only  one  of 
his>name  who  seems  to  deserve  much  notice,  was  bohi  ini 
Apulia  about  Abe  year  123 1^  and  a  hermit  in  a  lit^-* 
tie  cell.  He  was  admitted  into  holy  orders;  but  after  that^: 
he  lived  ^ve  years,  in  a.  cate  or  '  mount*  *Mont>ni  neat  Sal- 
viona,  where  he  founds  a  monastery  in  1^74;;  The  seo 
of  Rome  hating  been  vacatH  two  years  and  three  months^ 
Celestine  was  unaniqaously  chosen  pope  on^  account  of  the 
fame  of  his  sanctity.  The  archbishop  of  Lyons,  present-* 
ing  him  with  the  instrument  of  his  election,  conjured  hini 
to  submit  to  the  vocation.  '  Feter,  in  astoriisbment,  pro* 
strated  .himself  on  the  ground :  and  after  he  had  continued 
in  prayeir  for  a  considerable  time,  consented  to  bis  election,- 
and  took  the  name  of  Celestine  V.  Since  the  days  of  the. 
first  Gregory,  no  pope  had  ever  assumed  (he  pontifical- 
dignity  with  more  purity  of  intention.  But  he  had  not 
Gregory^s  talents  for  business  and  government;  and  the^ 
Roman  see  was  far  more  corrupt  in  the  thirteenth  than  it 
was  in  the  sixth  century.  Celestine  soon  became  sensible 
of  his  incapacity.  He  attempted  to  reform  abuses,-  to  re«^ 
trench  the  luxury  of  the  clergy,  to  do,  in  shorty  what  he 
foand  totally  impracticable.     He  committed  mistakes,  astdi 

>  Biitlflf't  Lives  of  ibe  SaiiiU.T«-B«iiiwy  «i|d  Qiiiiluii8*«  Hitt.  of  M«tlK,  •  ] 
fient  Mag.  vol.  LXIII.  p.  25  and  33.  .  , . . 

'  I)u{>rii.-**C«y«.— Fabric.  Bibl.  Gncc— Moreri. 



exposed  fainiMlf  to  ridieule.     Hb  conscieticey  in  the  meatf 
thiie^  :wa9  kept^n  the  rack  through  «  variety  of  scruples/ 
from  which  be  could  not  extricate  hiniself;  and  from  his  • 
ignorance  of  the  world  and  of  canon  law,  he  began  to  think  ' 
be  had  done  wMngin  accepting  the  office.   He  spent  muchf 
of  hift  ttttie  in  retirement ;  nor  was  he  easy  there,  becatiso^ 
his  conscience  told  him,  that  he  ought  to  be  discharging  ' 
the  pattorat  office.  >  In  this  dilemma  he  consulted  cardinal  , 
Cajetan,  wha toldhim -he might  abdicate,  which  he  accord* 
inglydid  in  l^d4/after  having  endeavoured  to  support  the ' 
nmk  of  pope  for  only  four  or  five  months,  and  before  bia 
abdication  lAade  a  constitution  that  the  pontiff  might  be 
allowed  to  abdicate,  if  he  pleased ;  but  there  ba^  been  no 
example: since  of  any  pope  taking  the  benefit  of  this  con^ 
stitation.     Caj^tan  succeeded  him  under  the  tit)e>of  Boni^ 
^ceVIIL  and  frntiiediately  imprisoned  hittiin' th^  casttor 
of  Fumone,  lest  h^  should  revoke  his  resignation,  aUhougU 
nothing  wn  moie  improbable,  and  treated  him  ^ith  stich 
harshness  as  brought  him  fo  bis  grave,  after' ten 'months 
imprisenment,.  in   1-296.     Clement  V.  canotiifzed  him'in 
1313.     Several  of  his  <<  Opuscula*'  are  in  the  BiM.  Pa^ 
trum.    The  order  of  the  Ceiestins,  vAath  takes  its  ntfioe 
from  him,  still  subsists. ' 

iC£LLARIUS  (CHaiSTOFHEa),  an  eminent  critic  ami 
geographer,  was  bom  1638,  at  Smalcalde,  a  littli^  town  in 
Franconia,  where  his  father  was  minister  His  mother^ 
Mary  Zehners,  was  daughter  of  the  famous  divine,  Joilchim 
Zehners,  He  came  of  a  family  in  which  learning  seems  t^ 
have  been  hereditary.  When  three  years  old,  be  hsKl  the 
misfortune  to  lose  his  father,  but  his  mothetr  look  care  of 
his  education.  He  began  his  studies  in  the  college  of  Smaf-^ 
<;alde,  and  at  eighteen  was  removed  to  Jena,  to  finish  faia 
studies  in  that  university.  During  a  residence^  of  three 
years  in  this,  place,  he  applied  to  classical  learning  under  ' 
Bosius,  to  pbitosopby  under  Bechman,  to  the  Oriental 
languages  under  Frischmutb,  and  to  mathematics  under : 
Weigelius.  In  1659  he  quitted  Jena  to  go  to  Giessen,  ta 
study  divinity  under  Peter  Haberkorn.  He  afterwards  re« 
turned  to  Jena,  and  took  a  doctor^s  degree  there  in  1666.^ 
The  year  following  he  was  made  professor  of  Hebrew  and 
il  philosophy  at  Weisseafels,  in  which  office  he  con**'* 

I  Milaer'9  Cborch  Hbt  ToL  IV.  p«  SS.-<->Ditpii«^Bow«r't  Lives  of  the  Popes. 
-PUtina.— Mor«ri. 

c  EL  L  A  It  I  u  a  St 

tioaed  &r  serea  ycani  In  1693  he  was  eatledlo  Weimar, 
to  be  rector  of  the  college  there,  which,  at  the  end  of  three 
years,  he  exchanged  for  a  similar  tank  ^t  Zeits.  After 
Uifo  years  stay  here,  the  college  of  Menbourg  was  offered 
to  lum^  wbicli  he  accepted.  His  teaming,  his  abilities, 
aod  his  diligence,  sopn  rendered  this  college  famous^  and 
drev  a  great  number  of  studtsnts;  and  the  place  was  sa 
agreeable  to  him,  determined  to  end  his  days  there  ^ 
bat  Providence  dtspoaed  ef>  him  otherwise.  -  For  the  king 
ofPrusda,  having  foniided  an  university  at}  Halle  in  1693, 
prerailed  upon  him  to  be  .pvofassor  of  eloquenoeand  his- 
tory ia  it,  and  here  he  ^composed  a  great  part  of  his  wbrks/ 
Uis  great  application. shortened  his  days,  and  hastened  otr 
the  -infiroaities  of  old  age.  He  was  a  tpng  time  afflicft^ 
eith  the  tstone*  but -never  oould  b^  persuaded  to  seek  as- 
sistance'fitom  medicine.  He  died,  1707,  in  hk  sixty iilinth' 
yean.  u.   •  .-...-.  ....... 

He  puiblished  good  editions  of  aboy'e  twettty  Latin  and- 
Gjteek  authors ;  and  should  we  give  a  eonipleto  catalogue' 
ofkis  own  wofks,  it  would  shew  an  aslotiisbing  example' 
of  literacy  industry.  But  although  he  was- a  vety  volu-* 
mioous  writer^  he  publisrhed  nothing  in  -baSte,  and  nothing" 
but  what  was^  in  general  correct  and  useful.  His  works 
lalate  chiefly  to  grammar,  to  geography,  K^  history,  and 
to  the  Oriental  langmsge^.  As  they  are  so  v^ry  numerous, 
we  shall  only  mention  some  of  the  mo^t  coiisiderable :  1. 
''A  Latin  Grammar,^'  in  German,  1689,  8Vq. '  2;;'<  Anti* 
barbarasLatious,  sive  de  Latiaitate  mediae  et  infimse  Wtatis,^* 
1^77,  .12mo.  iB^ffore  he  published  this  book^  Olaus  Bor- 
lifthtus  bad  published,  at  C<:^nhagen,  a  work  entitled 
'^Cogitationes'  de  vaiiis  linguao  Latinse  setatibus,  Slc^ 
which.  Cellarios.  having  not  seen,  and  reading  afterwards, 
wa$'  the  occasion  of  his  making  an  addition  to  his  own,  un-^' 
4er  the  title  of,  3,  ^^  Carte  posteriores  de  barbarismis  et 
Idiotismta  sermonis  Latini/'  16^6,  12mo.  4.  '^Ofthogra* 
pbia  Latina  ex  feiusftis  monwnentis,  hoc  est  nummis,  mar-* 
auuribus,  &c.  eTCcerpta,  digesta,  novisque  observationibus 
illufttrata,"  i700y  Svo.  5%  <<  Historia  universalis  breviter' 
sc  perspicue  exposita^  'm  antiquam  et  medii  sBvi  ac  novam 
dwisa,  cuaa'notis  perpetuis,'*  1703,  S  vols.  i2mo.  6. ^Col- 
lectanea Historic  Samaritanae,  quotquot  inveniri  potue* 
tunt,*'  1688,  >4to.  He  had  a  design  cvf  writing  a  complete 
history  of  the  Samaritans ;  but  for  want  of  materials  was 
forced  to  give  it  up.     He  collected,  however,  in  this  work^ 


*•    , 


what  be  couldifind  relatiag  tit)  dieir  manners^  retigtoii,  b^ 
7.  *^  Hi^toria  getilis  &  reltgionis  <Saniaritatie  ex .  dovb; 
Slchemi^um  epistcda  ancta/*  169d,  ;4to.  8^.  <f  Giamna**' 
^ca  H^brsea  in  tabudis  synopttcis  una  Ciun  confiilio  24  bona: 
disc^pdi.linguam  saaotaoo.'*  To  .which  he.  added,  f^  Aab*- 
biti^saius,,  siye  inititHtio.  graminaUca  pro  legendis  Rabbina*^ 
rum  scriptis/^  1684,  4to*  9.  .'^  Ganouesde  lingoie  sanctia> 
idiotismis,"  1{679,  4to.  10.  <' Sciagraphia  phiblogi®  sa-*. 
^rae,  cum  etjfmologtco  vadicum  depfiitditaKum  exaltis  lia-» 
guis,  Arabic^i .  praBsertim^  restiuitarum/'  167d,  .4to.  ll.» 
^^  Chaldaismus,  sive  grammatica  nova  Ungum  Chaldaicas,'' 
&c.  1685,  4to.  12>  ^^  Porta  Syiise,  aive  grammatica  Sy«». 
rkca/'  1684,  4to.  13.  'f  Horn  S«unaritayaB,V  &c  i682^ 
4to.     14.  ^^  lioguam  Arabidam/'  1686^  4to. 

.  His  works  in  geography  are  well.^kliown,  as  esoellent? 
})^lp»  to  the  uadierstancling  of.  ancient  anthers.  .•  His  .-^^  No-:'. 
titia  Orbis  Antiqui/'  was  published  at  Cambridge  in  170^^; 
!}  vols.  4 to,  ai)d  Leipsic,  1731.  And  a  sixth  editicm  of 
the  abridgement^  by  Patrick,  was  published  at  Londoiv 
in  1731 ;  but  for  a  more  particular  account  of  ttie>  aHthar> 
and  bis  works,,  the  reader  may  be  referred  to  J.  G.  Wal-* 
cjiius^s/^i^course  of  his  life  and  writings,  prefixed  to  baa 
<<  Dissertationes  Academicse,'*  published  at  Leipsic,  1712^ 
8vo»  This  volume  alone  would  have  been  sufficient  t»: 
have  procured  him  a  considerable  name  in  the  learned: 
world.  Tt^e  principal  classics,  &c.  edited  by  >hilD:are,- 
<5  Ciceronis  Epist.  att Familiares;''  "  Plinii  Epist ;'^  "Cprn;* 
Nepos;"  fVQuintus  Curtius;''  "Eutr<^ius;"  *fSextua 
Rufus;"  <*  Velleius,  Paterculu*;"  "  Duod.  Panegyr. ,  A»4 
tiq.;"  "Lactantius;"  ^' Minutius  Felix;"  f*  St  .Cypriao-i 
de  Vanit.  ldoLj"-"Sedulius;'*  «  Prudenties VV >«  Silina* 
Italicusj"  «  PiciMirandulEpist;"  «  Zoaimus;"  "Paaaniw 
us  ;'*  the  ^*  Thesaurus  of  Jaber,^'  with  large  additions,  y     ' 

.CELLIER  (R^Mi),  a  voluminouH  French. biqgvapher,/ 
lyas  born  at  Bar-le-duc  in  1688,  and  was  soon  noted  for; 
learning  and  piety.     He  attached  himself  to  thecongrega*  * 
tion  of  the  Benedictines  of  St.  Vanne  and  St.  Hidulpbe^ 
and  after  he  took  the  habit  of  that  order,  was  intrusted 
with  various  business  belonging  to  it,  and  became  titular, 
prior  of  Flavigni.    He  died  in  1761.    He  published  ^^His- 
tpire  generale  desauteurs  sacresetecclesiastiqaes,."  1729—^. 
1768,  23  vols.  4to,  containing  their  lives,  a. critical. ac«^ 

1  Life  by  Wald^  at  above.— Moreri. 

C  E  E  t  r  E  Ri  33 

count  of  tbeir  works^  the  history  of  councils,  &c.  Tbia 
compilation  is  accurate,  rather  ^more  so,  his  countrymea 
think,  than  that  of  Dupin  ^  but  be  had  not  Oupin^s  art  of 
arranging  and  compressing,  nor,  we  suspect,  his  candour. 
That  it  is  diffuse  beyond  all  patience  appearis  from  these 
tnrenty-tbree  volumes  extending  no  farther  than  the  time' 
of  St.  Bernard  in  the  twelfth  century.  His  numerous  ex* 
tracts  and  translations  are,  however,  useful  to  those  who 
cannot  read  the  fathers  in  the  original  languages.  In  1782 
ah  index  to.  this  work  was  published  at  Paris,  2  vols.  4to, 
a  proof  that  the  work  still  holds  its  reputation.  His  only 
other  publication  was  ^^  Apologie  de  la  Morale  des  Peres 
contre  Bai-beyrac,'^  1718,  4to,  a  learned  treatise  badly 
written.  Cellier  was  fond  of  retiren^ent  and  study,  and 
cbnciliated  the  affections  of  his  brethren  by  bis  amiable 
pergonal  character.  ^ 

Cellini  (Benvenuto),  a  celebrated  sculptor  and  en- 
graver of  Florence,  was  horn  in  1500,  and  intended  to  be 
trained  to  music ;  but,  at  fifteen  years  of  age,  bound  nim-" 
s^lf,'  contrary  to  bis  fatber^s  inclinations,  apprentice  to  a 
jewelTeV  an  J  goldsmith,  under  wbona  he  made  such  a  pro- 
gress, as  presently  to  rival  the  most  skilful  in  the  business*  . 
He  had  also  a  turn  for  other  arts :  and  in  particular  an 
early  taste  for  drawing  and^  designings  which  he  afterwards 
coltivated.     Nor  did  he  neglect  music^  but  must  have  ex* 
celled  in  some  degree  in  it;  for,  assisting  at  a  concert  before 
Clement  VII.  that  pope  took  him  into  his>  service,  in  the 
double  capacity  of  goldsmith  and  musician.     He  applied 
himself  also  to  seal-engraving,  learned  to  make  curious  da^ 
maskeenings  of  steel  and  silver  on  Turkish  daggers,  &c.  and 
was  very  ingenious  in  medals  and  rings.     But  Cellini  excel- 
led in  arms,  as  well  as  in  arts ;  and  Clement  VII.  valued  him. 
as  mu^  for  his  bravery  as  for  his  skill  in  his  profes3ion. 
Wh^h  the  duke  of  Bourbon  laid  siege  to  Rome,  and  the  city 
was  taken  and  plundered,  the  pope  committed  the  castle  oJF 
St.  Angelo  to  Cellini ;  who  defended  it  like  a  man  bred  to 
anbs^  and  <tid  not  suffer  it  to  surrender  but  by  capitulation* 

Meahwbile,  Cellini  was  one  of  those  great  wits,  who 
may  truly  be  said  to  have  bordered  upon  madness ;  he  was' 
of-  a*  desultory,  .  capricious,  unequal  humourj^  which  in- 
volved him  perpetually  in  adventures  that  often  threat- 
ened to  prove  fatal  to  him.     He  travelled  among  the  cities 

1  Diet.  Hi»t. 

Vol.  IX.  D 


of  Italy,  but  chiefly  resided  at  Rome ;  where  he  was  some« 
times  in  favour  with  the  great,  and  sometimes  out.  He 
consorted  with  ^11  the  first  artists  in  their  several  ways,  with 
Michael  Angelo,  Julio  Romano,  &c.  Finding  himself  at 
length  upon  ill  terms  iu  Italy,  he  formed  a  resolution  of 
going  to  France ;  and,  passing  from  Rome  through  Flo-, 
rence,  fiologna,  and  Venice,  he  arrived  at  Padua,  where 
he  was  most  kindly  received  by,  and  made  some  stay  with, 
the  famous  Pietro  Bembo.  From  Padua  he  travelled 
through  Swisserland,  visited  Geneva  in  his  way  to  Lyons, 
and,  after  resting  a  few  days  in  this  last  city,  arrived  safe 
at  Paris.  He  met  with  a  gracious  reception  from  Francis  I. 
who  would  have  taken  him  into  his  service ;  but,  conceiv- 
ing a  dislike  to  France  from  a  sudden  illness  he  fell  into 
there,  he  returned  to  Italy.  He  was  scarcely  arrived, 
when,  being  accused  of  having  robbed  the  castle  of  St. 
Angelo  of  a  great  treasure  at  the  time  that  Rome  was 
sacked  by  the  Spaniards,  he  was  arrested  and  sent  pri- 
soner thither.  When  set  at  liberty,  after  many  hardships 
and  difficulties,  he  entered  into  the  service  of  the  French 
king,  and  set  out  with  the  cardinal  of  Ferrara.for  Paris : 
where  when  they  arrived,  being  highly  disgusted  at  the 
cardinaPs  proposing  what  he  thought  an  inconsiderable 
salary,  he  abruptly  undertook  a  pilgrimage  to  Jerusalem. 
He  was,  however,  pursued  and  brought  back  to  the  king, 
who  settled  a  handsome  salary  upon  him,  assigned  him  a 
house  to  work  in  at  Paris,  and  granted  him  shortly  after  a 
naturalization.  >  But  here,  getting  as  usual  into  scrapes 
and  quarrels,  and  particularly  having  offended  madame 
d^Estampes,  the  king's  mistress,  he  was  exposed  to  endless 
troubles  and  persecutions;  with  which  at  length  being 
wearied  out,  he  obtained  the  king's  permission  to  return 
to  Italy,  and  went  to  Florence;  where  he  was  kindly' re- 
ceived by  Cosmo  de  Medici,  the  grand  duke,  and  engaged 
himself  jjif  his  service.  Here  again,  disgusted  with  some 
of  the  duke's  servants  (for  he  could  not  accommodate  him* 
•self  to,  or  agree  with,  any  body),  he  took  a  trip  to  Venice, 
where  he  was  greatly  caressed  by  Titian,  Sansovino,  and 
other  ingenious  artists ;  but,  after  a  short  stay,  returned  t6 
Florence,  and  resumed  his  business.  He  died  in  1570* 
Bis  life  was  translated  into  English  by  Dr.  Nugent,  and 
pubJished  in  1771,  2  vols.  8vo,  with  this  title:  *^  The  Life 
of  Benevenuto  Cellini,  a  ]f lorentine  artist ;  containing  a 
variety  pf^urious  aqd  interestii>g  particulars  relative  to 

C  E  L  L  I  ^  L  si 

painting,  sculpture,  and  architecture,  ahd  the  history  'of 
his  own  time.**     The  original,  written  iti  the  Tuscan  lani 
guage,  lay  iti  manuscript  above  a  century  and  a  half. 
Though  it  was  read  with  the  greatest  pl^afeiire  hy   the 
leamea  of  Italy,  no  man  was  hardy  enough,  during  this 
Jong  period,  to  Introduce  to  the  world  a  bodkj  in  which' 
the  successors  of  St.  Peter  were  handled  so  I'oughly ; 
a  narrative,  where  artists  and  sovereign  prinfces,  cardi- 
nals  and   courtezans,  ministers   of  state  and  mechanics^ 
are  treated  with  equal  impartiality.     At  length,  in  it 30^ 
an  enterprising  Neapolitan,  encouraged  by  Dr.  Antonio 
Cocchi,  one  of  the  ^politest  scholars  in  Europe,  published 
it  in  one  vol.  4to,  but  it  soon  was  prohibited,  and  became 
scarce.     According  to  his  own  account,  Cellini  was  at  ohce 
a  man  of  pleasure  and  a  slave  to  superstition ;  a  despisec 
of  vulgar  notions,  and  a  believer  in  magical  incantations  J 
«  fighter  of  duels,  and  a  composer  of  divine  sonnets ;  aa 
ardent  lover  of  truth,  and  a  retailer  of  visionary  faricies ; 
an  admirer  of  papal  power,  and  a  hater  of  popes;  ah 
offeHder  against  the  laws,  with  a  strong  reliance  on  divine 
providence.     Such  heterogeneous  mixtures,  however,  ge- 
nerally form  an  amusing  book,  and  Cellini's  life  is  amus*. 
ing  and  interesting  in  a  very  high  degree.     It  must  not, 
however,  he  omitted,  that  Cellini  published  two  treatises 
4)n  the  subject  of  his  art,  "  Duo  trattati,  uno  intorno  alle 
4)tto  prihcipali  arti  delP  oreficiera,  Paltro  in  materia  dell* 
arte  della  scoltura,"  &c.  1568,  4to.* 
^    CELS  (James  Martin),  a  French  botanist,  and  membet 
of  the  Institute,  was  born  at  Versailles  in  1745,  and  having 
,be^n  early  introduced  into  the  office  of  one  of  the  farmers- 
general,  acquired  the  once  lucrative  place  of  receiver* 
Amidst  the  duties  of  this  office,  he  found  leisure  for  study^ 
tad  became  so  fond  of  books,  as  to  attempt  a  new  arrange-^ 
ment  of  libraries,  which  he  published  in  1773,'n»nder  the 
tijle  of  "  Coup-d*ceil  eclair6  d'une  grande  bibliotheque  a 
J'osage  de  tout  possesseur  de  livres,"  8vo.     He  became 
also  partial  to  the  study  of  botany,  and  formed  an  exten- 
sive botanical  garden,  which  he  enriched  by  correspon- 
dence and  exchanges  with  other  horticulturists.     When 
the  revolution  took  place,   he  retired  to   the  village  of  ' 
Montrouge  near  Paris,  and  coiifined  himself  enti?tly  to 

'^iJ^  *•  above.--Sir  JoHn  Hawltins^t  edit,  of  Johaioa'i  worki,  vol.  IX. 

$&  •    €  E  L  S. 

thp  cuJUy*tioiit  and,  selUag.  of:  plants.  The;  pmncipal  vnorks 
o^.d^fO';^^y,  wbicj;)  hayei  appjejaoed  in  Fi^oce,  as 
thpse  of  QierQtier^  PQpapdpUe,  Redout^^  &c^  have  been. 
ivtd^bjiQd  to  bis;  a^sbtwce ;  but  ib  is  to  VentenatthaA;  Cek? 
fiifxice^fiuoe  will  bed  u0r,  who  published,  the '"'De^criptipft 
de?  pjaptes.  rare  dm  jardia  dt*.  At  CeU/*  QeU  died.  Mayi 
13,.  1&Q6.  > 

CJEJLSUS..  (Aua^uuA  Corj^elius),,  an.  ancient  and  cle- 
^;fijQA.iifriter.oiL.tbe.subject  of  physic,  flourished  in  the  6rst 
c^t^y,,  under  the^reigns;  of.  Augustus  anflTibj^rius;  but 
<^  ^.9,  personal  history,  hlsfa^mily,  or  even  bis  profession,, 
M^e  know;  little.    It?  ha^  been-  dpubted.  wbe^hpf  bft  practisedK 
Physic,,  but  without  th^  experience  ari^ng .  from,  practice,. 
i|:.  is  difScult.tQ  conceive  how  he  could  have. so. accurately., 
d^^ribed  diseases  and  given  tbe  remedies.    Dn  Freind^ 
who  studM  bis  works  with,  great:  ajttcntion^  decicies  in  far 
vour  of  his  having  pr»acti§ed,  and  agrees  wkh-  Le  Clerc. 
thpjt.he.  was,  a  Bx^n^a^  by  birth,  and  probably  of  the  Corne- 
Ua^  fao^Ly.     Vie.  is;,  said  ta  have,  wjritten  on>  rhetoric  and . 
c^ber  si^bjects.;  but  hi3."I)e:  Mediciuia  libri   octo,,"  oa 
which -his.  f^Rip  rests,,  is  the,  only,  work  now  remaining^  and 
hasrgpn 6;  through  a>gi!eat  number  of  editions..    The  surgi- 
cal, part  i^  most  esteemed  as .  coiprespondlng  nearest  to  the 
present  practice ;  bat  the,  whp^  is  written  in  ar  style  so 
pi^^  and  elegant,  as  to  entitle  him  to  a  plape  among  the 
liatin^  classics.     Dr.  Clarke,  has  enumerated   nearly  forty 
editions,  the  best  of  which  ara  thought  to  be  Almeloveen^s, 
Fadna,   1722,  8yo,  reprinted  in  1750,  and  one  by  Krause, 
Lpjpsic,  1766,  8 vo,  with  the.  notes  of  Scaliger,  Casaubon^. 
Almeloveen,;  IVJjorgagni,,  &c.  ta  wJiich  we  may  add  a  very 
recent  editipn.. published, at' Edinburgh  ^nd   London,  in 
1809,  8 vo.     In  1756,.  an  English,  translation,  with,  notes,. ' 
was  publish^  by  Dr.  Grieve,  the  historian  of  Kamshatka.- . 
Ashortabridgenvent  of  rhetoric,  "  De  arte  dicepdi,'*  at- 
tributed to  Celsus,  wjas  first  published  at.  Cologne  in  1569, 
8vo,  and  is  inserted  in  the  BibL  Lat  of  Fabricius,  but  it  is' 
generally  thought  to  have  been  the  production  of  Julius 
Severianus,  * 

CELSUS,  a  celebrated  philosopher  of  the  Epicurean 
sept,  flouri3hed  in  the  second  century  under  Adrian  and 
Aptoniqus  Pius,  and  is  tbe  person  to  whom  Lucian  has 

1  Diet  Hist  «  Ffciiid'8  Hi5t  of.Ph^sic-^HalUr  Bib).  Mcd,.ct  ChifUfg, 

-•►Moreri.— fiaxii  Onoma.'iticon^  kc,  ,        , 

"t!  E'i.'aV  'S.  37 

thre   afgalnst  the  'Ctofeti«ft  *ti\ip6ti,  Hihdiefr  the  t*(te  bf 

"The 'true 'Wbrii,"  i^hicfh  Wk&  ktm^e^  by  Ori^n  ^it5i 

Jpreat  ability  in  a  frotk  consisting  ef  tight  bodks.     His  <<  ^Ptue 

Word*'  is  lost ;  bitt  hife  dbjedticnis  against  Cteistfcariity  tt(a:y 

be  known  frdm  libe  et«ftracts  whitfh  are  ptenetveA  <rf  it  fn 

Origen^s  answer.    !k  is  agtecid  ^on  all  ^htfnfts,  that  Ite  Wte  'a 

most  sobfle  adversary,  ^perfectly  vei^sed  in  all  -ihfe  ttrt^  '6f 

'Gfontroversy,  and  as  iearneil  as  ;be  Wste  ingeriious  :  so  that 

it  IB  no  wonAesr  if  the  prhnitiVe  Chtii^tians  thought  ndthiKig 

less  than  ^udb  a  cfaatnpion  as  Origen  "sl  fftartch  ^iPbr  hiitt. 

ATthoxigh  he  sometiriies  re'ctrrs  to  QPlatanic  and  Stoic  tnodes 

of  reasonitrg,  lie  is  exptessly  rai/ked  by  Ludan,  as  wefl  ais 

t>rigen,  antong  tlie  Epicureans ;  and  this  isuppositidn  best 

aeeotitits  for  tte  tiolence  wiA  which  he  oppos'ed  ttie  <5hris- 

tian  teKgion ;  for  an  Epicurean  would  of  course  reject, 

without  examination,  vSl  pretensions  to  divine  communl- 

tiations  xjt  powers.     Yet  his  hostility,  or  iftre  great  pains  hfe 

took  tx>  Ai^ipfoy  it,  affords  sonie^trotigtestioionres  infavbti'r 

of  the  ChriBtian  religion,  as  may  be  seen  in  Ltirdn^r,  and 

other  writers.  * 

CELTKS  (Oonhad),  a  Larin  poet,  called  also  Pirotu- 
cms  and  MEissfei^  was  bom  at  Sweinftirt  tiear  Wertzbilr^ 
in  145*^,  and  died  at  Vienna  iti  1508^  iafter  haVitig  gained 
the  potftic  laured.  He  has  left,  1.  **pdes,*'  Strasburg, 
l^lS,  Svo.  2.  **  Ei^Tgiranis,'*  and  apoein  on  the  manneris 
of  the  Gtermans,  5(610,  «vto.  S.  *  An  'historical  accpunt 
of  th^  dity  of  Nuretnbefg,^'  Strasbarg,  1513,  4't6;  atid 
various  ottrer  WoAs,  enutnei*'atfed  by  Morefi,  aft  tn  Latin. 
Be  was  not  deficient  in  the  sallies  of  imagln^tioln,  though 
not  exempt  ft-om  the  deflects  of  the  age  in  which  he  wrotd. 
He  i*  censurable  for  neg<ig^nte  in  poilit  of  style,  and  with 
preferring  eentiments  motie  for  their  brilliahcy  than  theiir 
solidity.  His  four  books  in  elegiac  verse,  on  the  same 
nmnber  of  mistresses  h^  boasb  to  nave  hud,  were  published 
at  Nurctaberg  in  1 5i04,  4'to.  This  volume  is  scarce.  The 
emperor  Maximilian  made  him  his  librarian,  and  granted 
him  the  privilege  of  conferring  the  poetic  crown  on  whom- 
soever he  judged  worthy  of  it.  • 

GENE.     See  LE  CENE. 

CENSOHINUS,  a  celebrated  critic,  chronologer,  iahti- 
quary,  and  gtanimarian,  for  such  Ptiscian  calls  him,  Sou- 

*       ■  > 

*  Lardner's  Worki,  toI.  VIII.-^-Dupin.— Bru(^er.-*-Mo5heiQi.— «Cavf. 

?8  C  E  N  S  O  R  I  N  U  S. 

risbed  ^t  Rome  iii  the  time  of  Alexander  Severus,  and  ia 
§uppQse4  to  have  been  of  the  Martian  family.  Hi&  talents 
as ,  a  grammarian  appear  only  in  his  book  ^^  concerning 
Accents,"  frequently  cited  by  Sidonius  ApoUinaris,  and 
other  things,  which  are  lost ;  and  not  in  his  *^  De  die 
patali,"  which  is  the  only  piece  remaining  of  him.  This 
treatise  was  written  about  the  year  238,  and  dedicated  to 
Quintus  Cerellius,  ^  Roman  of  the  equestrian  order,  of 
^hom  he  speaks  very  highly  in  bis  15tb  chapter.  Vossius, 
in  one  place,  calls  this  *^  a  little  book  of  gold ;"  and,j  in 
another,  declares  it  to  be  "  a  most  learned  work,  s^nd  of 
the  highest  use  and  importance  to  chronologers,  since  it 
connects  and  determines  with  great  exactness  some  princi- 
pal asras  in  history.'*  It  is  however  a  work  of  a  miscellane- 
ous nature,  and  treats  of  antiquities  as  well  as  chronology. 
It  was  printed  at  Han^bargh  in  1614,  with  a  commentary 
by  Lindenbrog,  \vhose  notes  were  adopted  afterwards  in 
an  edition  printed  at  Cambridge,  in  1695;  and  there  is 
an  edition  by  Hav^rcamp,  1743,^  reprinted  ^t  Leydei\,  1767, 
Svo.  Sir  Jol^n  Hawkins  has  translate4  Censorinu^'s  re- 
marks on  music,  which  are  curious.  ^ 

CENTLIVRE  (Susannah),  an  ingenious  dramatic  wri- 
ter, was  daughter  of  Mr.  Freeman,  a  gentleman  of  Hol- 
beach  in  Lincolnshire,  and  was  born  about  the  yeair  1667* 
Her  father  had  been  possessed  of  an  estate  of  no  inco/v- 
;^iderable  value ;  but  being  a  dissenter,  and  having  disco- 
vered a  jealous  attachment  to  the  cause  of  the  parliament, 
was  at  the  restoration  under  a  necessity  of  flying  into  Ire- 
'land^  and  his  estate  was  confiscated.  Our  poetesses  mother 
was  daughter  of  Mr.  Markham,  a  gentleman  of  fortune  at 
Lynn  Regis  in  Norfolk,  who  is  represented  as  having  en- 
countered similar  misfortyn^s  with  those  of  Mr.  Free- 
man, in  consequence  of  his  political  principles,  which 
were  the  same  wit^i  those  of  that  gentleman,  and  he 
also  was  obliged  tp  take  refuge  in  Ireland^  The  subject 
of  this  article  i^  asserted  to  have  been  born  in  Lincoln- 
shire; but  some  have  conjectured  that  she  was  born  in 
Ireland,  which  may,  not  improbably,  have  been  the  cas^, 
if  her  birth  was  so  late  as  ]  667.  The  editor,  ho\rever,  of 
sir  James  Ware^s  Works  does  not  claim  her  as  an  Irish 
writer.  She  had  the  unhappiness  to  lose  her  father  before 
she  was  three  years  old,  and  her  mother  before  she  lia^ 
completed  her  twelfth  year.     At  an  early  period  she  dis-« 

}  M^rtri.— 'Diet  llj9t,«»Hair]uas'8  Hist,  of  Mttsit.r-«Saxu  Oi>«fiiaitico|i, 


covered  a  propensity  to  poetry,  and  is  said  to  have  written 
a  song  before  she  was  seven  years  old. 

Being  harshly  treated  by  those  to  whose  care  she  wa$ 
committed  after  the  death  of  her  mother,  she  resolved, 
whilst  very  young,  to  quit  the  country,  and  to  go  up  to 
London  to  seek  her  fortune.  The  circumstances  of  her  life 
at  this  period  are  involved  in  much  obscurity,  and  the  par-  « 
ticulars  which  are  related  seem  somewhat  romantic.  It  is 
said  that  she  attempted  her  journey  to  the  capital  alone, 
and  on  foot,  and  on  her  way  thither  was  met  by  Anthony 
Hammond,  esq.  father  of  the  author  of  the  "  Love  Ele- 
gies." This  gentleman,  who  was  then  a  member  of  the 
university  of  Cambridge,  was  struck  with  her  youth  and 
beauty,  and  offered  to  take  her  under  his  protection.  Her 
distress  and  inexperience  inducing  her  to  comply  with  bis 
proposal,  she  accompanied  him  to  Cambridge,  where, 
iiaving  equipped  her  in  boy's  clothes,  4ie  introduced  her 
to  his  intimates  at  college,  as  a  relation  who  was  come 
down  to  see  the  university,  and  to  pass  some  time  with 
him.  Under  this  disguise  an  amorous  intercourse  was  car- 
ried on  between  them  for  some  months;  but  at  lengthy 
being  probably  apprehensive  that  the  affair  would  become 
known  in  the  university,  he  persuaded  her  to  go  to  Lon- 
don. He  provided  her,  however,  with  a  considerable  sum 
of  money,  and  recommended  her  by  letter  to  a  lady  in 
town  with  whom  he  was  acquainted.  He  assured  her  at 
the  same  time,  that  he  would  speedily  follow  her^  and  re- 
new their  connection.  This  promise  appears  not  to  have 
been  performed  :  but  notwithstanding  her  unfavourable  in- 
troduction into  life,  she  was  married  in  her  sixteenth  year 
to  a  nephew  of  sir  Stephen  Fox,  who  did  not  live  more 
than  a  twelvemonth  after  their  marriage ;  but  her  wit  a,ad 
personal  attractions  soon  procured  her  another  husband, 
whose  name  was  Carrol,  who  was  an  officer  in  the  army, 
but  who  was  killed  in  a  duel  about  a  year  and  a  half  after 
their  marriage,  when  she  became  a  second  time  a  widow 
•She  is  represented  as  having  a  sincere  attachment  to  Mr. 
Carrol,  and  consequently  as  having  felt  his  loss  as  a  severe 

.  It.was  at  this  period  of  her  life  that  she  commenced  dra- 
matic  author ;  to  which  she  wa^  probably  in  some  degree 
induped  by  the  narrowness  other  circumstanceau  Some  of 
her  earlier  pieces  were  published  under  the  name  of  Cay- 
roK  Her  first  attempt  was  in  tragedy,  in  ^  play  called 
"  The  Perjured  Hdsband/'  which  was  performed  atDrury- 

4a  CENTLIVRj:. 

lane  Theatre  in  1700,  and  published  in  4to  the  saine 
yeiar.  In  1703,  she  produced  **  The  Beau's  Duel,  or  a 
Soldier  for  the  Ladie^,  a  comedy  ;'*  and  "  Love's  Contri- 
vances,'^ which  is  chiefly  a  translation  from  Moliere;  ai^d 
the  following  year  another  comedy,  entitled  "  The  Stolen 
Heiress,  or  the  Salamanca  Doctor  outwitted."  In  1705, 
ber  comedy  of  "  The  Gamester"  was  acted  at  Lincoln's- 
inn-fields,  which  met  with  considerable  success,  and  has 
since  been  revived  at  DruryJane.  The  plot  of  this  piece 
was  chiefly  borrowed  from  a  French  comedy,  called  **  Le 
Dissipateur."     The  Prologue  was  written  by  Mr.  Rowe. 

Her  attachment  to  the  theatre  was  so  great,  that  she 
not  only  distinguished  herself  as  a  writer  for  it,  but  also 
became  a  performer  on  it;  though  she  probably  did  not 
attain  to  any  great  merit  as  an  actress,  as  she  fieems  never 
to  have  played  at  the  theatres  of  the  metropolis.  But  in 
1706,  we  are  told,  she  performed  the  part  of  Alexander 
the  Great,  in  Lee's  Rival  Queens,  at  Windsor,  where  thp 
court  then'  was;  and  in  this  heroic  character,  st\e  made 
so  powerful  an  impression  upon  the  heart  of  Mr.  Joseph 
Centlivre,  yeoman  of  the  mouth,  or  principal  c^olt  to 
queen  Anne,  that  he  soon  after  married  her,  and  with  hiqi 
she  lived  happily  till  her  death. 

The  same  year  in  which  she  married  Mr,  Centlivre,  she 
produced  the  comedies  of  the  "  Basset-table,"  and  **  Love- 
at  a  venture."  The  latter  was  acted  by  the  duke  of  Graf- 
ton's servants,  at  the  new  theatre  at  Bath.  In  1708,  ber 
most  celebrated  performance,  "  The  Busy  Body,"  was 
acted  at  Drury-lane  theatre.  It  met  at  first  with  so  un- 
favourable a  reception  from  the  players,  that  for  a .  time 
they  even  refused  to  act  in  it,  and  were  not  prevailed  upon 
to  comply  till  towards  the  close  of  the  season  ;  and  even 
then  Mr.  Wilks  shewed  so  much  contempt  for  the  part  of 
air  George  Airy^  as  to  throw  it  down  on  the  stage,  at  the 
rehearsal,  with  a  declaration,  ^'  that  no  audience  would 
endure  such  stuff."  But  the  piece  was  received  with  the 
greatest  applause  by  the  audience,  and  still  keeps  posses- 
sion of  the  stage.  In  1711,  she  brought  on  at  Drury-lane 
theatre,  **  Marplot,  or  the  second  part  t)f  the  Busy  Body." 
This  play,  though  much  inferior  to  the  former,  met  widi 
a  favourable  reception ;  and  the  duke  of  Portland,  to  whom 
it  was  dedicated,  made  Mrs.  Centlivre  a  present  of  forty 
guineas.  Her  comedy  of  "  A  Bold  Stroke  for  a  Wife,'* 
was  performed  at  Lincoln's-Inn  Fields  in  1717.  She  was 
assisted  in  this  play  by  Mr.  Mottley,  who  wrote  a  scene  Qr 

G  £  N  ^  ^  /  V  ^  B.  4a 

tm  fin%pE^y^  JL  wits  .exttemeiy  nejIX  rfcetv^^  ^^A  9  )Still 
ireguently  jxerfowted^  tbovigh  Mr.  Wilks  .b^  sd^  {^t4F- 
,tauie4  <a  vei:y  4iQfavaurab)e  op^^a  ,of  it.  jponde^  ^de 
«|iich  Jbftye  fa^eii  jJr^f^dy  ,qieati9f>ed,  «sbe  also  jprodiiQeil 
i^areral  other  ^^aoiatic  {pieces,  ^nus^er^d  M  ^  SiifH 
^pbia  Drs^o^tjicfi. 

Mrs.  C^atlivr^  .eiypy^ed,  fqr  ,mapy  yr6fwrs,  tfce  iutiwicy 
^d  esteepa.of  ^Q^nexi^  xhe  «aQst  eminent  wits. of  the^t^mt, 
jmrticularly  sir  Bicbard  Stqale,  Mr.  ^we,  JDr.  Sa.well^  #nd 
Mr.  Farqu^ar.  .fu^taQe  Qudgell  was  -^l^o  jof  the  niio^r 
of  ik^  acq^aii^ance.  But  ^be  bad  tbe  miijfbiauQe  to  ioqiyr 
.the  displeasure  of  Mr.  Pope,  w^o  introduced  ber  into  ibe 
])uM[iciad,  for  baviiig  writtien  41  bal|lad  agai\>st  bis  H^mer. 
$he  died  ifi  SprAi;ig-^gardeny  cCbaring.->cA>ss,  on  tbe'^ir^t  ntf 
Decefxjk&c^  1723,  and  ivas  b^ri^d  ^  St  Martinis  in  tbe 
jFidds.  Sbe  ^posse^ed  a  considerable  share  of  be^Mi^y^  »^iis 
oi  a  friendly  and  beuev^ql^nt  dispo^iti^n^  -^nd  in  co^ensar 
iioa  was  uprightly  a^4  en4;er4;aiuing.  tier  lixe^d^y  §c%m9if 
tio\^&  app^ear  tQ  ba«ve  heeja  ij^ereLy  tbe  r<esjult  of  ber  qw»  »pr- 
plication ;  hm  sbe  is  &npj])Ofed  to  biaTe  ui^derstood  the 
jFrench,  I^uitcb^  and  Spanish  iangiu^e^  ^qd  tp  Ip^a^e  bad 
soiAe^i;io\i^ledge  <lf  tbe  Latii^.  An  extensive  ^cqii^int^tnoe 
with  men  and  -ipanners  is  e?cbibited  in  iher  dramatic  wri- 
tings; but  they  at/e  sonxetim^s  justly  qeiniriirable  for  timt 
bcentiou^^ess.  In  1761,  ber  draijnatic  wc^ks  were  cpK 
iect^d  together,  and  printed  in  tbre^  volumes  l^mo.  She 
was  also  the  author  of  5'  several  copies  of  verses  on  diven 
subjects  and  oc^ca^iop^,  and  ipany  ing<enious  letters,  en^- 
titled,  Letters  of  Wit,  Politics,  a^nd  Morality,"  which  were 
collected  and  pijibUsbed  by  Mr.  Boypr.  ^ 

CENTO  RIO  (AsfiAmm),  of  an  illnstrious  faqaily  of 
MiI«M),  but  prpgipaily  of  Romp,  bore  arnis  in  the  sixteenth 
century,  in  wbicb  be  i^ras  as  much  the  philosopher  as  tbe 
soldier.  He  tool^  advantage  of  the  leisure  afforded  him  by 
tbe  p/^ace,  to  xefiufc^  to  pr4er  4^e  military  and  historical 
memoirs  be  bad^Uected  during  sthe  tumult  of  war.  They 
ve  very  mmcb  e^eem^d  in  Italy^  not  less  for  their  escel* 
knee  than  their  r^ity*  They  ap^peared  at  Venice  in 
1565  and  1569,  in  2  vols.  4tO!,  commonly  bound  in  one; 
Tiie  former,  .in  six  books,  treats  of  the  wars  of  TransUva^ 
ni?,  and  the  other  of  thos^  of  bi^  time  in  eigbt  books.  He' 
wrote  also  some  poems,  and  treatises  on  the  military  art^ 
ip  Italian  apd  Latin. ' 

I  Siog.  Beit.— <;ibber'8  Lives.  «  Diet  Hist— Haym  BibL  Ital. 


42  C  E  R  A  T  I  N  U  S. 

CERATINUS  (James),  whose  family  name  was  Teyttg, 
which  he  exchanged  for  Ceratinus,  from  uifog,  horn,  an 
ttUnsion  to  Horn  or  Hoorn  in  Holland,  was  born  there  in 
the  beginning  of  the  sixteenth  century.  It  appears  from 
Erasmus's  letters,  that  he  thought  Ceratinus  one  of  the 
most  profound  scholars  in  Greek  and  Latin  which  the  age 
afforded ;  yet,  when  he  came  to  be  ordained  priest  at 
Utrecht,  he  was  rejected  for  ignorance  of  the  rules  of 
grammar ;  but  when  the  examiners  understood  that  he  had 
given  superior  proofs  of  learning,  they  re-called  him, 
pleaded  that  they  were  obliged  to  certain  forms  in  their 
examination,  and  granted  him  letters  of  ordination.  On 
the  recommendation  of  Erasmus,  George,  elector  of  Sax*- 
ony,  appointed  him  to  succeed  Mosellanus  in  his  profes- 
sorship at  Leipsic ;  and  on  this  occasion  Erasmus  declared 
that  he  was  worth,  in  point  of  learning,  ten  such  as  Mo- 
sellanus. He  was  also  offered  the  Greek  professorship  in 
the  college  of  three  languages  at  Louvain.  At  Leipsic  he 
did  not  meet  with  the  reception  he  deserved,  owing  to  its 
being  suspected  that  he  had  imbibed  Lutheran  principles* 
He  died  at  Louvain  April  10,  1530,  in  the  flower  of  his 
age.  His  works  were,  A  very  elegant  translation  of 
Chrysostom's  "  Treatise  concerning  the  Priesthood  ;'*  art 
improved  edition  of  the  "  Graeco- Latin  Lexicon/*  printed 
by  Froben,  in  1524,  with  a  preface  by  Erasmus;  and  a 
treatise  "  De  Sono  Greecarum  Literarum,"  printed  in  1 529, 
Svo,  with  a  dialogue  from  the  pen  of  Erasmus  on  pronun^ 
ciation.  These  were  reprinted  by  Havercarop  in  .  his 
*5  Sylloge  Scriptorum,'*  or  collection  of  commentators  ott 
the  pronunciation  of  the  Greek,  Leyden,  1736.  * 

CERCEAU  (John  Antony  du),  a  French  Jesuit,  was 
born  at  Paris  in  1670,  and  was  early  distinguished  by 
spirit,  vivacity,  and  a  turn  for  poetry,  which,  while  he 
wrote  in  Latin,  procured  him  considerable  repntatioiK 
This,  however,  he  forfeited  by  his  French  verses,  in  imi- 
tation of  Marot,  in  which  he  mistook  burlesque  and  trifling, 
for  the  fdmiliar  and  simple.  He  wrote  also  some  theatrical 
pieces  of  an  inferior  order;  but  was  more  successful  in  his 
**  Defense  de  la  Poesie  Francoise,^'  and  other  dissertations 
on  the  same  subject  He  wrote  also,  1.  "  L*Histoire  d6 
Thamas  Kouli-Kan^  sopbi  de  Perse,''  Amsterdam,   1741', 

»  Morcri. — Geo.   Diet.— Foppen  BibI,   Be1{p.--Baillet  Jugemens.-^Jortin'a 
^rfisnias.  ^ 

C  E  K  C  E  A  U.  43 


2  vols,  12mo«  2.  ^<  Histoire  de  la  Conjuration  de  RienzV 
12mo,  which  was  completed  by  father  Brumoy.  S.  A  cri- 
ticism on  the  abb6  Boileau's  *^  History  of  the  Flagellants.** 
fie  contributed  also  a  great  many  papers  to  the  Journal  de 
TrevouXy  and  was  long  engaged  in  a  controversy  with  one 
of  the  authors  of  the  Journal  des  Savans,  occasioned  by 
two  dissertations  printed  at  the  end  of  the  second  volume 
of  Sannadon's  Horace,  relative  to  a  passage  in  Horace 
concerning  the  music  of  the  ancients.  This  produced  from 
Cerceau  some  valuable  essays  on  the  subject  His  Latin 
poetry  was  published  in  1696,  12mo,  under  the  title 
^^  Varia  de  variis  argumentis  Carmina  a  multis  e  societate 
Jesii."  The  other  authors  in  this  volume  are  Vaniere  and 
Tarillon.  In  1807,  his  dramatic  pieces  were  reprinted  at 
Paris,  in  3  vols.  18mo,  under  the  title  ^^  Theatre  k  T usage 
des  colleges.''  He  died  suddenly  in  1730,  atVeret,  near 
Tours. ' 

CERDA  (John  Lewis),  a  Spanish  Jesuit,  and  native  of 
Toledo,  who  entered  among  the  Jesuits  in   1574,  was  a 
man  of  great  learning,  and,  as  his  brethren  have  repre- 
sented him,  of  as  great  simplicity  and  candour.     He  distin- 
guished himself  by  several  productions ;  and  the  fame  of 
his  parts  and  learning  was  so  great,  that  Urban  VIIL  is 
said  to  have  had  hia picture  in  his  cabinet;  and,  when  that 
pope  sent  his  nephew  cardinal  Barberini  ambassador  into 
Spain,  it  was  part  of  his  business  to  pay  Cerda  a  visit,  and 
to  assure  him  of  the  pope's  esteem.     Cerda's  ^*  Commen- 
taries upon  Virgil,"  Paris,   1624 — 1641,  3  vols.  fol.  con- 
tain  many  useful  and  learned  remarks,  buried,  however, 
in  a  multitude  of  what  are  superfluous  and  trifling.     Bailiet 
says,  there  are  some  good  things  in  them,  and  some  very 
inoderate.     His  Commentaries  upon  the  works  of  "  Tel*- 
tullian,"  begun  in  2  vols,  but  not  flnished,  have  not  been 
so  much  esteemed;  Dupin  says,  they  are  long  and  te- 
dious,   full*  of  digressions  and   explications  of  passages 
which  are  too  clear  to  need  any  explaining.     There  is  also 
P.f  CerdaVs  a  volume  of  "  Adversaria  Sacra,"  printed  in 
folio  at  Lyons,  inl626.    He  died  in  1643,  aged  above  80.* 
CERDO,  a  &mous  Heresiarch,  who  lived  at  the  end  of 
the  first,  or  beginning  of  the  second  century,  is  said  to 
bave  maintaiBei  the  existence  of  i^wo  gods,  one  good,  the 

Preator  of  heaven,   the  other  bad,  and  Creator  of  the 


}  Moreri.-rDtcL  Bjjfkt  9  Moreri. — Dopin. 

A^  c  «  a  s>  o. 

eeoxtb  9  tto^bavie  reacted  ^iie  lw!9  ibe  prophets,  and  iU  tlie 
New  Testament,  e^qit  pnvt  of  Sit.  lAi)ie'«  iffo^pfAj  uttd 
.«Qme  of  St  P^ufs  ^i»tle«.    He  is  dd^o  aaid  no  bAMehemk 
JAaccion'9  master ^^  but  k  ris  oiucfa  mope  probdble  tkat  ihe 
yv^  only  liis  4i8cifile,  if,  i^  is  «taened,  be  taught  ftbattfaie 
lody  .assumed  by  ^/e&ns  Christ  «iias.a<pfaamoin,  i.  e.  on  i^- 
i)areat  body^  but  ii«t  »  neal  lone,  ^oomposed  of  Aedk  md 
l)one9  lijbe  ibe  JbunM^n  body;  «Md  aU  the  avcient  witers 
.c41  Mardou  the  autjbor  lof  ibb  hecesy.    Tfa^  repovt  af 
Cer^to^s  baviag  i^e^^acted  k\»j&ft^KCs  15  doubted  iby  Xardmer, 
who  gives  a  very  .^Map^lie  s^oooant  Kof  ibiai  aad  his  epimoos.  ^ 
CEBjNTHUSy.aQ  anoi«otfaeoeitic,ivias  contem^vary  with 
^t.  John  tow9T48  ^he  .end  of  the  /firait,  imt  «be  oomtnenoe* 
4neat  of  tbe^eGOud  <)eotwry.    fie  as  said  itn  have  beeu  a 
Jeiy,  educated  at  Alexandria,  but  uesident  ai  AofUock. 
Authors  differ  as  tp  hi^  fatral  character,  but .  Dr.  Lardaer 
has  found  nothing  of  a  vicious  kind  imputed  to  him.     With 
respect  to  liis  o{Nnioits,.he  asoiribed  the  creatien  of  the 
world,  and  <thp  legislatMre  of  tbe  Jews,  to^  cveatei  Saueing, 
virho  derived  from  the  SupreiMe  .God  jextcaordinaffy  vir- 
tues  ajDid   powers,   but  afterwards .  hecane  apostate  attd 
degraded.     He  si^posed  that  Jeans  was   a  mere   nan, 
born  of  Joseph  am  Mary ;  but  that,  in  his  baptism,  the 
Holy  Ghost,  or  the  Cbrist,  who  was  ooe  of  the  ^oos,  de- 
scended upon  him  in  the  form  of  a  dove ;  and  that  iie  wos 
commissioned  to  oppose  the  degenerate  god  of  the  Jeivs, 
aod  to  destroy  his  empire,     hi  consequence  of  which,  by 
bis  instigajtioo,  the  man  Jesas  was  seized  smd  cracified^ 
but  Christ  ascended  up  on  high,  without  suffering  at  aii^ 
He  recoinmended  to  bis  followers  the  worship  of  tbe  Su^ 
pxeipe  God  in  conjunction  with  his  Son ;  he  required  tfaeon 
to  abandon  the  lawgiver  of  the  Jews ;  and  though  they 
were  permitted  to  retain  circumcisioB  and  the  rites  q£  th^ 
Mosaic  law,  and,  according  to  Jerom,  this  was  the  piinci- 
pal  error  of  Cerinthus^  that  he  was  for  joining  the  law  widi 
the  gospel ;  yet  they  were  to  make  the  pcecepts  of  Christ 
tbe  rule  of  their  conduct.     For  th^r  encouragement,  he 
promised  them  the  i*csurrection  of  die  body  $  after  which 
the  millennium  was  to  commence  under  the  government  of 
Christ  united  to  the  man  Jesus :  and  this  he  represented 
^s  consisting  in  eating  and  drinking,  nuptial  entertain* 
ments^  and  other  festivities.    Cerinthus'  opinions,  however, 

>  Urimt'%  Works,  vol.  UL^Mosheim. 

HINT  WTJ>8.  i^ 

mm  mitlepariaBi)  hare  been  doubted  hy>  some^  aiid^  the 
qoestioii  is  accurately  ebcamiQed  by  Larckier,   rilAiotlgKf 
nidi  some  degree?  of  leming  toivrards  Ceniithtii^S'Optmoii^ 
of  J^QsGfarist.  ^ 
GBMSANTE.     See  DUNCAN-  (Mahk)- 
6ERQ0Qi3ZI  (Michael.  Anghlo),  an  emmfent  pointer; 
called'  Ml  A;  m  Baittagub^  from  hift  esicellence  iii  p^ieiN' 
iBg^'battlesy  aad  B&BiBOCcrATE,  ^om  his  toni  for  {Mating- 
ninketSy  fain^  &Qi  Was  born  at  Bxyme  in '1*600,  ot  1609. 
His  fether^  a  j^i^-vller,  perceiving' hU  disponitroHf  to  th^i 
art^  placed  Uioi' with  Jiames  d^As^,  a  FlembU  painter,  theft' 
iirccedit  at  Rome;  after  three  years  study  \tith  hkn,  be' 
weut  to  the  school  of  P:  P:  Cortonese,  wliom  he  quitted  to- 
bMtne  tbet  diisciple  and  imitator  of  Bamboocio.     We  sur- 
pa^d  all  his>  fellevr-students  in  taste,  and  hadv  a  mahnep  of 
punting'  peculiar  to  himself.     His  chearfiil  tempet^-  apr 
p««red*  in' hi6  pictures,  in  which  ridicule  wai  strongly  re^- 
piiisentftd.     Tii)e  facility  of  his  pencil  was  such,  that*  on 
tUa  recital '  of  a  -  battle,  a:  sfaip wreck,  ot  any  uticonMoa 
fipfre,  be  could  express  it  directly  on  his  canvas.     His 
cdoaring  was  vigorous,  and  his  touch  lightir     H<e  never* 
QHide  des^ns  or  sketches,  bat  only  retouched  his  pictures^- 
until  he  had  brought  them  to  all  the  perfection  of  whicbhe 
was:capable;     Snch  was  his  reputation  thkt  he'cotild  hardly 
soppily. the  commissions  he  received^  and  he  became-  so- 
rioh  that  the  cares  of  wealth  begcin  to  perplesc  bin>.     He 
00' end  occasion  toofc  all  his  wealth  to  a  retired  place  in - 
order  to  bury  it,  but  when  he  arrived,  was  so  alarmed' lest 
it  should  be  fbund,  that  he-  brought  it  back,  with  much 
trouble^  and  ba^i^ing  been  two  nights  and  a>  dlty  without 
sleep  or  sustenautse,   this,  it  is  ss^,  injured^  his  health, 
awl  brought  on  a  violent  fever  which  proved  fatal  in  1660. 
Hilr  personal  character  is  highly  praisedi     Mr.  Fuseli  says, 
that  he  differs  from  Bamboccio'  in  the  character  and'phy^ 
siogfiomy  of  his  figures;  instead-  of  Dutch  or  flettisfh 
mobs,  be  painted  those  of  Italy^     Both  artists  have  strbng- 
and  vmi  tints ;  Bambocciq  i^  superior  td  him  in  landscape^ 
andihe-ekcells^  Bamboecio  in  the  spiritf  of  his  figvlres.     One 
oft  bis  mt»st  copious  workd  i^itt'the  palace  Spada  at  Rome, 
in  which  hehas  represented  an  army  of  fanatic  Laz^dt^ni, 

wli(^  shout  appl  ause  t»':Mtt8imidld.  *  < 


*  lardner. — Moebeim. — Gen.  Diet 

*  iurjtf's  Lives  o/  Pataters^-«Afff <1pvil|e,  ?oK  I.— *Pi!kingtOn. 

46  G  E  R  R  A  T  L 

GERRATIj  or  CERATO  (Paul),  a  lawyer  and  Latin 
poet,  was  born  of  the  noble  fimily  of  Alba  in  Lombardy, 
in  1485,  and  died  in  1541.  He  composed  a  heroic  poem 
in  three  books,  entitled  "  De  Virginitate,"  Paris,  1629  ; 
and  a  long  "  Epithalamium^*  of  55S  verses  on  the  marriage 
of  William  IX.  marquis  of  Montferrat  with  Anne  of  Alen- 
9on  in  1508,  of  which  there  have  been  several  editions. 
Scaiiger  and  Baillet  speak  highly  of  him  as  a  Latin  poet, 
but  according  to  their  account  bis  style  was  too  lofty  and 
pompous,  as  he  was  apt  to  describe  a  fly  in  as  solemn  terms 
as  he  would  a  hero.  His  works  are  in  the  "  Delicise  Poe- 
tarum  Ital."  but  were  more  recently  published  separately 
by  Vemazza  in  1778,  with  a  life  of  the  author. '         , 

CERVANTES  SAAVEDRA  (Miguel  de),  the  author 
of  Don  Quixote,  was  born  at  Alcala  de  Henares  in  1547. 
He  was  the  son  of  Rodrigo  de  Cervantes  and  Donna  Leo* 
nora  de  Cortinas,  and  baptised  Sunday,  Oct.  9  of  that 
year,  as  appear/'from  the  parish  register  of  Santa  Maria  la 
Mayor  in  Alcala,  Several  concurring  testimonies  furnished 
the  clue  for  this  discovery,  although  six  other  places,  Se- 
ville, Madrid,  Esquivias,  Toledo,  Lucena,  and  Alcazac^ 
de  San  Juan,  called  him  their  son,  and  each  had  their  ad- 
vocates to  support  their  claims,  in  which  respect  his  fame 
resembles  that  of  Homer's.  His  parents  designed  him  for 
tbe  profession  of  letters,  and  although  he  had  at  home  the 
opportunity  of  instruction  in  the  university,  be  studied 
Latin  in  Madrid.  He  afterwards  resided  there  in  156S^ 
but  two  years  afterwards  we  find  him  at  Rome  in  tbe  ser- 
vice of  cardinal  Aquaviva  in  the  capacity  of  chamberlain. 
Some  time  after  this,  pope  Pius  V.  Philip  IL  of  Spain,  and 
the  republic  of  Venice,  united  in  a  league,  which  was  con* 
eluded  May  29,  1571,  against  Selim  the  grand  Turk. 
Cervantes,  not  satisfied  with  an  idle  court  life,  desirous  of 
military  renown,  determined  to  commence  soldier.  Marco 
Antonio  Colonna  being  appointed  general  of  the  pope^s 
galleys,  Cervantes  went  with  him,  and  was  present  in  the 
famous  battle  of  Lepanto,  where  he  was  so  wounded  in  his 
left  hand  by  a  gun-shot  as  totally  to  lose  the  use  of  it;  but 
he  thought  this  such  an  honour,  that  he  afterwards  declared 
he  would  rather  have  been  present  in  this  glorious  enter- 
prise, than  to  be  whole  in  his  limbs^  and  not  to  have  been 
there  at  all. 

»  Moi«ri.^Dtct  Hkt 


Colonna  returned  to  Rome  in  the  end  of  1572,  land  it  is 
probable  that  Cervantes  was -with  him,  as  he  tells  us  that 
for  some  years  b^  followed  his  conquering  banners.     He 
was  ordered  to  join  his  regiment  at  Naples,  notwithstanding 
his  being  maimed.     In  his  '^.Viage  del  Parnaso^*'  he  tells 
us  that  he  walked  its  streets  more  than  a  year :  and  in  the 
copy  of  bis  ransom,  it  appears  that  he  was  there  a  long 
time.     Don  J.  A.  Pellicer  supposes  that  in  this  city  he  em- 
ployed his  leisure  hours  in  cultivating  his  knowledge  of  the 
Italian  tongue,  and  in  reading  of  its  good  writers,  with 
whom  he  appears  conversant  in  his  works.     As  he  was  gO'* 
ing  from  Naples  to  Spain  on  board  the  galley  of  the  Sun, 
Sept.  26,  1575,  he  had  the  misfortune  to  fall  into  the  hands  > 
of  the  Moors,  who  carried  him  captive  to  Algiers;     The 
several  hardships  he  underwent  in  his  five  years'  captivity 
are  noticed  by  a  contemporary  writer:  apd  though  the 
events  mentioned  in  the  story  of  "  The  Captive,*'  in  the 
first  part  of  Don  Quixote,  cannot  strictly  be  applied  to 
himself,  yet  they  could  hardly  have  been  so  feelingly  de- ' 
scribed  but  by  one  who  had  been  a  spectator  of  such  treat-* 
ment  as  he  relates.     Several  extraordinary  and  dangerous 
attempts  were  made  by  him  and  his  companions  to  obtain 
their  liberty,  which  was  effected  at  last  by  the  regular  way 
of  ransom,  which  took  place  Sept.  19,  1580.     The  price  t 
was  500  escudos;  towar4s. which  \iis  mother,  a  widow,  con- 
tributed 250  ducats,  and  bis  sister  50. 

Upon  his  return  to  Spain  in  the  spring  of  the  year  fol- 
lowing, he  fixed  his  residence  in  Madrid,  where  his  mother 
and  sister  then  lived.  Following  his  own  inclination  to 
letters,  he  gave  himself  up  anew  to  the  reading  of  every 
kind  of  books,  Latin,  Spanish,,  and  Italian,  acquiring  hence 
a  great  stock  of  various  erudition.  The  first  product  of  Jiis 
genius  was  his  ^^*  Galatea,"  which  he  published  in.  1584, 
and  on  Dec.  12  of  the, same  year  he  m^arried  at  Esquivias, 
Donna  Catalina  de  Salazar  ^y  Palacipsf.  Madrid  was  still 
his  place  pf  residence  in.  the  years  158^5 — 6  and  7.  He 
turned  his  studies  to  the  theatres,  tor  wbicjii  he  wrote 
sev^ralpieces,  which  have  never  yet  been  published.  In 
fteyear  1596,  he  lived  in  Seville,  and.  wrote  an  ironical 
sonnet  upon  the  duke  of  Medina^s  triumphal  entry  into 
Cadiz,  after,  the  earl  of  ^  Essex  had  plundered  and  left  the 
place.  Probably  Cervantes  had  a  respect  for  the  English 
from  this  event.  In  the  fourth  of  his  novels  which  takes  its . 
rise  hence,  he  introduces  La  Espan'ola  Inglesa  to  our  queen 

4b:  c  fi  r'  V  a  n  t  fi  a 

Elizabeth,'  wHo  gives^  het  at  \^^ty'  cordial  reideption,  atid 
faicbher  speak  (to  her  ii^  Spatiisb.     In  iS9B  he  Was  still  in* 
Schdlle,  whete  he  wtDtef  a  sdntielt  upon  a  niajestic  tomb  ofi 
enormous  height,  to  cf4ebrat(S^  the  escequiek  of  Philip  If. 
which*  be  tbett'  spdbeofas  the  b^ortout  of  his  writings;     It 
is  probabiie  thee 'hef  had  reJatidrfiy  in  this'  rfty;  a*  the  illuS- 
tnoQS  family  c^  th^  Cervantes  y  Saaved^as  wai  established' 
here^     From  thift  yefer,  howieveri  there  is'a-void'  in  his  his- 
tery,  and  nothinig  more  i»  kndwhof  hirtr  till  1004'.     Some 
ha?e  heeU'  willito^  to  supply?  this'  defect^  aiud  suppose  him 
sent  upon'  b,^  commissions  to^  Toboso;    tfiat  the  natives' 
hrongbt  a  cfa^ge  against  hini,  threw  him  infto  prison,  and 
t'hat  he  in  rei^erttment  nKJde^Don  Quixote  and 'Duhcinea* 
Manchegans.     Certain  it  iii*  that*  he  describes  with  such' 
acciimcy  the*  chorography  of  that  province,  and  paints  with" 
such  marks  of  propriety'  tfie^mannersj  dresses,  ahd  customs 
of  its^native^s,  that  it  may  be  suspected* that'  he  had  be^n  an 
ey^-* witness  of  the  whole.     This  probably  is  the  whole 
foundation  of  the  conjecture,  for  there  is  no  do<iument  in 
proof  of  this,  or  any  other  appointment  of 'Cervantes  in  La 
Manefaa;     Whfet  is  certainly  known  is,  thdt  at  thb  begin- 
ning'of  the^se^'enteenth  century  he  was  in  prison,  but  for 
an  (^ence  (as  don  Gregorio  Mayans  observes)  which  could 
not  be  ignominious,  as  he  himself  make^  express  mention 
of  it    ^nd  ffotQ  the  same* testimony  it  is  known,  that  when 
in  this  prison^  he  wrote  his  history  of  "  Don  Quixote,'*  of 
which  he  |)abHshfed  the  first^  part  ai  Madrid  in  1605.  There. 
w«s«  set:ond  edition  of  this  in  1608,  at  the  sanie  place  and 
by  the  same  printer,  mucfr  corretted  and  '  improved,  no 
notieeof  which  is  taken'by  PieHibejr,  who  speaks  of  that  of 
Valentiaof  1605,  supposing  such  to  exist,  blit  which  he 
had  not  seen.     There  is-  another  of  Lisbon  in  1 605,  curious ' 
only  oA  the  score  of  its  gr^t  loppings  and'amputatidhs. 

In  16p6,  Cervantes  returned  firom  ValladfaKd  to  Madrid, 
wheiehe  passed  the  last  ten  years  of  his  life.'  In  1610,  his 
second  patron,  don  Pedro  Ferriaftde^  de  Castro,  count  of 
Leitiosf,  was  ifamed  viceroy  of  Kaples,  and  froufi  thence 
continued' to  him  his  protection  and  liberality:  and  the 
cardinal  don  Bernardo  de  Sandoval  y  Rojas,  archbishop  of  * 
Toledo,  after  the  example  of  his  cousin  the  count  of  Le-^ 
mos,  assigned  him  a  pension,  that  he  might  bear  witli^  les& 
inoonvenience  the  troubles  of  old  age.  Al^ough  Madrid 
was*  now  Cervantes^s  home,  he  passed  certain  seasons  in 
Esquivias^  eitheir  to  take  care  of  some  effects  of  hiirwife;  or 


to  avoid  the  noise  of  the  court,  and  to  enjoy  the  quiet  of 
"ihe  village,  which  afforded  him  opportunity  to  write  more 
at  bis  ease.  Availing  himself  of  this  convenience,  he  has- 
tenedj  as  he  was  advanced  in  years,  to  publish  the  greater 
part  of  his  works.  He  printed  his  "Novels"  in  1613; 
his  "Journey  to  Parnassus"  in  1614;  his  "Comedies  and. 
Interludes"  in  1615;  and  in  the  same  year  the  second 
part  of  his  "Don  Quixote."  He  finished  also  his  "  Per- 
silas  and  Sigismunda,"  which  was  not  published  till  after 
his  death.  In  the  mean  time  an  incurable  dropsy  seized 
bim,  and  gave  him  notice  of  his  approaching  dissolution, 
which  he  saw  with  Christian  constancy  and  with  a  cheerful 
couDtenance.  He  has  minutely  described  this  in  the  pro- 
logue to  his  posthumous  work.  One  of  his  late  biogra- 
phers says,  that  good-nature  and  candour,  charity,  hu- 
manity, and  compassion  for  the  infirmities  of  man  in  his 
abject  state,  and  consequently  an  abhorrence  of  cruelty, 
persecution,  and  violence,  the  principal  moral  he  seems  to 
inculcate  in  his  great  work,  were  the  glorious  virtues'^ and 
predominant  good  qualities  of  bis  soul,  and^must  transmit 
his  name  to  the  latest  ages  with  every  eulogium  due  to  so 
exalted  a  character.  At  length,  on  the  same  nominal  day 
with  his  equally  great  and  amiable  contemporary  Shak- 
speare,  on  the  23d  of  April,  1616,  died  Miguel  de  Cervantes 
Saavedra,  in  the  sixty-ninth  year  of  his  age,  and  was  buried 
in  the  church  of  the  Trinitarian  nuns  in  Madrid. 

Of  all  the  accounts  hitherto  published  relative  to  Cer- 
vantes, we  have  given  the  preference,  to  the  preceding,  for 
which  we  are  indebted  to  the  late  rev.  John  Bowie,  whose 
enthusiasm  for  "Don  Quixote"  is  well  known.  It  was 
translated  by  him  from  a  work  published  in  1778  at  Madrid 
by  don  Juan  Antonio  Pellicer  y  Saforgada,  one  of  the  royal 
librarians,  in  a  work  entitled  "  Ensayo  de  una  Bibliotheca 
de  Traductores  Espan'oles.  Preceden  varias  Noticias 
Litterarias,"  4to.  The  particulars  being  the  result  of  re- 
search in  the  only  quarters  where  information  could  be 
procured,  seem  more  worthy  of  confidence  than  the  con- 
jectures of  some  of  Cervantes's  earlier  biographers,  whose 
chief  object  seems  to  have,  been  to  represent  him  as  a  man 
depressed  and  degraded  by  poverty  or  imprudence,  and 
whose  fate  was  a  disgrace  to  his  nation.  It  is  necessary 
however  to  add  that  the  above  account  was  prefixed  to  the 
splendid  edition  of  Don  Quixote  published  by  the  Spanish 
academy  about  thirty  years  ago.     From   this  M.  Florian 

Vol.  IX.  E 


wrote  a  life  prefixed  to  his  translation  of  Cervantes*s  ^^  Ga- 
latea," and  added  not  a  little  of  the  marvellous  when  de- 
tailing Cervantes's  adventures  in  captivity  at  Algiers.  Flo- 
rian's  account  was  translated  into  English  by  a  Mr.  Wil- 
liam Walbeck,  and  published  at  Leeds  in  1785,  12mo. 
Dr.  Smollett  has  made  a  very  interesting  story  in  his  life  of 
Cervantes,  but  wanting  the  accurate  information  which  has 
lately  been  recovered,  he  too  hastily  adopts  the  commoii 
opinions,  and  presents  an  almost  unvaried  detail  of  miseries 
and  poverty.  Cervantes's  own  account  of  his  person  is  the 
following  :  "His  visage  was  sharp  and  aquiline,  his  hair 
of  a  chesnut  colour,  his  forehead  smooth  and  high,  his 
hose  bookish  or  hawkish,-  bis  eye  brisk  and  chearful,  his 
mouth  little,  his  beard  originally  of  a  golden  hue,  his  up- 
per lip  furnished  with  large  mustachios,  his  complexion 
fair,  his  stature  of  the  middling  size  ;"  and  he  adds,  "  that 
he  was  thick  in  the  shoulders,  and  not  very  light  of  foot." 

Of  all  Cervantes's  writings  his  "  Don  Quixote'*  is  that 
only  which  now  is  entitled  to  much  attention,  although 
some  of  his  "  Novels"  are  elegant  and  interesting.  But 
on  his  "  Don  Quixote"  his  fame  will  probably  rest  as  long 
as  a  taste  for  genuine  humour  can  be  found.  It  ought 
also,  says  ah  elegant  modern  critic,  to  be  considered  as  a 
most  useful  performance,^  that  brought  about  a  great  re- 
volution in  the  uianners  and  literature  of  Europe,  by  ba- 
nishing the  wild  dreams  of  chivalry,  and  reviving  a  tast^ 
for  the  simplicity  of  nature.  In  this  view,  the  publication 
of  Don  Quixote  forms  an  important  era  in  the  history  of 
mankind.  Don  Quixote  is  represented  as' a  man,  whom  it 
is  impossible  not  to  esteem  for  his  cultivated  understanding, 
and  the  goodness  of  his  heart ;  but  who,  by  poring  nighty 
and  day  upon  old  romances,  had  impaired  his  reason  ta 
such  a  degree,  as  to  mistake  them  for  history,  and  form 
the  design  of  traversing  the  world,  in  the  character,  and 
with  the  accoutrements,  of  a  knight-errant.  His  distem- 
pered fancy  takes  the  most  comnwn.  occurrences  for  ad- 
ventures similar  to  those  he  had  read  in  his  books  of  chi- 
valry. And  thus,  the  extravagance  of  these  books  being 
placed,  as  it  were,  in  the  same  groupe  with  the  appear- 
ances of  nature  titid  the  real  business  of  life,  the  hideous 
disproportion  of  the  former  becomes  so  glaring  by  the 
contrast,  that  the  most  inattentive  reader  cannot  fail  to  be 
Struck  with  it.  The  person,  the  pretensions,  and  the  ex- 
ploits, of  the  errant-ktiight,  are  held  up  to  view  in  a  thoa« 


sand  ridiculous  attitudes.  In  a  word,  the  humour  and  sa- 
tire are  irresistible ;  and  their  effects  were  instantaneous; 
This  work  nd  sooner  appeared  than  chivalry  vanished/ 
Mankind  awoke  as  from  a  dream.  They  laughed  at  them* 
selves  for  having  been  so  long  imposed  on  by  absurdity  ; 
and  wondered  they  had  not  made  the  discovery  sooner. 
They  were  astonished  to  find,  that  nature  and  good  sense 
could  yield  a  more  exquisite  entertainment  than  they  had 
ever  derived  from  the  most  sublime  phrenzies  of  chivalry* 
This,  however,  was  the  case ;  and  that  Don  Quixote  was 
more  read,  and  more  relished,  than  any  other  romance 
had  ever  been,  we  may  infer  from  the  sudden  and  powerful 
effects  it  produced  on  the  sentiments  of  mankind,  as  well 
as  from  the  declaration  of  the  author*  himself ;  who  tells 
Qs,  that  upwards  of  12,000  copies  of  the  first  part  (printed 
at  Madrid  in  1605}  were  circulated  before  the  second  could 
be  ready  for  the  press  ;  an  amazing  rapidity  of  sale,  at  a 
time  when  the  readers  and  purchasers  of  books  were  but  aa 
inconsiderable^  number  compared  to  what  they  are  in  our 
days.  <'  The  very  children  (says  he)  handle  it,  boys  read 
it,  men  understand,  and  old  people  applaud  the  perfor* 
mance.  It  is  no  sooner  laid  down  by  one  than  another 
takes  it  upj  some  struggling,  and  some  intreating,  for  a 
sight  of  it.  In  fine  (continues  he)  this  history  is  the  most 
delightfpl,  and  the  least  prejudicial  entertainment,  that 
ever  was  seen ;  for,  in  the  whole  book,  there  is  -not  the 
least  shadow  of  a  dishonourable  word,  nor  one  thought 
unworthy  of  a  good  catholic.*'  Don  Quixote  occasioned 
the  death  of  the  old  romance,  and  gave  birth  to  the  new.' 
Fiction  from  this  time  divested  herself  of  her  gigantic  size, 
tremendous  aspect,  and  frantic  demeanour :  and,  descend- 
ing to  the  level  of  common  life,  conversed  with  man  as  hi»- 
equal,  and  as  a  polite  and  chearful  companion.  Not  that 
every  subsequent  romance-writer  adopted  the  plan,  or  the 
manner  of  Cervantes  ;  but  it  was  from  him  they  learned  to 
avoid  extravagance  and  to  imitate  nature.  And  now  pro- 
bability was  as  much  studied,  as  it  had  been  formerly 

These  sentiments,  which  we  have  adopted  from  Dr. 
Beattie*s  **  dissertations,"  are  the  sentiments  of  sober 
criticism ;  but  those  who  have  allowed  their  imaginations 
to  be  heated  by  a  frequent  perusal  of  Don  Quixote,  have 
not  scrupled  to  attribute  to  Cervantes  more  serious  pur- 
poses than  he  could  possibly  have  h&d  in  contemplatioB. 

£    3 



They  have  supposed  that  his  object  was  to  bring  knigbt* 
errantry  into  ridicule,  and  they  infer  that  he  was  -so  suc- 
cessful as  to  banish  knight-errantry  from  the  nations  of 
Europe.  But  no  assumption  can  be  worse  founded  than 
the  existence  of  kfiight- errantry  in  Cervantes's  time.  No 
pian  in  all  Europe  at  that  time  went  about  defending  vir- 
gins, redressing  grievances,  and  conquering  whole  armiei 
with  the  assistance  of  enchanters.  Such  imaginary  beings^ 
^d  events  existed  only  in  the  old  romances,  which  being 
the  favourite  reading  in  Spain,  Cervantes  very  properly 
levelled  his  satire  at  them  in  the  person  of  Don  Quixote^ 
whom  he  describes  as  become  \nsane  by  a  constant  perusal 
of  them;  and  so  far  is  he  from  insinuating  that  knight- 
errantry  e^xisted,  that  he  makes  his  hero  the  ridicule  of 
every  person  he  meets.  Cervantes's  sole  purpose  was  to 
introduce  a  better  style  of  writing  for  popular  amusement, 
and  he  fully  succeeded ;  and  we  may  say  with  Dr.  Warton, 
how  great  musv  be  the  native  force  of  Cervantes's  huUiour, 
when  it  can  be  rejished  by  readers  even  unacquainted  with 
Spanish  manners,  with  the  institution  of  chivalry,  and  with 
the  many  passages  of  old  romances,  and  Italian  poems,  to 
which  it  perpetually  alludes  !  The  great  art,  says  the 
same  critic,  of  Cervantes,  consists  in  having  painted  his 
mad  hero  with  such  a  number  of  amiable  qualities,  as  to 
make,  it  impossible  for  us  totally,  to  despise  him..  This 
light  and  shade  in  drawing  characters,  shews  the  master. 
It  is  thus  that  Addison  has  represented  his  sir  Roger  de 
Coverley,  and  Shakspeare  his  Falstaff.  We  know  not,  how- 
ever, how  to  applaud  what  Dr.  Warton  calls  a  striking  pro- 
priety in  the  madness  of  Don  Quixote,  "  not  frequently 
taken  notice  of,"  namely,  his  time  of  life.  Thuanus  in- 
forms us  that  madness  is  a  common  disorder  among  the 
Spaniards  at  the  latter  part  of  life,  about  the  age  in  which 
the  knight  is  represented.  Without  resting  on  this  asser- 
tion, for  whi^h  we  know  no  better  authority  than  the  "  Per- 
roniana  et  Thuana,"  we  conceive  it  highly  probable  that 
Cervantes  made,  bis  hero  elderly,  that  his  pretended  vigour 
of  arm,  and  above  all,  his  love  addresses,  might  appear 
more  ridiculous.  We  adopt  with  more  satisfaction  a  sen- 
timent of  the  late  Mr.  Owen  Cambridge,  in  the  preface  to 
bis  *'  Scribleriad,"  because  it  exalts  Cervantes's  great  work 
to  that  superiority  of  rank,  as  a  mock-heroic,  to  which  it 
seema  justly  entitled,  and  in  which  it  is  likely  to  remain 
-undisturbed.     Mr.  Cambridge  says,  that  in  reading  the 


four  celebrated  mock-heroic  poems,  the  Lutrin,  Dispen- 
sary, Rape  of  the  Lock,  and  Dunciad,  he  perceived  they 
had  all  some  radical  defect;  but  at  last  be  found,  by  ^ 
diligent  perusal  of  Don  Quixote,  that  propriety  was  the 
fundamental  excellence  of  that  work;  that  all  the  mar- 
vellous was  reconcileable  to  probability,  as  the  author 
leads  his  hero  into  that  species  of  absurdity  only,  which 
it  was  natural  for  an  imagination  heated  with  the  con- 
tinual reading  of  books  of  chivalry,  to  fall  into ;  and  that 
the  want  of  attention  to  this  was  the  fundamental  error  of 
those  poems  above  mentioned. 

The  editions  of  Don  Quixote  have  been  so  many  as  to 
render  it  impossible  to  give  a  correct  list ;  nor  of  a  work  so 
easily  accessible,  is  it,  perhaps,  necessary.  The  English 
public  have  been  long  familiarized  with  it  in  the  transla- 
tions of  Jarvis  and  Smollett,  the  comparative  merits  of 
which  are  so  admirably  adjusted  in  the  late  lord  Wood- 
houselee^s  Essay  on  Translation,  The  French  have  also 
good  translations. 

Mr.  D'lsraeli,  in  his^ "  Curiosities  of  Literature,"  haa 
published  an  anecdote  from  the  "  Segraisiana,"  which 
seems  to  have  escaped  the  biographers  of  Cervantes.  **  M, 
du  Boulay  accompanied  the  French  ambassador  to  Spain 
when  Cervantes  was  yet  alive.  He  has  told  me,  that  the 
ambassador  one  day  complimented  Cervantes  on  the  great- 
reputation  he  had  acquired  by  his  Don  Quixote ;  and  that 
Cervantes  whispered  in  his  ear,  "  Had  it  not  been  for  tlie 
Inquisition,  I  should  have  made  my  book  much  more  en- 
tertaining." In  what  manner  he  would  have  done  so  it 
would  be  useless  to  conjecture. 

The  last  act  of  Cervantes's  life  was  to  write  a  dedication 
of  bis  novel  of  ^^  Persilas  and  Sigismunda"  to  his  patron, 
the  count  of  Lemos.  As  this  appeared  in  the  last  edition 
of  this  Dictionary,  and  illustrates  in  some  respect  the  cha- 
racter of  the  writer,  we  shall  conclude  this  sketch  with  it. 

^'  There  is  an  old  ballad,  which  in  its  day  was  much  in 
vogue,  and  it  began  thus :  ^  And  now  with  one  foot  in  the 
stirrup,'  &c.  I  could  wish  this  did  not  fall  so  pat  to  my 
epistle,  for  I  can  almost  say  in  the  same  words, 

'  And  now  with  one  foot  in  the  stirrup. 

Setting  out  for  the  regions  of  death. 
To  write  this  epistle  I  chear  up. 

And  salute  my  lord  with  my  last  breath.' 

Yesterday  they  gave  me  the  extreme  unction,  and  to-day' 



I  write  ibis.  Time  is  short,  pains  increase,  hopes  di«* 
minish  ;  and  yet,  for  all  this,  I  would  live  a  little  longer, 
methinks,  not  for  the  sake  of  living,  but  that  I  might 
kiss  your  excellency's  feet ;  and  it  is  not  impossible  but 
the  pleasure  of  seeing  your  excellency  safe  and  well  in 
Spain  might  make  me  well  too.  But,  if  I  am  decreed  to 
die,  heayen's  will  be  done :  your  excellency  will  at  least 
give  me  leave  to  inform  you  of  this  'my  desire  ;  and  like- 
wise that  you  had  in  me  so  zealous  and  well-affected  a 
servant  as  was  willing  to  go  even  beyond  death  to  serve 
you,  if  it  had  been  possible  for  his  abilities  to  equal  his 
sincerity.  However,  I  prophetically  rejoice  at  your  ex- 
cellency's arrival  again  in  Spain ;  my  heart  leaps  within 
me  to  fancy  you  shewn  to  one  anodier  by  the  people, 
*  There  goes  the  Cond^  de  Lemos !'  and  it  revives  my 
spirits  to  see  the  accomplishment  of  those  hopes  which  I 
have  so  long  conceived  of  your  excellency's  perfections. 
There  are  still  remaining  in  my  soul  certain  glimmerings 
of  *  The  Weeks  of  Garden,'  and  of  the  famous  Bernardo. 
If  by  good  luck,  or  rather  by  a  miracle,  heaven  spares  my 
life,  your  excellency  shall  see  them  both,  and  with  them 
the  *  second  part*  of  *  Galatea,'  which  I  know  your  ex- 
cellency would  not  be  ill-pleased  to  see.  And  so  I  con- 
clude with  my  ardent  wishes,  that  the  Almighty  will  pre- 
serve your  excellency. 

Your  excellency's  servant, 
Madrid,  Jpril  19,  1616.        Michael  de  Cervantes."* 

CERUTI  (Frederick),  a  learned  philologist,  was  born 
at  Verona  in  1541,  and  was  brought  to  France  in  his  in- 
fancy, by  John  Fregosa,  bishop  of  Agen :  here  he  was 
educated,  and  for  some  time  served  in  the  army,  after 
which  his  patron  sent  him  to  Rome,  with  a  view  to  the  ec- 
clesiastical life.  Ceruti,  however,  being  disinclined  to 
this,  returned  to  his  native  country,  and  married.  He 
afterwards  opened  a  school  at  Verona,  in  which  he  had 
great  success,  and  along  with  Guarinoni  was  at  the  head 
of  the  academy  of  the  Moderati.  In  1585  he  published  an 
edition  of  Horace  at  Verona,  with  a  paraphrase,  4to,  and 
in  1597  an  edition  of  Juvenal  and  Persius,  4ta  He  also 
wrote  commentaries  on  some  parts  of  Cicero,  and  on  the 
Georgics  of  Virgil,  but  it  does  not  appear  that  they  were 

1  Life  as  aboTe.*»-Ditto  by  Smollett. — Beattie'i  Dissertations,  p.  562.— -War* 
tea's  Essay  on  Pope.— Saxii  Onomasticon. 

C  E  R  U  T  L  95 

printed.  Hid  other  published  works  are,  two  Letters  in 
the  '*  Amphotides  Scioppiana ;''  a  ^*  Dialogus  de  Co* 
inoBdia,*'  Verona,  1593,  8vo;  another,  "  De  recta  ado* 
lescentulorum  institutione,''  and  a  collection  of  Latin 
poems  in  1584.     He  died  in  1579.^ 

CERUTTI  (Joseph  Anthony  Joachim),  a  French  poet 
and  miscellaneous  writer,  was  bom  at  Turin  in  1738,  and 
after  being  educated  among  the  Jesuits,  joined  their  order, 
and  became  professor  of  their  college  at  Lyons.  In  1761 
be  gained  two  academical  prizes  at  Toulouse  and  Dijon ; 
the  subj^ect  of  the  one  was  ^<  Duelling,"  and  the  other  an 
answer  to  the  question  "  Why  modern  repubUcs  have  ac- 
quired less  splendour  than  the  ancient."  This  last,  be- 
fore Cerutti  was  known  as  its  author,  was  attributed  to 
Rousseau*  It  was  printed  at  the  Hague  in  1761,  8^o, 
and  reprinted  at  Paris  in  179U  When  the  order  of  th(Q 
Jesuits  was  about  to  be  abolished,  Cerutti  wrote  in  their 
defence  **  L'Apologie  de  Pinstitut  des  Jesuites,'*  1762,. 
two  parts,  8vo,  the  materials  being  furnished  by  the  two 
Jesuits  Menoux  and  GrifFet.  Some  time  after,  he  was 
obliged  to  appear  before  the  procurator-general  of  the 
parliament  of  Paris,  to  abjure  the  order  which  he  had  de- 
fended. It  is  said  that  after  he  had  taken  the  prescribed  oath, 
he  asked  if  there  was  any  thing  to  subscribe,  to  which  the 
magistrate  answered,  "  Yes,  the  Alcoran."  His  "  Apo-. 
logy,"  however,  was  much  admired,  and  recommended 
him  to  the  Dauphin,  who  welcomed  him.  to  court*  Here 
be  contracted  an  unhappy  and  violent  passion  for  a  lady 
of  the  first  rank,  which  brought  on  a  tedious  illness,  from 
which  the  friendship  of  the  duchess  of  Brancas  recovered 
him,  and  in  her  house  at  Fleville  he  found  an^  honourable 
asylum  for  fifteen  years.  This  lady,  who  appears  to  have 
been  somewhat  of  the  romantic  kind,  as  soon  as  she  re- 
ceived him  into  her  house,  put  a  ring  on  his  fitiger,  telling 
him  that  friendship  had  espoused  merit  When  the  revo- 
lution broke  out,  he  came  to  Paris,  and  became  a  zealous 
partizan,  and  was  much  employed  by  Mirabeau  in  drawing 
up  reports.  His  Memoir  on  patriotic  contributions  pro- 
cured him  a  place  in  the  legislative  body,  but  he  died  in 
1792,  after  which  the  municipality  of  Paris  honoured  him 
by  giving  his  name  to  one  of  the  new  streets.  Besides 
the  works  already  mentioned,  he  published  1.  <^  L'Aigle 

*  itforeri. 

66  C  E  R  U  T  T  L 

0t  le  hibou,"  an  apologue  in  verse,  Glasgow  and  Paris^ 
1783.  2.  **  Recueil  de  quelques  pieces  de  literature  en 
prose  et  en  vers,"  ibid.  1784.  The  best  of  these  is  a  dis- 
sertation on  antique  monuments,  occasioned  by  some 
Greek  verses  discovered  on  a  tomb  at  Naples,  in  1756. 

3.  "  Les  Jardins  de  Betz,"  a  descriptive  poem,  1792,  8vo. 

4.  '^  Lettre  sur  les  avantages  6t  I'origine  de  la  gaiet^ 
Franjaise,"  Lyons,  1761,  12mo  ;  Paris,  1792,  8vo.  5. 
An  essay  On  the  question  "  Combien  un  esprit  trop  subtit 
ressemble  a  un  esprit  faux,"  1750,  8vo.  6.  "Les  vrais 
plaisirs  ne  sont  faits  que  pour  la  vertu,"  1761,  4to.  These 
two  last  were  honoured  with  the  academical  prizes  of 
Montauban.  7.  **  Pourquoi  les  arts  utiles  ne  sont-ils  pas 
cultiv^s  preferablement  aux  arts  agr^ables,"    1761,    4to. 

8.  "  Sur  I'origine  et  les  efFets  du  desir  de  transmettre  son 
Bom  a  la  posterity,"  Hague,  1761,  8vo ;  Paris,  1792,  8vo: 

9.  "  Traduction  libre  de  trois  odes  d'Horace,"  1789.  10. 
**  De  I'interet  d'un  ouvrage  dans  le  sujet,  le  plan,  et  le 
style,"  Paris,  1763,  8v6.  Besides  these,  he  published 
some  tracts  on  the  subjects  which  arose  out  of  the  revolu- 
tion, and  was  joint  editor  with  Rabaut  de  St  Etiehne,  of 
the  **  Feuille  villageoise,"  a  paper  calculated  to  spread  the 
^evolutionary  delusions  among  the  country  people,  but  his 
style  was  not  sufficiently  simple  and  popular.  In  1793,  a 
(Collection  of  his  works  was  published  in  an  8vo  volume. 
Those  which  are  on  subjects  of  literature  are  ingenious 
and  interesting,  but  as  a  poet  he  cannot  be  allowed  to  rank 
high.  ^ 

CESARINI  (ViRGiNio),  a  very  accomplished  Italian 
scholar,  was  born  at  Rome  in  Oct.  1595,  the  son  of  Julian 
Cesarini,  duke  of  Citta  Nuova,  and  of  Li  via  Ursini.^  Such 
was  his  application  to  study,  that  at  an  age  when  most 
scholars  are  but  beginning,  he  was  acquainted  with  lan- 
guages, philosophy,  theology,  law,  medicine,  mathematics, 
and  sacred  and  profane  history.  Cardinal  Bellarmin  com- 
pared him  in  knowledge,  personal  character,  and  accom** 
plistments,  to  Eicus  de  Mirandula,  and  such  was  the  ge- 
neral esteem  in  which'  he  was  held,  ihat  a  medal  was  struck 
with  the  heads  of  Cesarini  and  Picus  crowned  with  laurel, 
and  on  the  reverse  two  phenixes.  His  modesty  and  pro- 
bity were  not  less  conspicuous  than  his  learning.  Pope 
yrban  VIIL  intended  to  have  made  him  a  cardinal,  but  he 

>  Diet  Hist. 

C  E  S  A  R  I  N  I.  57 

died  in  the  flower  of  his  age,  in  1624,  then  a  member  of 
the  academy  of  the  Lyncei.  His  Latin'  and  Italiran  poems 
were  printed  in  the  collection  entitled  **  Septem  illustrium 
virorum  poemata,"  Aiitwerp,  1662,  8vo,  and  since  re- 
printed. He  wrote  also  a  treatise  against  astrology,  and 
on  other  subjects,  which  have  not  been  published.  Au- 
gustin  Favoriti,  secretary  of  the  college  of  cardinals,  wrote 
his  life  in  Latin,  which  is  in  the  ^^  Miemoria  philosophorum, 
&c.  curante  Henningo  Witteri,  decas  prima,"  Francfort, 
1677,  8vo.  Bianchi  also,  in  his  account  of  the  academi- 
cians of  the  Lyncei,  Milan,  1741',  notices  Cesarini.  * 

CESI  (Bartholomew),  an  artist  bprn  in  1556,  was  one 
of  the   masters  whose  principles  were  respected  by  the 
school  of  the  Caracci.     From  him  Tiarini  learnt  the  prac- 
tice of  fresco;    his  works  contain   the  germ  of  GuidoV 
elegance.     Indeed  they  are  not  easily  distinguished  from 
Guidons  earlier*  performances.     He  seldom  dares ;  follows 
nature,  fond  of  her  best  forms,  and  as  shy  to  supply  her 
with  ideal  ones  ;  his  draperies  are  broad,  his  attitudes  con* 
siderate  ;  his  tints  have  more  suavity  than  strength.     Such 
are  the  altar-pieces  at  S.  Jacopo  and  at  S»  Martino,  works 
which  Guido  is  said   to  have  often  spent  whole  hours  in 
con teni^ plating.     In  fresco  he  is  more  vigorous,  and  treats 
copious  subjects  with  equal  judgment,  variety,  and  power 
of  execution ;  thus  he  treated  the  History  of  ^Eneas,  in 
the  palace  Favi,  and  with  still  greater  felicity  the  Transac- 
tions of  Clement  VIII.  on  the  arch  of  Forli,  which,  though 
exposed  to  the  air  for  so  many  years,  retains  all  the  vi- 
vacity of  its  tints.     He  was  esteemed  by  the  Caracci,  and 
generally  loved  by  the  professors  for  his  honesty  of  cha- 
racter and  attachment' tQ  the  art.     To  his  exertions  chiefly 
is  ascribed  the  secession,  of  the  painters  in  1595,  from 
cutlers,  chasers,  and  sadlers,  with  whom  they  had  been 
incorporated  for  some  centuries.     And  though  at  the  for- 
mation of  their, new  society  he  could  not  rid  them  of  the 
cotton -workers'   body   (Bambagiai),    he  established   their 
precedence  and  superiority  of  rank.    Cesi  died  in  1627.' 

CESPEDES  (Paul),  a  painter  of  Cordova,  acquired 
fame  in  the  sixteenth  century,  both  in  Spain  and  Italy. 
His  manner  approaches' somewhat  to  that  of  Correggio; 
the  same  exactness  in  the  drawing,  the  same  force  in  the 
expression,  the  same  vigour  in  the  colouring.     It  is  im- 

'  MorarU^-Saiiiet  Jusemens.— ErythneiPiaacothtfca.^  *  Pilkington, 


possible  to  contemplate  without  eiootton  hlfl  picture  of  the 
Last  Supper  in  the  cathedral  of  Cordova ;  where  each  of. 
the  apostles  presents  a  different  character  of  respect  and 
afiection  for  their  master ;  the  Christ  displays  at  once  an^ 
air  ^f  majesty  and  kindness ;  and  the  Judas  a  false  and 
malignant  countenance.  The  talents  of  Cespedes  were 
not  confined  to  painting,  if  we  may  trust  the  enthusiasui 
of  the  Spanish  authors  in  his  behalf ;  he  was  at  the  same 
time  philosopher,  antiquary,  sculptor,  architect ;  an  adept 
in  the  Hebrew,  Greek,  Latin,  Arabic,  and  Italian  lan- 
guages, a  great  poet,  and  a  prolific  author.  He  died  in 
1608,  aged  upwards  of  seventy. ' 

CHABANON  (  D£),  a  French  writer  of  eminence 

in  polite  literature,  is  said  to  have  been  born  in  America^ 
of  French  parents,  in   1730,  and  died  in  Paris  July  12^ 
1792,  but  our  only  authority  does  not  give  his  Christian 
same,  nor  have  we  been  able  to  discover  it  in  any  of  the 
French  catalogues.      He  was  a  member  of   the  French 
academy,  and  of  that  of  the  belles-lettres,  a  dramatic  au- 
thor,   an  indifferent  poet,    but  much  esteemed  for    his 
writings  respecting  criticism  and  elegant  literature.     Hi9 
principal  works  are:    1.  <^  Eponine/^    a  tragedy,   1762^ 
which  did  not  succeed.     2.  ^^  Eioge  de  Rameau,'^  1764^ 
8vo.     8.  '^  Sur  le  sort  de  la  poesie,  en  ce  siecle  philo* 
sophe,  avec  un  dissertation  sur  Homere,''  176^,'  Svo.     4. 
'*  Euxodie,^'  a  tragedy,   1769,   12mo.     5.  <^  Discours  sur 
Pindar,^'  with  a  translation  of  some  of  bis  odes,  1769,  8vo. 
6.  *^  Les  Odes  Pithiques  de  Pindare,^*    translated,  with 
notes,  1771,  Svo.    This,  in  the  opinion  of  Voltaire,  is  an 
excellent  translation.     7.  "Vie  de  Dant^,"    1775,   Svo. 

8.  "  Sabinus,*'  a  lyric  tragedy,    but  unsuccessful,  1775. 

9.  '^  Epitre  sur  la  manie  des  jardins  Anglois,^'  1775,  8vo* 
The  design  of  this  is  to  modify,  or  rather  to  attack  the 
principle  that  engages  many  to  respect  all  the  caprices  of 
nature,  and  to  shew  that  this  principle,  or  at  least  its  un- 
restrained application,  may  be  prejudicial  to  the  arts,  but 
he  displays  more  ingenuity  than  taste  in  this  discussion. 

10.  "  Jdylles  de  Theocrite,*'  a  new  translation,  1777,  Svo. 
The  most  valuable  part  of  this  volume  is  a  judicious  and 
elegant  essay  on  the  Bucolic  poiets,  in  which,  however^ 
be  is  thought  to  treat  Fontenelle  and  madame  Deshoulieres 
with  too  much  severity.     11.  <<  Vers  sur  Voltaire,*'  1778^ 

1  Pilkmgtoii.-»CttmberUiid'i  Spanish  Painters* 


8vo.  12.  ^'  De  la  Musique  consider^e  en  elle  meme,  et 
dans  ses  rapports  avec  la  parole,  les  langues,  la  poesie,  et  la 
theatre/'  1788,  2  vols.  8vo.  The  first  voiume,  if  we  mistake 
not,  was  published  in  11 S5.  In  this,  says  Dr«  Burney, 
he  discovers  a  refined  taste,  nice  discernment,  much  me- 
ditation and  knowledge  of  the  subject,  and  an  uncommon 
$pmt  of  investigati<M) ;  and  although  Dr.  Bqmey's  senti*- 
ments  are  not  always  in  unison  with  the  opinions  and  rea- 
soning of  M.  de  Cbabanon,  yet  there  are  such  enlarged 
views  and  luminous  and  elegant  observations  in  analysing 
the  sensations  which  music  excites,  in  assigning  reasons 
for  the  pleasures  which  this  art  communicates  to  ears  that 
vibrate  true  to  musical  intervals  and  concordant  sounds^ 
that  he  thinks  its  perusal  will  generate  reflections  on  the 
art,  and  set  the  mind  of  a  musician  at  work,  who  had 
never  before  regarded  music  but  as  a  mere  object  of  sense. 
This  book  was  written  in  the  midst  of  the  war  of  musical 
opinions  between  the  Gluckists  and  Piccinists.  The  author 
is  said  to  have  been  not  only  an  exciellent  judge  of  instru- 
mental composition  and  performance,  but  among  dilettanti 
ranked  high  as  a  performer  on  the  violin.  13.  The  ^^  Dis- 
course' he  pronounced  on  his  admission  into  the  academy 
Jan.  20,  1780,  4to.  In  1795  was  published  from  his  ma- 
nuscript, ^'  Tableau  de  quelques  circonstances  de  ma  vie,'* 
8fo,  containing  a  faithful  but  not  very  pleasing  disclosure 
of  his  conduct  and  sentiments.  It  appears  that  in  his 
youth  he  was  a  devoty  as  serious  as  madame  Guyon,  but 
that  afterwards  he  went  into  the  other  extreme,  no  uncom- 
mon transition  with  his  countrymen. ' 

CHABOT  (Peier  Walter),  a  learned  philologer, 
was  born  at  Sainloup  in  Poitou,  in  1516,  and  studied  the 
Latin  tongue  at  Sainloup,  and  afterwards  went  to  Poitiers, 
at  twenty -tour  years  of  age,  to  study  the  Greek  there ; 
bat  he  was  soon  recalled  from  thence,  to  teach  youth  in 
his  native  place.  He  taught  there  six  years,  after  which 
he  went  to  Paris,  and  went  through  a  course  of  philoso- 
phical studies  under  Omer  and  Talon,  in  the  college  de 
PrSle.  Having  spent  three  years  and  a  half  in  study,  he 
took  his  degree  of  M.  A.  and  professed  teaching.  The 
children  of  several  persons  of  distinction  were  com- 
mitted to  his  care ;  and  he  acquired  so  much  reputation  as 

*  Diet  Hist— Dr.  Buniey,  in  Rees's  Cyclopiedia,  who  by  mistake  says  Cha* 
kanoB  died  io  1800.— Month.  Rev.  See  Index. 

60  C  H  A  EOT. 

a  preceptor;  that  chancellor  de  l'H6pital  resolved  to  en* 
gage  him  to  live  at  his  seat  in  the  country,  to  teach  his 
grandsons.  He  got  Peter  Ramus  and  John  Mercier,  the 
regius  professors^  to-  make  proposals  to  him.  Chabot  ac- 
cepted them,  and  lived  twelve  years  in  the  chancellor's 
family,  viz,  five  years  before  the  chancellor  died,  and 
seven  years  after.  His  chief  work  was  a  Commentary  on 
Horace,  on  which  he  exhausted  all  the  fruits  of  his  studies^ 
He  was  a  man  of  great  regularity  in  life  and  manners,  and 
submitted  three  times,  with  great  patience,  to  the  plunder 
of  his  effects  during  the  civil  wars.  He  died  of  an  ad- 
Tanced  age,  about  1597.  He  is  said  to  have  been  once 
professor  in  the  university  of  Paris,  which  Bayle  doubts, 
but  Freher  seems  to  confirm  it.  His  commentary  on  Ho- 
race was  printed  1615,  fol.  according  to  Bayle.  Dr.  Clarke 
mentions  an  8vo,  Paris,  1582,  and  says  it  is  a  very  rare 
edition,  but  this  appears  to  be  an  abridgment  of  the  larger 

CHABRIT  (Peter),  member  of  the  supreme  council 
6f  Bouillon,  and  advocate  in  the  parliament  of  Paris,  died 
in  that  capitol  in  1785.  Born  to  no  fortune,  his  days  were 
shortened  by  diiBculties  and  cares.  His  works  give  proof 
of  considerable  talents,  and  his  manners  are  said  to  have 
attracted  universal  esteem.  His  book  entitled  "  Of  the 
French  monarchy  and  its  laws,"  1785,  2  Vols.  12mo,  dis- 
plays a  novelty  in  the  design,  and  a  variety  of  knowledge 
in  the  execution.  He  is  thosght  to  have  taken  Montes- 
quieu for  his  model,  whose  energy  and  precFsion  he  copies, 
as  well  as  his  dryness.  He  obtained  in  1732  the  prize  of 
the  French  academy  for  the  encouragement  of  literature. 
Diderot  proposed  him  to  Catherine  H.  of  Russia  as  a  proper 
person  to  assist  her  in  her  new  code  of  laws,  and  as  one 
profoundly  verjsed  in  the  subject,  but  Chabrit  died  before 
her  imperial  majesty  returned  an  answer. ' 

CHADERTON  (Laurence),  first  master  of  Emanuel- 
college,  Cambridge,  and  a  benefactor  to  that  house,  was 
born  of  an  ancient  family  at  Chatterton,  in  Lancashire,  ia 
1546.  His  parents  were  papists,  and  educated  him  in  that 
religion,  sending  him  afterwards  to  study  law  in  one  of  the 
inns  of  court,  but  in  the  twentieth  year  of  his  age,  he  re- 
nounced this  pursuit,  and  went  to  Cambridge,  where  his- 
talents  and  industry  recommended  him  to  a  scholarship  in 

»  Gen.  Diet.— Fietteri  Theatrum*  «  Diet.  Hist^ 

<;  H  A  D  E  R  T  O  N.  61 

.Christ^ s-college.     His  father,  enrag^ed  at  this,  sent  him  a 
bag  with  a  groat  in  it,  and  told  him  he  might  beg,  as  he 
meant  to  disinherit  him,  and  afterwards  executed  his  threat. 
Young  Cbaderton,  however,  persisted  in  his  studies,  and 
in  1567,  when  B.A.,  was  chosen  fellow  of  his  college.     In 
1578  he  commenced  B.  D.  an4  in  the  same  year  preached 
a  sermon  at  St.  Paul's  cross,  which  he  afterwards  printed. 
He  was  then  chosen   lecturer  of  St.  Clement's  churchy 
Cambridge,  where  he  preached  for  about  sixteen  years, 
much  followed  and  admired.     Such  was  his  reputation  foe 
learning  and  piety,  that  when   sir  Walter  Mildmay  re- 
founded  Emanuel  college,  in   1584,  he  chose  Chadertoa 
for  the  first  master,  and  on  his  expressing  some  reluctance* 
declared  that  if  Chaderton  would  not  be  master,  the  foun- 
dation should  not  go  on.     In  the  beginning  of  the  reiga 
of  James  I.  he  was  one  of  the  four  divines  for  the  con- 
fereuce  at  Hampton-court,  and  the  same  year  was  chosea 
one  of  the  translators  of  the  Bible,  and  was  gne  of  the 
Cambridge  divines  who  translated  from  Chronicles  to  Can- 
tides  inclusive.     In  1612,  when  the  prince  elector  palatine 
visited  Cambridge,  he  requested  Mr.  Chaderton  to  com- 
mence D.  D.  with  which  he  complied  ;  and  having  regretted 
that  the  founder  of  Emanuel  had  provided  for  only  three 
fellows,  he  made  such  application  among  his  friends,  as  to 
make  provision  for  twelve  fellows,  and  above  forty  scholars, 
anJ  procured  some  church  livings  for  the  college.     To- 
wards the  close  of  his  life,  when  Arminian  doctrines  be- 
came prevalent,  dreading  lest  he  might  have  an  Arminiaa 
successor,  he  resigned  in  favour  of  Dr.  Preston,  but  sur- 
vived him,  and  lived  also  to  see  Drs.  Bancroft  and  Holds- 
worth  masters.     He  was  a  man  of  acknowledged   piety, 
benevolence,  and  learning,  and  lived  in  great  respect  for 
many  years  after  his  resignation.     He  died  Nov.    1640, 
aged  about  ninety-four,  and  was  buried  in  St.  Andrew'<« 
ichurch.     He  appears  to  have  been  related  to  Dr.  William 
Chaderton,  successively  bishop  of  Chester  and   Lincoln, 
of  whom  some  account  is  given  by  Peck  in  the  preface  to 
his   ".  Desiderata."      Besides  the   sermon  noticed  above, 
Pr.  L.  Chaderton  wrote  a  treatise  on  Justification,  "which 
Anthony  Thysius,  professor  of  divinity  at  Leyden,  pub- 
lished with  other  tracts  on  the  same  subject;  and  some  of 
his  MSS.  are  still  in  the  public  libraries,  particularly  in 
the  Brit,  Mus.  among  the  Harleian  MSS.     Moreri  says  his 

«2         CHADfeRTON. 

**  Life**  was  published  by  William  Dillingham,  at  Cam«* 
bridge,  in  1700,  but  this  we  have  not  seen.* 

CHADUC  (Lewis),  an  able  antiquary,  was  of  a  good 
family  of  Riom,  in  Auvergnjg,  where  he  was  born,  in  1564. 
and  was  educated  at  Bourges  for  five  years,  under  the  eel 
lebrated  Cujas.     On  his  return  to  Riom,  he  was  in  1594 
made  a  counsellor  of  the  presidial,  and  discharged  the  du* 
ties  of  that  office  with  great  ability  and  integrity  for  the 
space  of  forty-four  years.     During  this  time  he  found  lei- 
sure to  improve  his  knowledge  of  antiquities,  and  accumu- 
lated a  large  library,  and  many  series  of  medals.     In  order 
to  gratify  his  curiosity  more  completely,  he  took  a  journey 
to  Italy,  and  visited  at  Rome  all  the  valuable  remains  of 
antiquity,  receiving  great  kindness  from  the  literati  of  that 
place,   and  particularly  from  cardinal  Bellarmin.      From^ 
this  tour  he  brought  home  many  curious    MSS.  scarce 
books,  medals,  antique  marbles,  and  above  two  thousand 
gems,  which  rendered  his  collection  one  of  the  most  va- 
luable then  in  France.     After  his  return  he  caused  all  these 
gems    to  be  engraven  on    copper-plate,    ranging  theia 
under  fifteen  classes,  of  which  he  made  as  many  chapters 
of  explanation,  but  the  bad  state  of  his  health  during  his 
latter  years  prevented  his  publishing  this  curious   work. 
He  also  wrote  a  treatise  "  De  Annulis,"  which  he  modestly 
withheld  from  the  press  on  hearing  that  Kirchman,  a  Ger- 
man antiquary,  had  published  on  the  same  subject.     Noi;- 
withstanding  his  not  appearing  in  print,  he  was  well  known 
to  the  learned  of  his  time,  and  held  a  correspondence  with 
most  of  them.     Savaro,  in  his  Commentary  upon  Sidonius 
Apollinaris,  and  Tristan,   in  his  ^'  Historical  Commenta- 
ries," speak  highly  of  him,  nor  was  he  less  esteemed  by 
Bignon,  Petau,  and  Sirmond.     He  died  at  Riom,  Sept.  19, 
1638,  of  a  sickness  which  lasted  two  years,  almost  with- 
out any  interruption.     His  heirs  sent  all  his  curiosities  to 
Paris,    where  they  were  purchased   by  the  president  de 
Mesmes,  who  gave  them  to  the  duke  of  Orleans,  And  firom 
him  they  passed  to  the  royal  cabinet.  * 

CHAIS  (Charles),  an  eminent  protestant  divine,  wad 
borri  in  1701,  at  Geneva,  where  he  probably  received  the 
first  rudiments  of  education.  The  church  being  chosen 
for  bis  profession,  after  passing  through  the  usual  proba- 
tionary exercises,  he  was  admitted  into  the  order  of  priest- 

1  Clarke's  Lives.— Fuller's  Worthhis.— Strypc's  Wbitgift,  p.  435,  474,  and 
Appendix,  p.  155-6^— Moreri,  «  Memoirs  ci«  TreTOuz,  March  1721. 

C  H  A  I  9.  6S 

hood.  In  the  ministry  his  reputation  as  a  preacher  and  an 
orator  soon  became  so  popular  and  extensive,  that  in  172S 
be  was  elected  pastor  at  the  Hague,  and  his  conduct  in 
this  establishment,  while  it  contributed  to  his  own  reputa- 
tion, redounded  no  less  to  the  honour  of  those  who  had 
appointed  him.  Having  adorned  his  ministry  by  the  purity 
of  his  manners,  the  excellence  of  the  discourses  which  he 
delivered  from  the  pulpit,  and  bis  numerous  writings  in 
defence  of  revealed  religion,  he  died  in  1786,  at  the  age 
of  eighty-five,  after  having  punctually  discharged  his 
duty  as  a  pastor  during  the  period  of  fifity-eight  years. 
I'he  unfortunate  supported  by  his  consolation,  the 
youth  enlightened  by  his  instructions,  and  the  poor 
succoured  by  his  charity,  lamenting  the  loss  which  they 
had  sustained  by  the  death  of  a  benefactor  and  a  friend, 
proved  more  eloquent  attestations  of  bis  merit,  than  any 
panegyric  which  might  have  been  pronounced  by  the  most 
sublime  orator.  His  sermons  were  distinguished  by  a  per- 
spicuous style  and  a  pure  morality.  They  seemed  to  flovr 
not  only  from  a  man  who  practised  what  he  taught,  but 
from  one  who,  acquainted  with  the  inmost  recesses  of  the 
human  heart,  could  exert  his  eloquence  to  win  his  hearers 
to  the  interests  of  virtue  and  religion.  His  portrait,  which 
is  prefixed  to  his  translation  of  the  Holy  Bible,  seems  to 
confirm  the  relation  of  his  friends,  who  say  that  his  coun* 
tenance  was  interesting  and  attractive.  In  his  manners  h6 
was  pcrlite  and  attentive ;  in  his  address  mild  and  insi- 
nuating. His  literary  excellence  consisted  in  a  judicious 
and  happy  arrangement  of  his  subjects,  delivered  in  a  plain 
and  unaffected  style.  He  made  no  pretensions  to  origi- 
nality, but  he  illustrated  the  works  of  other  writers,  by 
introducing  then!  to  his  countrymen  in  a  language  that  was 
more  familiar  to  them. 

His  works  were :  1.,  **  La  Sainte  Bible,  avec  un  com- 
mentaire  literal  &  des  notes  choisies,  tiroes  de  divers  au- 
teurs  Anglois,"  printed  at  the  Hague.  *  The  publication 
of  this  work  was  begun  in  1742,  and  continued  till  1777, 
forming  6  vols,  in  4to.  The  7th  volume  was  left  by  ;the 
author  in  MS.  and  published  in  1790,  by  Dr.  Maclaine, 
who  wrote  also  the  preliminary  dissertations.  This  volume 
completes  the  historical  books  of  the  Old  Testament.  2.  '^  Le 
sens  literal  de  Tecriture  sainte  traduit  de  PAnglois  de  Stack- 
house,"  ibid.  17^1,  3  vols.  8vo.  3.  "  Lettres  historiques 
•t  dogmatiques  sur  les  Jubil6s/'  ibid.  17 50,  1751,  3  torn. 

64  C  H  A  I  & 

8vo.  4.  "Theologie  de  I'ecriture  S.  ou  la  Science  cki 
iSalut,  comprise  dans  une  ample  collection  de  passa^s 
du  V.  &  N.  Testament,"  ibid.  1752,  2  torn.  8vo.  5.  "  Ks- 
sai  apologetique  sur  T Inoculation,"  ibid.  1755  ;  and  several 
volumes  of  "  Sermons."  Besides  these  works,  he  super-^ 
•intended  the  publication  of  Hainault's  History  of  France, 
which  was  published  at  the  Hague  in  1747,  8vo.  He  was 
besides  engaged  as  a  writer  in  the  *^  Bibliotheque  Histo- 
rique,"  which  was  begun  at  the  Hague  in  1738,  and  also 
contributed  some  articles  in  the  "  Bibliotheque  des  sci- 
ences et  beaux  arts."* 

CHAISE  (Francis  de  la),  a  Jesuit  of  uncommon  abili- 
ties, and  confessor  to  Lewis  XIV.  was  born  in  the  chateau 
of  Aix,  in  1624,  of  an  ancient  but  reduced  family.  He 
gave  early  indications  of' talents  when  at  school,  and  per- 
formed his  philosophical  exercises  under  father  de  Vaux, 
who  was  afterwards  advanced  to  the  highest  employments  in 
his  order.  When  he  was  arrived  at  ^  proper  age,  he  was 
ordained  priest ;  and  became  afterwards  professor  of  divi-- 
nity  in  the  province  of  Lyons,  and  rector  and  provincial  of 
a  college  there.  He  spent  at  several  seasons  a  good  deal 
of  time  in  Paris,  where  his  great  address,  his  wit,  and  love, 
of  letters,  made  him  almost  qniversally  known :  and  in 
1663,  the  bishop  of  Bayeux  introduced  him  to  cardinal 
.Mazarine,  who-  shewed  him  many  marks  of  favour,  an^l 
ojflFered  him  his  patronage.  In  1665,  he  presented  la 
Chaise  to  the  king,  as  a  person  of  whose  great  abilities 
and  merit  he  was  well  convinced,  and  afterwards  got  him 
admitted  into  the  council  of  conscience,  which  indeed  was 
no  less  than  to  make  him  coadjutor  to  the  confessor,  and 
when  the  cardinal  died,  he  was  made,  in  1675,  confessor 
to  the  king ;  and  about  ten  years  after,  was  the  principal 
adviser  and  director  of  his  marriage  with  m.adame  de  Main- 
tenon.  The  king  was  then  arrived  pt  an  age  when  confes- 
sors have  more  than  an  ordinary  influence  :  and  la  Chaise 
.found  himself  a  itiinister  of  state,  without  expecting^  and 
almost  before  he  perceived  it.  He  did  business  regularly 
with  the  king,  and  immediately  saw  all  the  lords  and  all 
tbe  prelates  at  his  feet.  He  had  made  himself  a  master  ia 
the  affairs  of  the  church ;  which,  by  the  disputes  that  cftea 
arose  between  the  courts  of  France  and  Rome>  were  h^ 
come  affairs  of  state. 

1  From  tbe  preceding^  edit,  of  this  Diet. — Life  by  Dr.  Maclaiae» 

CHAISE;  6« 

Yet,  in  spite  of  all  his  address  and  the  influence  which 
lie  had  gained  ov^er  the  king,  he  was  sometimes  out  of 
favour  with  his  master,  and  in  danger  of  being  disgraced. 
I'rovoked  at  the  ill  success  of  the  affair  concerning  th« 
electorate  of  Cologu  in  1689,  the  king  shewed  his  displea<^ 
sure  to  the  confessor,  by  whose  counsels  he  had  been  in- 
fluenced. La  Chaise  excused  himself,  by  laying  the  blame 
upon  the  marquis  de  Louvois ;  but  the  king  told  him  with 
some  indignation,  ^'  that  an  enterprise  suggested  by  Jesuits 
had  never  succeeded ;  and  that  it  would  be  better  if  they 
would  confine  themselves  to  teaching  their  scholars,  and 
sever  presunae  to  meddle  in  affairs  of  state.'*  La  Chaise 
was  very  solicitous  to  establish  an  interest  with  madame  de 
JMaintenon ;  but  does  not  appear  to  have  done  it  effectuv- 
ally,  till  that  favourite  found  herself  unable,  by  all  her 
intrigues  and  contrivances,  to  remove  him  from  the  plac6 
of  confessor.  The  Jesuit,  it  has  been  said,  had  not  reli^ 
gion  enough  for  this  devout  lady.  He  loved  pleasure^ 
had  a  taste  for  magnificence,  and  was  thpught  too  luke- 
warm in  the  care  of  his  master's  conscience.  The  jealousy 
and  dislike  with  which  she  regarded  him  were  ejspressed  in 
her  letters ;  but  her  unfavourable  representations  of  his 
temper  and  character  were  counteracted  by  those  of  the 
duke  of  St.  Simon,  who  describes  him  as  mild  and  mode- 
tate,  humane  a^d  modest,  possessed  of  honour  and  pro- 
bity, and  though  much  attached  to  his  family,  perfectly 
disinterested.  La  Chaise  died  Jan.  1709,  and  possessed 
to  the  very  last  so  great  a  share  of  favour  and  esteem  with 
the  king,  that  his  majesty  consulted  him  upon  his  cieath- 
bed  about  the  choice  of  bis  successor.  ^ 

CHALCIDIUS  was  a  Platonic  philosopher,  concerning 
whose  history  ecclesiastical  writers  are  much .  divided ; 
Cave,  Hody,  Beausobre^  and  Lardner,  have  examined  all 
the  evidence  they  could  find  without  coming  to  a  conclu- 
sion, nor  does  it  appear  from  his  writings  whether  he  was 
a  Christian  or  a  Gentile.  It  is  supposed  that  he  flourished 
^bout  the  year  330.  He  translated  into  Latin  the  former 
part  of  the  Timxus  of  Plato,  with  ia  commentary,  which 
afforded  great  scope  for  the  speculations  of  the  philoso- 
phers of  the  middle  ages.  .  This  was  printed  in  Gn  &  Lat 
by  Meursius  at  Leydenj  1617,  4to,  and  reprinted  by  Fa- 

»  Diet.  mt. 

Vol  IX.  F 


bricias  in  the  second  volume  of  his  edition  of  the  works  of 
HyppoUtus,  Hamburgh,    1718,  foL' 

CHALCONDYLES  (Demetrius),  a  native  of  Athens, 
of  the  fifteenth  century,    and  the  scholar  of  Theodore 
tjraza,  was  one  of  those  Greeks  who  about  the  time  of  the 
taking  of  Constantinople  went  into  the  west.     At  the  in- 
vitation of  Lorenzo  de  Medici,  he  became  professor  of  the 
Greek  language  at  Florence  in  1479;  where  he  had  for 
his  rival  Angelus  Politianus,  to  whom  Laurence  had  com- 
mitted the  tuition  of  one  of  his  sons.     After  the  death  of 
Laurence,  Chalcondyles  was  invited  to  .Milan  by  Lewis 
Sfortia;  which  invitation  he  accepted,  either  because  he 
was  tired  of  contending  with  Politian,  or  because  he  was 
hurt  with   Politianus  acknowledged   superiority    in   Latin 
learning.     Such  is  the   usually-received   account,    which 
rests  only  on  the  authority  of  Paul  Jovius,  who  was  always 
hostile  to  the  character  of  Politian ;  but  Mr.  Roscoe  in  his 
life  of  Lorenzo  has  proved  that  the  story  is  without  foun^ 
dation.     At  Milan,  however,  Chalcondyles  taught  Greek 
a  long  time  with  great  reputation ;  and  did  not  die  before 
1510,  when  there  is  reason  to  think  he  was  above  80  years 
of  age.     Among  the  learned  Greeks  whom  pope  Nicolas  V. 
sent  to  Rome  to  translate  the  Greek  authors  into  Latin, 
Chalcondyles  was  one ;  from  which  we  may  collect,  that 
he  probably  travelled  into  the  west  before  the  taking  of 
Constantinople  in  1453,  since  Nicolas  died  in  1455.     He 
published  a  grammar,  of  which  we  shall  presently  take 
notice ;  and  under,  his  inspection  and  care  was  first  pub- 
lished at  Florence,  in  1499,  the  Greek  Lexicon  of  Suidas. 
Pierius  Valerianus,  in  his  book  "  De  infelicitate  literato- 
rum,'*  says,  that  Chalcondyles,  though  a  deserving  man 
in  his  moral  as  well  as  literary  character,  led  nevertheless 
a  very  unhappy  life;  and  reckons  perpetual  banishment 
from   his   country  among   the   chief  of   his    misfortunes. 
Others  have  mentioned  domestic  evils  that  have  attended 
him.     The  particulars   of  his  life   are   very   imperfectly 
given.     Dr.  Hody  has  probably  collected  all  that  now  can 
be  found,  but  he  has  merely  given  the  notices  from  various 
authors,   without  attempting  a  regular  narrative.      Some 
have  thought  that  he  was  at  one  time  a  printer,  and  that 
he  printed  the  folio  Homer  of  Florence,  which  goes  by  bis 
name,  and  which  was  executed  in  148$;  but  this  report 

»  Cave. — Lardner's  Works,  vol.  VIII. — Moreri,— Saxii  Onomasticoa: 


iiodottbt  arose  from  the  care  he  took  in  correcting  the 
press,  as  the  printefs'  names  are  given  in  that  rare  edition. 
The  "  domestic  evils"  above  alluded  to  have  a  better  foun* 
dation,  as  he  was  unhappy  in  his  wife,  whose  chastity  was 
suspected,  and  in  his  sons :  Theophilus,  the  eldest,  who 
taught  Greek  at  Paris,  was  assassinated  in  the  streets  in  a 
riotous  sqnabble ;  and  two  others,  Saleucus  and  Basil,  both 
of  promising  talents,  died  young. 

The  "  Erotema,  sive  Institutiones  Grammaticae,"  of  De- 
metrius Chalcondyles,  is  supposed  to  have  been  printed 
at  Milan  about  the  end  of  the  fifteenth  century.  It  is  a 
quarto,  of  great  rarity,  without  date.  The  second  edi- 
tion of  this  "  Greek  Graminar"  is  that  of  Paris,  1525,  4to.  * 
.  CHALCONDYLES  (Laonicus),  was  also  a  native  of 
Athens,  who  flourished  in  the  latter  part  of  the  fifteenth 
century,  but  nothing  farther  is  known  of  his  history,  and 
bis  name  is  perpetuated  only  by  his  work  "  De  Origine  eft 
rebus  gesds  Turcorum,"  Paris,  1650,  fol.  containing,  iti 
ten  books,  a  history  of  the  Turks  from  1298  to  1462.  He 
describes  the  ruin  of  the  empire  of  Constantinople,  at)d  at 
the  end  are  the  "  Annates  Sultanorum,"  translated  into 
Latin  by  Leunclavius.  There  is  a  French  translation  of  it 
by  Blaise  de  Vignere,  1660,  2  vols.  fol.  continued  by 
Mezerai  and  others.  It  is  esteemed  a  work  of  consider- 
ible  aathorhy.  *  * 


CHA LONER  (Sir  Thomas),  a  gallant  soldier,  an  able 
statesman,  and  a  very  learned  writer  in  the  sixteenth  cenr 
taiy,  was  descended  from  a  good  family  in  Wales,  and 
born  at  London  about  1515.  His  quick  parts  discovered 
tbemselves  even  in  his  infancy  ;  so  that  his  family,  to  pro-* 
Biote  that  passionate  desire  of  knowledge  for  which  he  was 
so  early  distinguished,  sent  him  to  the  university  of  Cam* 
bridge,  where  he  remained  some  years,  and  obtained  great 
credit,  as  well  by  the  pregnancy  of  his  wit  as  his  constant 
und  diligent  application,  but  especially  by  his  happy  turn 
for  Latin  poetry,  in  which  he  exceeded  most  of  his  con- 
temporaries. Upon  his  removing  from  college  he  cfeime 
up  to  court,  and  being  there  recommended  to  the  esteeni 
and  friendship  of  the  greatest  men  about  it,  he  was  sooil 
sent  abroad  into  Germany  with  sir  Henry  Knevet,  as  th6 

*  Hodiufl  de  Grsects  illastribus.-^Fabric.  Bibl.  Gnec^-^Roscoe's  Lorenzo.** 
Iforeri. — Saxii  Onomasticon. 
^  Moreri.'^Pict.  Hist* 

F  2 

88  C  a  A  L  O  N  E  it. 

custom  was  in  the  reign  of  Henry  VIII.  when  yonng  itten 
of  great  hopes  were  frequently  employed  in  the  service  of 
ambassadors,  that  they  might  at  once  improve  and  polish 
themselves  by  travel,  and  gain  some  experience  in  busi- 
ness.    He  was  so  well  received  at  the  court  of  the  emperor 
Charles  Y.  and  so  highly  pleased  with  the  noble  and  gene- 
rous spirit  of  that  great  monarch,  that  he  attended  him  in 
his  journies,  and  in  his  wars,  particularly  in  that  fatal  ex- 
pedition against  Algiers,  which  cost  thejives  of  so  many 
brave  men,  and  was  very  near  cutting  short  the  thread  of 
Mr.  Chaloner's ;   for  in  the  great  tempest  by  which  the 
cmperor^s  fleet  was  shattered  on  the  coast  of  Barbary  in 
1541,  the  vessel,  on  board  of  which  be  was,  suffered  ship- 
wreck, and  Mr.  Chaloner  having  quite  wearied  and  ex- 
hausted himself  by  swimming  in  the  dark,  at  length  beat 
his  head  against  a  cable,  of  which  laying  hold  with  his 
teeth;  he  was  providentially  drawn  up  into  the  ship  to  which 
It  belonged.     He  returned  soon  after  into  England,  and  as 
a  reward  of  his  learning  and  services,  was  promoted  to  the 
office  of  first  clerk  of  the  council,  which  he  held  during 
the  remainder  of  that  reign.     In  the  beginning  of  the  next 
he   came  into  great  favour  with  the  duke  of  Somerset^ 
whom  he  attended  into  Scotland,  and  was  in  the  battle  of 
Mussleburgb,  where  he  distinguished  himself  so  remarka- 
bly in  the  presence  of  the  duke,  that  he  conferred  upou 
him  the  honour  of  knighthood  Sept.  23,   1547,  and  after 
his  return  to  court,  the  duchess  of  Somerset  presented 
him  with  a  rich  jewel.     The  first  cloud  that  darkened  iris 
patron's  fortune,  proved  fatal  to  sir  Thomas  Chaloner's 
pretensions  ;  for  being  a  man  of  a  wartn  and  open  temper, 
and  conceiving  the  obligation  he  was  under  to  the  duke  a^ 
a  tie  that  hindered  his  making  court  to  his  adversary,  a 
stop  was  put  to  his  preferment,  and  a  vigilant  eye  kept 
upon  his  actions.     But  his  loyalty  to  his  prince,  and  his 
exact  discharge  of  his  duty,  secured  him  from  any  farther 
danger,  so  that  he  had  leisure  to  apply   himself  to  his 
studies,  and  to  cultivate  his  acquaintance  with  the  worthiest 
men  of  that  court,  particularly  sir  John   Cheke,  sir  An- 
thony Coke,  sir  Thomas  Smith,  and  especially  sir  William 
Cecily  with  whom  he  always  lived  in  the  strictest  intimacy. 
Under  the  reign  of  queen  Mary  he  passed  his  time,  though 
safely,  yet  very  unpleasantly  ;  for  being  a  zealous  protes- 
taut,  he  could  not  practise  any  part  of  that  complaisance 
which  procured  some  of  his  friends  an  easier  life^     He 


interested  himself  deeply  in  the  affair  of  sir  John  Cheke, 
and  did  him  all  the  service  he  was  able,  both  before  and 
after  his  confinement.  This  had  like  to  have  brought  sir 
Thomas  himself  into  trouble,  if  the  civilities  he  had  shewa 
in  king  Edward's  reign,  to  some  of  those  who  had  the 
greatest  power  under  queen  Mary,  had  not  moved  them, 
from  a  principle  of  gratitude^  to  protect  him.  Indeed,  it 
appears  from  his  writings,  that  as  he  was  not  only  sincere, 
but  happy  in  his  friendships,  and  as  he  was  never  wanting 
to  his  friends  when  he  had  power,  he  never  felt  the  want 
of  them  when  he  had  it  not,  and,  which  he  esteemed  the 
greatest  blessing  of  his  life,  he  lived  to  return  those  kind- 
nesses to  some  who  had  been  useful  to  him  in  that  dan* 
gerous  season.  Upon  the  accession  of  Elizabeth,  he  ap- 
peared at  court  with  his  former  lustre;  and  it  must  afford 
us  a  very  high  opinion  of  his  character  as  well  as  his  capa-» 
city,  that  he  was  the  first  ambassador  named  by  that  wise 
prinbess,  and  that  also  to  the  first  prince  in  Europe,  Fer* 
dinand  I.  emperor  of  Germany.  In  this  negociation,  which 
was  of  equal  importance  and  delicacy,  he  acquitted  him- 
self with  great  reputation,  securing  the  confidisnce  of  the 
emperor  and  his  ministers,  and  preventing  the  popish 
powers  from  associating  against  Elizabeth,  before  she 
was  well  settled  on  the  throne,  all  which  she  very 
gratefully  acknowledged.  After  his  return  from  this  em- 
bassy, he  was  very  soon  thought  of  for  another,  which  was 
that  of  Spain ;  and  though  it  is  certain  the  queen  could 
not  give  a  stronger  proof  than  this  of  her  confidence  in 
his  abilities,  yet  he  was  very  f^r  from  thinking  that  it  was 
{iny  mark  of  her  kindness,  more  especially  considering  the 
terms  upon  which  she  then  stood  with  king  Philip,  and 
the  usage  hi$  predecessor,  Chamberlain,  had  met  with  at 
that  court.  But  he  knew  the  queen  would  be  obeyed, 
and  therefore  undertook  the  business  with  the  best  grace 
he  could,  and  embarked  for  Spain  in  1561,  On  his  first 
arrival  he  met  with  some  of  the  treatment  which  he  dreaded. 
This  was  the  searching  of  all  his  trunks  and  cabinets,  of 
which  he  complained  loudly,  as  equally  injurious  to  him- 
self as  a  gentleman,  and  to  bis  character  as  a  public  mini- 
ster. His  complaints,  however,  were  fruitless ;  for  at  that 
time  there  is  great  probability  that  his  Catholic  majesty 
was  not  over  desirous  of  having  an  English  minister,  and 
Viore  especially  one  of  sir  Thomas's  disposition,  at  bis 
ICQQrt,  aad  therefore  gave  him  no  satisfaction.    Upon  thi^ 


sir  Thomas  Chaloner  wrote  home,  set  out  the  affront  that 
he  had  received  in  the  strongest  terms  possible,  and  was 
very  earnest  to  be  Ve-called  :  but  the  queen  his  mistress 
contented  herself  with  letting  him  know,  that  it  was  the 
duty  of  every  person  who  bore  a  public  character,  to  bear^ 
with  patience  what  happened  to  them,  provided  no  per- 
sonal indignity  was  offered  to  the  prince  from  whom  they 
came.  Yet,  notwithstanding  this  seeming  indifference  on 
her  part,  the  searching  sir  Thomas  Chaloner's  trunks  was, 
many  years  afterwards,  put  into  that  public  charge  which 
the  queen  exhibited  against  his  Catholic  majesty,  of  inju- 
ries done  to  her  before  she  intermeddled  with  the  affairs  of 
the  Low  Countries.  Sir  Thomas,  however,  kept  up  his 
spirit,  and  shewed  the  Spanish  ministers,  and  even  that 
haughty  monarch  himself,  that  the  queen  could  not  have 
entrusted  her  affairs  in  better  hands  than  his.  There  were 
some  persons  of  very  good  families  in  England,  who,  for 
the  sake  of  their  religion,  and  no  doubt  out  of.  regard  to 
the  interest  to  which  they  had  devoted  themselves,  desired 
to  have  leave  from  queen  Elizabeth  to  reside  in  the  Low 
Countries  or  elsewhere,  and  king  Philip  and  his  ministers 
made  it  a  point  to  support  their  suit.  Upon  this,  when  a 
conference  was  held  with  sir  Thomas  Chaloner,  he  an- 
swered very  roundly,  that  the  thing  in  itself  was  of  very 
little  importance,  since  it  was  no  great  matter  where  the 
persons  who  made  this  request  spent  the  remainder  of  their 
days ;  but  that  considering  the  rank  and  condition  of  the 
princes  interested  in  this  business,  it  was  neither  6t  for  the 
one  to  ask,  nor  for  the  other  to  gratit ;  and  it  appeared 
that  he  spoke  the  sense  of  his  court,  for  queen  E^lizabeth 
would  never  listen  to  the  proposal.  In  other  respects  he 
was  not  unacceptable  to  the  principal  persons  of  the 
Spanish  court,  who  could  not  help  admiring  his  talents  as 
a  minister,  his  bravery  as  a  soldier,  with  which  in  former 
times  they  were  well  acquainted,  his  general  learning  an4 
admirable  skill  in  Latin  poetry,  of  which  he  gave  them 
many  proofs  during  his  stay  in  their  country.  It  was  here, 
at  a  time  when,  as  himself  says  in  the  preface,  he  spent 
the  winter  in  a  stove,  and  the  summer  in  a  barn,  that  he 
composed  his  great  work  of  "  The  right  ordering  of  the 
English  republic.'*  But  though  this  employment  might  in 
some  measure  alleviate  his  chagrin,  yet  he  lell  into  a  very 
grievous  fit  of  sickness,  which  brought  him  so  low  that  his 
physicians  despaired   of  bis  life.     In  this  coadition   he 


addressed  his  sovereign  in  an  elegy  after  the  manner  of 
Ovid,  setting  forth  his  earnest  desire  to  quit  Spain  and 
return  to  his  native  country,  before  care  and  sickness 
forced  him  upon  a  longer  journey.  The  queen  granted 
bis  petition,  and  having  named  Dr.  Man  his  successor  in 
his  negociation,  at  length  gave  him  leave  to  return  home 
irom  an  embassy,  in  which  he  had  so  long  sacrificed  his 
private  quiet  to  the  public  conveniency.  He  accordingly 
returned  to  London  in  the  latter  end  of  1564,  and  published 
the  first  five  books  of  his  large  work  before-mentioned, 
which  he  dedicated  to  his  gpod  friend  sir  William  Cecil ; 
but  the  remaining  five  books  were  probably  not  published 
in  bis  life-time.  He  resided  in  a  fair  large  house  of  his 
own  building  in  Cierkenwell-close,  over-against  the  de- 
cayed nunnery ;  and  Weever  has  preserved  from  oblivion 
an  elegant  fancy  of  his,  which  was  penciled  on  the  frontis^- 
piece  of  his  dwelling*.  He  died  Oct.  7,  1565,  and  was 
buried  in  the  cathedral  church  of  St.  Paul  with  great  fqneral 
solemnity,  sir  William  Cecil,  then  principal  secretary  of 
state,  assisting  as  chief  mourner,  who  also  honoured  his 
memory  with  some  Latin  verses,  in  which  he  observes, 
that  the  most  lively  imagination,  the  most  solid  judgment, 
the  quickest  parts,  and  the  mpst  unblemished  probity, 
which  are  commonly  the  lot  of  different  men,  and  when  so 
dispersed  frequently  create  great  characters,  were,  which 
very  rarely  happens,  all  united  in  sir  Thomas  Cbaloner, 
justly  therefore  reputed  one  of  the  greatest  men  of  his 
time.  He  also  encouraged  Dr.  William  Malim,  formerly 
fellow  of  King's  college  in  Cambridge,  and  then  master  of 
St.  PauPs  school,  to  collect  and  publish  a  correct  editioa 
ofour  author's  poetical  works;  which  he  accordingly  did, 
and  addressed  it  fn  an  epistle  from  St.  Paul's  school,  dated 
August  1,  1579,  to  lord  Burleigh.  Sir  Thomas  Chaloner 
married  Ethelreda,  daughter  of  Edward  Frodsham  of  Elton, 
in  the  county  palatine  of  Chester,  esq.  by  whom  he  had 
issue  his  onl}'  son  Thomas,  the  subject  of  the  next  article. 
This  lady,  not  long  after  sir  Thomas's  decease,  married 

^  The  lines  are  these,  evidently  alluding  to  the  ruiiis  of  the  nunnery  : 
Casta  fideg  superest,  velatse  lecta  sorores 

Isla  relegatae    desernere  licet : 
Nam  venerandu'*  Hymen,  hic  vota  jupralia  servat  j 

Vci^talemque  foctm  mcnte  fovere  studet. 

'Tohtm  also  is  ascribed  the  following  line,  under  a  sun-dial,  at  the  eatraace 
iato  tbe  nunnery : 

Nod  aliter  pereo  species  quam  futilis  umbrse. 

i2  C  HA  LONER- 

sir  *  «  *  Brocketty  notwithstanding  which  the  lord  Bui% 
leigh  continued  his  kindness  to  her,  out  of  respect  to  that 
friendship  which  he  had  for  her  first  husband.  Sir  Tbo^ 
mas's  epitaph  was  written  by  one  of  the  best  Latin  poets  of 
that  age,  Dr.  Walter  Haddon,  master  of  requests  to  queec^ 

Sir  Thomas  was  the  author  of  several  tracts,  but  all  thaf^ 
can  now  be  discovered  are,  1.  "  A  little  Dictionary  for 
children,"  mentioned  by  Bale.  2.  "  The  Office  of  Ser- 
vants," translated  froni  the  Latin  of  Gilbert  Cognatus, 
1543.  3.  "  Mori®  Encomium,"  translated  frojn  Erasmus^ 
and  printed  in  1549.  4.  "In  laudem  Henrici  Octavi,, 
regis  Anglis  praestantissimi,  carmen  panegyricum."  5. 
^  De  Republica  Anglorum  instauranda,  libri  decem,"  Lon- 
dini,  1579,  4to.  6.  *'  De  illustrium  quorundam  encomiis 
miscellanea,  cum  epigrammatibus  ac  epitapbiis  nonnullis.** 
This  collection  of  panegyrics,  epigrams,  and  epitaphs^  is 
printed  with  the  book  before-mentioned.  Besides  these 
there  are  some  of  his  letters  in  Haynes's  Collection  of 
State  Papers.  ^ 

CHALONER  (Sir  Thomas)  the  younger,  the  son  of 
the  former  by  his  wife  Ethelreda,  daughter  of  Mr.  Frod- 
sham  of  Elton  in  Cheshire,  was  born  in  1559,  and  being 
very  young  at  the  time  of  his  father's  decease,  and  his 
mother  soon  after  marrying  a  second  husband,  he  owed  his 
education  chiefly  to  the  care  and  protection  of  the  lord^ 
treasurer  Burleigh,  by  whom  he  was  first  put  under  the 
care  of  Dr.  Malim,  master  of  St.  Paul's  school,  and  after*- 
wards  removed  to  Magdalen  college  in  Oxford,  where  he 
closely  pursued  his  studies  at  the  time  when  his  father's 
poetical  works  were  published ;  and  as  a  proof  of  his  vene- 
ration for  his  father's  friend,  and  gratitude  for  the  many 
kindnesses  himself  had  received,  he  prefixed  a  dedication 
to  this  Work  to  his  patron  the  lord  Burleigh.  He  left  the 
college  before  he  took  any  degree,  but  not  before  he  had 
acquired  a  great  reputation  for  parts  and  learning.  He 
had,  like  his  father,  a  great  talent  for  poetry,  which  he 
wrote  witl)  niupl^  facility  both  in  English  and  in  Latin,  but 
it  does  not  appear  that  he  published  any  thing  before  he 
left  England,  which  was  probably  about  the  year  1580, 
He  visited  several  parts  of  Europe,  but  made  the  longest 
«t^y  in  Italy,  fpcmed  an  acquaint^ance  with  the  gravest  aod 

1  Biojj.  Brit.. 

C  H  A  L  O  N'E  R. 


>    * 

wisest  men  in  that  country,  who  very  readily  imparted  to 
him  their  most  important  discoveries  in  natural  philosophy, 
which  he  had  studied  virith  much  diligence  ■  and  attention^ 
At  his  return  home,  which  was  some  time  before  1584,  he 
appeared  very  much  at  court^  and  ttras  esteemed  by  the 
greatest  men  there,  on  account  of  his  great  learning 
and  manners.  About  this  time  he  married  his  first 
wife,  the  daughter  of  his  father's  old  friend  sir  William 
Fleetwood,  recorder  of  London,  by  whom  he  had  several 
children.  In  the  year  1591  he  had  the  honour  of  knight- 
hood conferred  uppn  him,  as  well  in  regard  to  bis  own  per^ 
sonal  merit  as  the  great  services  of  his  father ;  and  some 
years  after,  the  first  alum  mines  that  were  ever  known  to 
be  in  this  kingdom,  were  discovered,  by  his  great  sagacity, 
not  far  from  Gisborough  in  Yorkshire,  wHere  he  had  an 
estate*.  In  the  latter  end  of  queen  Elizabeth's  reign,  sir 
Thomas  Chaloner  made  a  journey  into  Scotland,  whether . 
out  of  curiosity,  with  a  view  to  preferment,  or  by  the 
direction  of  sir  Robert  Cecil,  afterwards  earl  of  Salisbury, 
who  was  his  great  friend,  is  uncertain;  but  he  soon  grew 
into  such  credit  with  king  James,  that  the  mbst  consider-* 
able  persotis  in  England  addressed  themselves  to  him  for 
his  favour  and  recommendation.  Amongst  the  rest,  sir 
Francis  Bacon,  afterwards  chancellor,  wrote  him  a  very 
warm  letter,  which  is  still  extant,  which  he  sent  him  by  his 
friend  Mr.  Matthews,  who '  ^as  also  charged  with  another 
to  the  king  ;  a  copy  of  which  was  sent  to  sir  Thomas  Cha- 
loner, and  Mr.  Matthews  was  directed  to  deliver  him  the 
original,  if  he  would  .undertake  to  present  it     He  accom-« 

^  The  time  when  this  discovery  was 
made  is  not  fixed  \  but  from  a  com- 
parison of  circumstances  it  appears  to 
liave  been  about  1600,  or  perhaps 
a  little  earlier.  Very  ooosiderable 
sums  of  money  were  spent  before  the 
project  was  brought  to  bear;  which 
probably  was  owing  t(5  the  difference 
•of  cUmateSj  and  that  different  manner 
ef  working,  which  this  rendered  neces- 
ury.  But  at  length,  by  the  bringing 
V^  privately  Lan^ert  Russell,  a 
Walloon,  and  two  other  workmen, 
employed  in  this  business  at  Rochelle 
Jo  France,  the  matter  was  completed, 
,  but  very  little  to  the  profit  of  the  pro- 
prietors, since  upon  this  it  was  ad- 
judged to  be  a  mine  royal,  9Dd  se 

came  into  the  kands  of  the  ^^rown.  ft 
was  then  granted  to  sir  Paul.  Pindar, 
under  the  following  rent,  viz.  twelve 
thousand  five  hundred  pounds  a  year 
to  the  king,  one  thousand  six  hundred 
and  forty  pounds  a  year  to  the  earl  of 
Mulgrave,  and  six  hundred  pounds  a 
year  to  ^r  William  Pennyman.  But 
notwithstanding  these  high  rents,  and 
that  no  less  than  eight  hundred  persons 
were  employed  in  the  manufacture  at 
a  time,  the  farm  of  the  alum  mines 
produced  a  vast  profit  to  sir  Paul  Pin* 
dar,  who  kept  up  the  commodity  at 
the  rate  of  twenly*six  pounds  a  ton. 
The  Long  Parliament  voted  this  a 
monopoly,  and  restored  the  alum  works 
to  their  original  proprietDrs, 


psnied  the  king  in  his  journey  to  England,  and  by  bis 
learning,  conversation,  and  address,  fixed  himself  so  effec- 
tually in  that  monarch's  good  gracesy  that,  as  one  of  the 
highest  marks  he  cbuld  give  him  of  bis  kindness  and  con* 
fidence,  he  thought  ^fit  to  intrust  him  with  the  care  of 
prince    Henry's  education,  August  17,   1603,  not  as  his 
tutor,  but  rather  governor  or  superintendant  of  his  house- 
hold and  education.   He  enjoyed  this  honour,  under  several 
denominations,    during  the   life-time  of   that    excellent 
prince,  whom  be  attended  in  1605  to  Oxford,  and  upon 
that  occasion  was  honoured  with  the  degree  of  master  of 
arts,  with  many  other  persons  of  distinction.     It  does  not 
appear  that  he  bad  any  grants  of  lands,  or  gifts  in  money, 
from  the  crown,  in  consideration  of  his  services,  though 
sir  Adam  Newton,  who  was  preceptor  to  prince  Henry, 
appears  to  have  received  at  several  times  the  sum  of  four 
thousand  pounds  by  way  of  free  gift.     Sir  Thomas  Cha- 
loner  had  likewise  very  great  interest  with  queen  Anne^ 
and  appears  to  have  been  employed  by  her  in  her  private 
affairs,  and  in  the  settlement  of  that  small  estate  which  she 
enjoyed.     What  relation  be  had  to  the  couit ,  after  the 
death  of  his  gracious  master  prince  Henry,  does  no  where 
appear ;  but  it  is  not  at  all  likely  that  he  was  laid  aside. 
He  married  some  years  before  his  death  bis  second  wife 
Judith^  daughter  to  Mr.  William  Blount  of  London,  and 
by  this  lady  also  he  bad  children,  to  whom  be  is  said  to 
have  left  a  considerable  estate,  which  he  had  at  Steeple* 
Claydon  in  the  county  of  Buckingham.     He  died  Novem- 
ber 17,  1615,  and  was  buried  in  the  parish  church  of  Chis- 
wick  in  the  county  of  Middlesex.     His  eldest*  son  William 
Chaloner,  esq.  was  by  letters  patents  dated  July  20,  in 
the  18th  of  James  I.  in  1620,  created  a  baronet,  by  the 
title  of  William  Chaloner  of  Gisborough  in  the  county  of 
York,  esq.  which  title  was  extinct  in  1681.     Few  or  none, 
either  of  our  historians  or  biographers,  Anthony  Wood 
excepted,  have  taken  any  notice  of  him,  though  he  was 
so  considerable  a  benefactor  to  this  nation,  by  discovering 
the  alum    mines,    which  have    produced  vast    sums    of 
money,  and  still  continue  to  be  wrought  with  very  great 
profit.     Dr.  Birch,  indeed,  in  his   "  Life  of  Henry  Prince 
of  Wales,"  has  given  a  short  account  of  sir  Thomas,  and 
has  printed  two  letters  of  his,  both  of  which  shew  him  to 
have  been  a  man  of  sagacity  and  reflection.     In  the  Lam- 
helh  library  are  also  some  letters  of  sir  Thomas  Chaloner' s^^ 


of  which  there  are  transcripts  by  Dn  Birch  in  the  British 
Museuta.  The  only  publication  by  sir  Thomas  Chaloiier 
is  entitled  *^  The  virtue  of  Nitre,  wherein  is  declared  the 
sundry  cures  by  the  same  effected/'  Lond.  1584,  4to.  In 
this  he  discovers  very  considerable  knowledge  of  chemistry 
and  mineralogy.  * 

CHALONER  (Edward),  second  son  of  the  preceding, 
was  born  in  1590  at  Ohiswick  in  Middlesex,  where  his 
father  and  mother  lived  and  died.  He  was  educated  at 
Oxford,  first  in  Magdalen  college,  where  he  completed  his 
degrees  in  arts  in  1610,  and  next  year  was  chosen  fellow 
of  All  Souls.  Entering  into  orders,  he  was  made  chap- 
lain to  James  I.  and  doctor  of  divinity,  and  principal  of 
Alban-hall.  He  was  reputed  a  very  learned  man  for  his 
time,  an  able  preacher,  and  good  disputant.  His  compo-* 
sitions  were  much  valued  by  the  greatest  men  then  in  the 
church ;  and  the  sermons  which  be*  published  in  his  life-* 
time,  as  also  those  published  after  his  death,  in  all  thir« 
teen,  were  then  looked  upon  as  choice  pieces,  very  ser- 
viceable to  the  church  and  commonwealth.  He  died  of 
the  plague  at  Oxford,  July  25,  1625,  and  was  buried  in 
St.  JVlary's  chutch-yard,  where  a  monument  was  afterwards 
erected  to  his  memory.  Of  his  works,  six  of  his  *'  Ser- 
mons^' were  published,  Lond.  1623,  8vo;  one  Lond.  1624, 
4to;  and  six  after  his  death,  Oxford,  1629,  4to.  He  wrote 
also  on  "  The  Authority,  Universality,  and  Visibility  of 
the  Church,"  Lond.  1625,  4to,  and  1638,  12mo,  and  left 
some  MSS.  behind  him.  ^ 

CHALONER  (Thomas),  younger  brother  to  the  prece-* 
ding  Edward,  ^was  also  sent  to  Oxford,  and  spent  some 
time  there  at  Exeter  college,  after  which  he  went  abroad,' 
and  having  travelled  through  France  and  Italy,  returned 
home  a  very  well-accomplished  gentleman,  being  much 
distinguished  for  the  vivacity  of  his  wit,  and  his  extensive 
knowledge  in  all  kind  of  polite  literature :  but  having 
contracted  a  dislike  to  the  royal  family,  on  the  score  of 
the  alum  mines,  of  which  his  father  had  been  deprived^ 
he  joined  the  malcontents,  and  being  elected  member  foe 
Aldborough  in  the  county  of  York,  became  an  active 
niember  of  the  Long  Parliament  He  sat  as  one  of  the 
king's  judges,  and  was  elected  one  of  the  members  of  the 
coancii  of  state.     Upon  a  prospect  of  the  king's  return  he 

^    Brit. — ^Lodge's  lUastratioDS^  vol.  III. — Ath.   Ox.  vol.  1. — Burc|i*t 
"iftce  Henry.  «  AUi.  Or.  Tol.  I. 

«  C  H  A  L  O  N  E  R. 

printed  a  paper,  entitled  "  A  Speech,  containing  a  Plea 
for  Monarchy/'  in  which  he  hinted  at  some  limi^tions  and 
restriction^.  He  soon  after  thought  fit  to  retire  to  HoUand, 
and  was  excepted  out  of  the  Act  of  Oblivion,  atid  very 
soon  after  died  at  Middleburg  in  Zealand.  ^ 

CHALONER  (James),  another  brother  of  the  pre- 
ceding, was  a  commoner  of  Brazen-nose  college  in  Oxford, 
and  afterwards  studied  in  the  inns  of  court.  He  was  a  man 
of  great  learning,  and  distinguished  himself  as  an  anti-^ 
quary,  as  also  by  writing  the  History  of  the  Isle  of  Man,  a 
manuscript  copy  of  which  was  in  the  valuable  museum  of 
Mr.  Thoresby,  of  Leeds,  and  afterwards  bought  by  Edr- 
mondson,  but  it  has  been  also  printed  at  the  end  of  King's 
**  Vale  Royal  of  Cheshire,"  in  1656.  He  was  likewise  a 
member  of  the  Long  Parliament,  deep  in  the  transactions 
of  those  times,  and  one  of  the  king's  judges;  for  which, 
at  the  restoration,  he*  was  excepted  from  the  benefit  of 
his  estate,  but  his  life  spared ;  and  this  distinction  seems  to 
have  been  owing  to  his  riot  having  signed  the  warrant  for 
the  king's  death,  which  his  brother  Thomas  did.  He  mai:-> 
ried  Ursula,  'daughter  of  sir  William  Fairfax,  of  Seeton,  in 
the  county  of  York,  and  dying  in  1661,  wds  succeeded  in 
his  estate  by  his  only  son  Edmund.  Wood  says  he  poi- 
soned himself,  when  a  search  was  making  for  him.  One 
James  Chaloner  made  collections  of  arms,  &c.  in  the  city 
of  Chester,  which,  Mr.  Gough  informs  us,  came  into  Vin- 
cent's hands;  but  this  perhaps  is  one  of  the  three  Chaloners 
who  were  herald -painters  of  that  city,  and  no  wise  related 
to  sir  Thomas  Chaloner's  family,  although  ib  a  late  history 
of  Chester,  1791,  James  the  herald-painter  is  said 
the  author  of  the  History  of  the  Isle  of  Man.  Mr.  Gough 
also  informs  us  that  the  author  of  that  history  made  collec* 
tions  of  arms,  monuments,  &c.  in  Shrophire,  which  in 
1700  were  in  the  Heralds'  office,  numbered  230  among 
Vincent's  books;  but  they  were  purloined  from  thence 
(probably  when  lord  Oxford  was  collecting  his  library,  and 
gave  any  price  for  MSS.),  and  are  now  in  the  British  Mu- 
aeum,  No.  2163,  Harl.  Cat  But  it  appears  from  other 
parts  of  the  British  Topography,,  that  even  Mr.  Gough 
has  not  always  kept  in  view  the  distinction  between  the 
two  James  Chaloners.  ^  • 

'  Atji.  Ox.  Tol.  T. 

»  Ath.  Ox.  Vol.  IT.— Biog,  Brit.— Gougb's  ^ritisji  Topography.— Gent.  M^. 
Tol.  I4XVII.  p.  1087,  .      .' 

C  H  A  L  V  E  T.  7T 

CHALVET  (Matthew  de),  in  Latin  Calventicts,  pre- 
sident of  the  Inquests  of  the  parliament  of  Toulouse,  was 
born  in  May  1528.     He  was  brought  to  Paris  in  1539  by 
Mr.  Lizet  his  uncle,  at  that  time  advocate-general  in  the 
parliament  of  Paris,  who  kept  him  six  years  to  his  studies 
under  Orontius  Fineus,  Tusan,  Buchanan,  and  some  other 
learned  persons.     He  went  to  Toulouse  in  1546,  to  leara 
the  civil  law,   and  lodged  in  the  same  house  with  Turne- 
bus,   Mercerus,  and  Govea.     He  travelled  into  Italy  in 
1550,  in  order  to  pursue  his  studies,  and  was  Alciat's  dis- 
ciple at  Pavia,  and  Socinus's  at  Bologna.     Being  returned 
to  France,  he.  went  to  Toulouse,  and  there  completed  his 
course  of  law-studies,  and  was  associated  with  Roaldes  and 
Bodinus,  reading  law  lectures  together  in  the  public  schools 
with  reputation.     Having  taken  his  doctor's  -degree  in  that 
nniversity,  be  resolved  to  go  to  Paris,  in  order  to  malice  his 
fortune ;  but  though  this  resolution  of  his  was  strengthened 
by  some  letters  he  received  from  Mr.  Lizet,  yet  he  chose 
ratber  to  settle  in  Toulouse,  where  he  married,  in  1552, 
Jane  de  Bemuy,  daughter  of  the  lord  de  Palficat,  baron  of 
Villeneufve.  He  was  admitted  counsellor  in  the  parliament 
of  that  city  in  1553,  afterwards  created  judge  of  French 
poesy,  and  raaintainer  of  the  floral  sports.     He  was  ap* 
pointed  president  of  the  inquests  by  tlie  parliament  in 
1573.  Being  of  a  peaceable  temper,  he  retired  to  his  house 
in  Auvergne,  during  the  first  and  last  furies  of  the  civil 
wars,  in  order  that  he  might  uot  be  an  eye-witness  of  the 
confusions  which  he  saw  would  break  out  in  Toulouse.    It 
was  in  tbis  retirement  he  studied  and  translated  Seneca^  to 
administer  some  -  consolation  to  himself  during  the  wild 
havock  that  was  then  making,  and  to  employ  his  leisure  to 
adyantage.     His  attachment  to  fats  sovereign  gained  him 
the  particular  esteem  of  Henry  IV.  who  in  1603  appointed 
biiB  counsellor  of  state  and  privy  counsellor.     The  year 
after,    he  resigned   his  dignity  of  president  to   Francis 
Chalvet  sieur  de  Fenouillet,  one  of  his  sonS)  and  retired 
from  business  to  spend  the  remainder  of  his  days  in  peaco 
and  among  his  books.     He  spent  two  years  in  this  retire-^ 
melnt,  with  so  much  satisfaction  to  himself,  that  he  used 
frequently  to  declare  to  his  relations,  that  he  could  not  say 
be  had  lived  during  the  previous  years  of  his  life.    He  died 
»t  Toulouse  the  20th  of  June,  1607,  being  i^eventy-nine 
y^n  of  age.     Several  authors  have  honoured  him  with 

78  C  H  A  L  V  E  T. 

His  '^  Translation  of  Seneca/*  was  published  at  Paris, . 
1604,  folio,  and  reprinted  there  in  1638,  with  a  life  of  the 
translator,  and  some  encomiastic  verses  in  French  and 
Latin.  Chalvet  himself  wrote  much  French  and  Latin 
poetry,  which  was  not  published.  Huet,  in  his  treatise 
*^  De  Claris  interpretibus,"  thinks  that  his  translation  of 
Seneca  is  too  diffuse.  ^ 

CHAMBER,  or  CHAMBRE  (John),  a  learned  phy- 
sician in  the  sixteenth  century,  noted  chiefly  for  being  one 
of  the  founders  of  the  college  of  physicians,  London,  was 
educated  in  Merton  college  ^n  Oxford,  of  which  he  was 
fellow*  He  took  his  degree  of  master  of  arts  about  the 
year  1 502  ;  after  which,  travelling  into  Italy,  he  studied 
physic  at  Padua,  and  there  took  his  degree  of  doctor  in 
that  faculty.  -After  his  return,  he  became  physician  to 
Henry  VIIL  ;  and  with  Thomas  Linacre  and  others,  found- 
ed the  college  of  physicians.  Henry  VHIth^s  charter,  for 
the  foundation  of  this  college,  bears  date  at  Westminster, 
September  23,  1518,  and  is  said  to  have  been  obtained  at 
the  request  of  Dr.  John  Chamber,  Thomas  Linacre,  Fer- 
nandez de  Victoria,  his  physicians  ;  and  of  Nicolas  Halse^ 
well,  John  Fraunces^  and  Robert  Yaxley,  of  the  same  fa- 
culty :  but  especially  through  the  intercession  and  inte- 
rest of  cardinal  Wolsey.  The  first  college  of  this  society 
was  in  Knight  Rider-street,  being  the  gift  of  Dr.  Linacre. 
Afterwards  they  removed  to  Amen-corner,  where  they 
bought  an  fa9use  and  ground  :  but  the  house  being  burnt 
down  in  1666,  the  fellows  purchased  a  large  piece  of 
ground  in  Warwick-lane,  upon  which  they  erected  the 
present  college.  The  number  of  fellows  at  first  was  but 
thirty.  Charles  IL  at  their  request,  augmented  the  num- 
ber to  forty.  And  James  IL  in  their  new  charter,  was 
pleased  to  increase  the  number  to  eighty,  and  not  to  ex- 
ceed. To  the  college  belong,  at  present,  a  president,  four 
censors,  and  twelve  electors. 

Dr.  Chamber,  being  in  holy  orders,  became  in  15 10 
canon  of  Windsor,  and  in  1524  archdeacon  of  Bedford,  and 
was  likewise  prebendary  of  Comb  and  Harnham  in  the 
cathedral  church  of  Sarum.  In  1525  he  was  elected  war- 
den of  Merton  college;  and  about  the  same  time  wa& 
made  dean  of  the  royal  chapel  and  college  adjoining  to 

Westminster- hall,  dedicated  to  the  Virgin  Mary  and  St^ 

i    .     .   .-   . 

>  GeD.  Diet. — Moreri. 


Stephen.  He  built  to  it  a  very  curious  cloister,  at  the 
expence  of  11,000  marks,  and  gave  the  canons  of  that 
chapel  some  lands,  which  he  saw,  upon  the  dissolution  of 
the  monasteries,  taken  into  the  king^s  hands.  Afterwards 
he  was  made  treasurer  of  Wells  cathedral,  beneficed  in 
Somersetshire  and  Yorkshire,  and  probably  had  other 
dignities  and  preferments.  October  29,  1531,  he  was  in- 
corporated doctor  of  physic  at  Oxford.  In  May  1 543,  he 
i^signed  his  treasurership  of  Wells ;  and  his  wardenship 
of  Merton  college  in  1545.  He  died  in  1549.  He  never 
published  any  thing.  * 

CHAMBERLAIN  (John),  esq.  was  born  about  the  mid- 
dle of  January  1552,  and  was  educated  at  Cambridge. 
To  the  knowledge  of  the  learned  languages,  which  he  cul- 
tivated there,  he  added  that  of  the  French  and  Italian.  He 
enjoyed  great  intimacy  with  the  most  considerable  men  in 
England,  with  sir  Henry  Savile,  bishop  Andrews,  sir 
Thomas  Bodley,  sir  Thomas  Edmondes,  sir  Dudley  Carle- 
ton,  and  sir  Ralph  Winwood.  In  the  confidence  of  thd 
last  of  these  he  had  a  very  great  share,  while  that  honest 
and  able  minister  was  secretary  of  state,  and  the  character 
of  the  latter  appears  in  a  very  advantageous  light  in  the 
letters  of  Mr.  Chamberlain.  Having  a  fortune  sufficient 
to  satisfy  a  quiet  and  unambitious  temper,  he  enjoyed  the 
satisfactions  of  private  life  in  the  society  of  his  friends  till 
a  good,  old  age,  dying  after  the  year  1626,  and  before  April 
1631,  for  his  name '  does  not  appear  among  those  of  the 
commissioners  for  the  repairing  of  St.  PauPs,  in  the  se- 
cond commission  dated  the  10th  of  that  month,  though  he 
had  been  appointed  a  commissioner  in  the  first.  His  cor*- 
respondence  is  in  the  British  Museum.' 

CHAMBERLAYNE  (Edward)  was  descended  from  an 
ancient  family,  and  born  at  Odington  in  Gloucestershire^ 
16i<6.  He  was  educated  at  Gloucester  ;  became  a  com- 
moner of  St.  Edmund-hall  in  Oxford  in  1634  ;  took  both 
his  degrees  in  arts ;  and  was  afterwards  appointed  rhetoric  . 
reader.  During  the  civil  war  in  England,  he  made  the 
tour  of  Europe.  In  1658  he  married  the  only  daughter 
of  Richard  Clifford,  esq.  by  whom  he  had  nine  children. 
In  1668  he  was  chosen  F.  R.  S.  and  in  1669  attended 
Charles  earl  of  Carlisle,  sent  to  Stockholm  with  the  ordet 
of  the  garter  to  the  king  of  Sweden,  as  his  secretary.     la 

^  Biog.  Brit.-— Atb.  Ox.  vol.  1. 

*  Maty's  Review,  vol.  V.  p.  130.  Irom  llr.  Kirch's  MSS. 


1670  the  degree  of  LL.  T)i  was  conferred  on' him  at  Cam* 
bridge^  and  two  years  after  he  was  incorporated  in  the 
same  at  Oxford.  He  was  appointed  to  be  tutor  to  Henry 
/duke  of  Grafton^  one  of  the  natural  sons  of  Charles  II. 
about  1679  ;  and  was  afterwards  appointed  to  instruct 
prince  George  of  Denmark  in  the  English  tongue.  He 
.died  at  Chelsea  in  1703^  and  was  buried  in  a  yauit  in  the 
<burch-yard  of  that  parish  ;  where  a  monument  was  soon 
after  erected  to  bis  memory,  by  Walter  Harris,  M.  O.  witji 
a  Latin  inscription,  which  informs  us,  among  other  things^ 
that  Dr.  Chamberlayne  was  so  desirous  of  doing  service  to 
all,  and  even  to  posterity,  that  he  ordered  some  of  the 
books  he  had  written  to  be  covered  with  wax,  and  buried 
with  him ;  which  have  been  since  destroyed  by  the  damp. 
The  six  .books  vanity  or  dotage  thus  consigned  to  the  grave^ 
are,  1.  ^^  The  present  war  paralleled ;  or  a  brief  relation  of 
the  five  years'  civil  wars  of  Henry  III.  king  of  England, 
with  the  event  and  issue  of  that  unnatural  wa^,  and  by  what 
course  the  kingdom  was  then  $»ettled  ag^in  ;  extracted  out 
of  the  most  authentic  historians  and  records,''  1647.  It 
was  reprinted  in  1660,  under  this  title,  ^^  The  late  war 
paralleled,  or  a  brief  relation,"  &c.  2.  ^^  England's  vt^ants; 
or  several  proposals  probably  beneficial  for  England,  offer*, 
ed  to  the  consideration  of  both  houses  of  parliament," 
1667.  3.  "The  Converted  Presbyterian  ;  or  the  church 
of  England  justified  in  some  practices,"  &c*  1668.  4-. 
*^  AnglioB  Notitia ;  or  the  Presejit  State  of  England  ;  with 
divers. reflections  upon  the  ancient  state  thereof,"  1668* 
The  second  part  was  published  in  1671,  &c.  This  work 
bas  gone  through  many  editions ;  the  first  twenty  of  wkich 
were  published  by  Dr.  Edward  Chamberlain,  and  the  rest 
by  his  son.  5.  "  An  academy  or  college,  wherein  young 
ladies  or  gentlewomen  may,  at  a  very  moderate  expence^ 
be  educated  in  the  true  protestant  religion,  and  in  all  vir- 
tuous qualities  that  may  adorn  that  sex,  &c."  1671.  6. 
**  A  Dialogue  between  an  Englishman  and  a  Dutchman, 
iConceming  the  last  Dutch  war,"  1672.  He  translated  out 
of  Italian,  Spanish,  and  Portuguese,  into  English,  1.  "  The 
rise  and  fall  of  count  Olivarez  the  favourite  of  Spain."  2^ 
<^  The  unparalleled  imposture  of  Mich,  de  Molina,  exe«- 
i^uted  at  Madrid,"  1641.  3.  "The  right  and  title  of  the 
present  king  of  Portugal^  don  John  the  IVth."  These 
three  translations  were  printed  at  London,  1653.^ 

<  Biog. 


CHAMBERLAYNE  (Johk)i  son  to  the  preceding,  wa« 
admitted  into  Trinity  college,  Oxford,  1685;  but  it  does 
not  appear  that  be  took  any  degree.     He  continued  bis 
father's  **  Auglie  Notida,"  or  ^  Present  State,"  as  long 
.  as  he  lived,  and  it  was  continued  after  his  death  until  1755, 
which,  we  believe,  is  the  last  edition*     He  translated,  1. 
from  French  and  Spanish,  *^  The  manner  of  making  Tea, 
Coffee,   and  Chocolate,    London,"    1685,  8vo.     2,   From 
Italian  into  English,  **  A  Treasure  of  Health,''  London, 
1686,  8vo,  written  by  Castor  Durant  de  Gualdo,  physician 
aod  citizen  of  Rome.    3.  ^^  The  Arguments  of  the  books 
and  chapters  of  the  Old  and  New  Testament,  with  practi* 
cal  observations ;  written  originally  in  French,  by  the  rer. 
,  Mr.  Ostervald,  professor  of  divinity,  and  one  of  the  mi- 
nisters of  the  church  ^t  Neufchatel  in  Swi$serland,%and  by 
him  presented    to    the  society  for  promoting  Christian 
knowledge^"  Lond.  1716,  &c.  3  vols.  8vo.     Mr.  Chamber- 
layne  was  a  member  of  that  society.     4.  ^^  The  Lives  of 
the  French  Pbitosophers,  translated  from  the  French  of  M* 
de  Fontanel le,  republished  since  in  1721,  under,  the  title 
of  <<  Memoirs  of  the  Royal  Academy  of  Sciences  in  Paris^ 
epitomized,  with  the  lives  of  the  late  members  of  that  so-^ 
ciety,^'   dvo.     5.  <<  The  Religious  Philosopher  j    or,  the 
aright  use  of  contemplating  the  works  of  the  Creator,  &c* 
translated  from  the  original  Dutch  of  Dr.  Nieuwentyt,'' 
Lond.  1718,  &c.  3  vols.  8vo,  reprinted  several  times  since 
in  8vo,  and  once  in  4to.     6.  ^^  The  History  of  the  Refor- 
mation in  and  about  the  Low  Countries,  translated  from  the 
Dutch  of  Gerrard  Brandt,"  Lond.  1721,  &c.  4  vols,  foh 
7.  ^'The  Lord's  Prayer  in  100  languages,  8vo,  which  is 
erroneously  attributed  by  Mr.  Whiston  the  bookseller,  in  a 
MS  note  in  his  copy  of  this  Dictionary,  to  a  Thomas  Cham- 
berlayne.     8.   '^  Dissertations  historical,    critical,  theolo- 
gical, and  moral,  on  the  most  memorable  events  of  the 
Old  and  New  Testaments ;  wherein  the  spirit  of  the  sacred 
writings  is  shewn,  their  authority  confirmed,  and  the  sen- 
timents of  the  primitive  fathers,  -as  well  as  the  modern 
critics,  with  regard  to  the  difficult  passages  therein,  con- 
sidered and  compared ;  vol.  L  comprising  the  events  related 
in  the  Books  of  Moses  :  to  which  are  added,  chronological 
tables,  fixing  the  date  of  each  event,  and  connecting  the 
several  dissertations  togisther,"  1723,  folio.     He  lij^ewise 
was  elected  ]^.  R.  S.  in   1702,  and  communicated  three 
pieces,  inserted  in  the  Philosophical  Transactions ;  one, 
Vol.  IX.  G 


died  at  Paris  in  1592,  much  regretted  by  all  who  knew  hitir. 
His  wotks,  which  were  published  in  one  vol.  8vo,  Paris, 
1579,  and  which  relate  to  the  succession  to  the  crown,  the 
fight  of  Mary  to  that  of  England,  &c.  consist  of,  1.  "  His- 
toire  abreg6e  de  tons  les  Roys  de  France,  Angleterre,  et 
Escosse."  2.  "  La  recherche  des  singularitez  plus  re- 
markables  concernant  le  estat  d'Ecosse."  3.  "  Discours 
de  la  legitime  succession  des  femmes  aux  possessions  de 
leurs  parens,  et  du  government  des  princesses  aux  empires 
et  royaumes.'*  Machenzie  gives  a  full  analysis  of  all  these, 
but  bishop  Nicolson  has  not  so  high  an  opinion  of  the 
soundness  of  the  author*s  principles.  Dempster  and  others 
highly  extol  his  learning  and  character. ' 

CHAMBERS  (Ephraim),  author  of  the  scientific  dic- 
tionary which  goes  under  his  name,  was  born  at  Kendal 
in  the  county  of  Westmorland,  the  youngest  of  three  bro- 
thers! His  parents  were  dissenters  of  the  presbyterian 
persuasion^;  and  not  quakers,  as  has  been  reported;  and 
their  occupation  was  that  of  farming.  He  was  sent  early 
to  Kendal  school,  where  he  received  a  good  classical  edu- 
cation. But  his  father,  who  had  already  placed  his  eldest 
son  at  Oxford,  and  x^ould  not  afford  the  same  expence  a 
second  time,  determined  to  bring  up  Ephraim  to  trade. 
He  was  accordingly,  at  a  proper  age,  sent  to  London,  and 
spent  some  time  in  the  shop  of  a  mechanic  in  that  city ; 
but,  having  an  aversion  to  the  business,  he  tried  another,  to 
which  he  was  equally  averse,  and  was  at  last  put  appren- 
tice to  Mr.  Senex  the  globe-maker,  a  business  which  is 
connected  with  literature,  and  especially  with  astronomy 
and  geography.  It  was  during  Mr.  Chambers's  residence 
with  this  skilful  mechanic,  that  he  contracted  that  taste 
for  science  and  learning  whiqh  accompanied  him  through 
life,  and  directed  all  his  pursuits,  and  in  which  his  master 
▼ery  liberally  encouraged  him.  It  was  even  at  this  time 
that  he  formed  the  design  of  his  grand  work,  the  *'  Cyclo- 
jpsBdia ;"  and  some  of  the  first  articles  of  it  were  written  be- 
hind the  counter.  Having  conceived  the  idea  of  so  great 
an  undertaking,  he  justly  concluded  that  the  execurion  of 
it  would  not  consist  with  the  avocations  of  trade ;  and, 
therefore,  he  quitted  Mr.  Senex,  afid  took  chambers  at 
Gray*s-inn,  where  he  chiefly  resided  during  the  rest  of  his 
days.     The  first  edition  of  the  "  Cyclopaedia,"  which  was 

1  Miichenzie''s  Scotch  writers,  toI.  III.— Nicolson's  Scotch  Library. 



*  • 

lite  result  of  many  years  intense  application,  appeared  in 
1728,  in  2  vols,  folio.     It  was  published  by  subscription, 
the  price  being  4/.  4^. ;  and  the  list  of  subscribers  was  very 
numerous.     The  dedication,  to  the  king,  is  dated  Oct.  -l^y 
1727.    The  reputation  that  Mr.  Chambers  acquired  by  bis 
executioti  of  this  undertaking,  procured  him  the  honour  of 
being  elected  F.  R.  S.  Nov.  6,    1729.     In  less  than  ten 
years'  time,  a  second   edition  became  necessary ;  which 
accordingly  was  printed,  with  corrections  and  additions, 
in  1758*.     It  having  been  intended,  at  first,  to  give  a  new 
work  instead  of  a  new  edition,  Mr.  Chambers  bad  prepare4^ 
a  considerable  part  of  the  copy  with  that  view,  and  more 
than  twenty  sheets  were  actually  printed  off.    The  purpose 
of  the  proprietors,   according  to  this  plan,  was  to  have 
'  published  a  volume  in  the  winter  of  1737,  and  to  have 
proceeded  annually  in  supplying  an  additional  volume,  till 
the  whole  was  completed.     But  from  this  design  they  were 
diverted,  by  the  alarm  they  took  at  an  act  then  agitated  ia 
parliament,  in  which  a  clause  was  contained,  obliging  the 
publishers  of  all  improved  editions  of  books  to  print  the 
improvements  separately.     The  bill,  which  carried  in  it 
the  appearance  of  equity,  but  which,  perhaps,  might  bav^ 
created  greater  obstructions  to  the  cause  of  literature  than 
a  transient  view  of  it  could  suggest,  passed  the  bouse  of 
commons,  but  was  rejected  in  the  house  of  lords.     In  aa 
advertisement  prefixed  to  the  second  edition  of  the '^^  Cyclq- 
paedia,''  Mr.  Chambers  endeavoured  to  obviate  the  con)- 
plaints  of  such  readers  as  might  hav^  been  led  to  expect 
(from  a  paper  of  his  published  some  time  before)  a. new 
work,  instead  of  a  new  edition.     So  favourable- was  the 
public  reception  of  the  second  edition  of  Chambers's  dic- 
tionary, that  a  third  was  called  for  in  the  very  next  year, 
1739  ;  a  fourth  two  years  afterwards,  in  1741  ;  and  a  fifth 
in  1746.    This  rapid  sale  of  so  large  and  expensive  a  work, 
is  not  easily  to  be  paralleled  in  the  history  of  literature : 
and  must  be  considered,  not  only  as  a  striking  testimoiiy 

*  Some  years  afterwards,  when  he 
was  in  France  for  the  recovery  of  his 
^kealth,  he  received  an  intimation,  that 
if  be  would  publish  a  new  edition  there, 
and  dedicate  it  to  Lewis  XV.  he  would 
%e  Uberally  rewarded  :  but  these  pro* 
|K»sals,  says  our  informant,  his  British 
iejutjcceived  with  disdain^  and  he  re« 

jected  the  teaming  solicitation  of  men 
who  were  provoking  him  to  a  sordid 
retractation  of  the  compliments  he 
had  paid  to  his  lawful  sovereign.  Ge|kt« 
Mag.  vol.  LV.  p.  C71,  an  article  from 
which  we  have  been  enabled  to  correct 
■  and  improve  the  account  fonnerly 
jglven  of  Mr.  Chambers. 


of  the  general  estimation  in  which  it  is  held,  but  likewise 
as  a  strong  proof  of  its  real  utility  and  merit 

Although  the  **  Cyclopeedia^'  was  the  grand  business  of 
Mr.  Chambers^s  life,  and  may  be  regarded  as  almost  the 
sole  foundation  of  his  fame,  his  attention  was  not  wholly 
tonfined  to  this  undertaking.  He  was  concerned  in  a 
periodical  publication  entitled  ^^  The  Literary  Magazine,'' 
which  was  begun  in  1735,  and  continued  for  a  few  years, 
containing  a  review  of  books  on  the  analytical  plan.  In 
this  work  he  wrote  a  variety  of  articles,  and  particularly  a 
review  of  Morgan's  "  Moral  Philosopher.'*  He  was  en- 
gaged likewise,  in  conjunction  with  Mr.  John  Marty n, 
'F.  R.  S«  and  professor  of  botany  at  Cambridge,  in  pre- 
paring for  the  press  a  translation  and  abridgment  of  the 
**  Philosophical  history  and  memoirs  of  the  royal  academy 
of  sciences  at  Paris;  or  an  abridgment  of  all  the  papers 
relating  to  natural  philosophy  which  have  been  published 
by  the  members  of  that  illustrious  society."  This  under- 
taking, when  completed,  was  comprised  in  five  volumes, 
8vo,  which  did  not  appear  till  1742,  some  time  after  our 
author's  decease,  when  they  were  published  in  the  joint 
names  of  Mr.  Martyn  and  Mr.  Chambers.  Mr.  Martyn,  in 
a  subsequent  publication,  passed  a  severe  censure  upon  the 
^are  which  his  fellow-labourer  had  in  the  abridgment  of 
the  Parisian  papers;  which,  indeed,  he  appears  to  have 
executed  in  a  very  slovenly  manner,  and  to  have  been  un- 
acquainted with  the  FVench  terms  in  natural  history.  The 
only  wOrk  besides,  that  we  find  ascribed  to  Mr.  Chambers, 
is  a  translation  of  the  *'  Jesuit's  Perspective,"  from  the 
French ;  which  was  printed  in  4to,  and  has  gone  through 
several  editions.  How  indefatigable  he  was  in  his  literary 
and  scientific  collections,  is  manifest  from  a  circumstance 
which  used  to  be  related  by  Mr.  Airey,  who  was  so  well 
known  to  many  persons  by  the  vivacity  of  his  temper  and 
conversation,  and  his  bold  avowal  of  the  principles  of  in- 
fidelity. This  gentleman,  in  the  very  early  part  of  his  life, 
was  five  years  (from  1728  to  1733)  amanuensis  to  Mi^.  Cham- 
bers ;  and,  during  that  time,  copied  nearly  20  folio  vo- 
lumes, so  large  as  to  comprehend  materials,  if  they  had 
been  published,  for  printing  30  volumes  in  the  same  size. 
Mr.  Chambers  however  acknowledged,  that  if  they  were 
printed,  they  would  neither  be  sold  nor  read.  His  close 
and  unremitting  attention  to  his  studies  at  length  impaired 
his  health,  and  obliged  him  occasionally  to  take  a  lodging 


at  CitDonbury«*hoase9  Islington.  This  not  Iiaving  greatly 
t;ontributed  to  bis  recovery,  he  made  an  excursion  to  the 
south  of  France,  of  wiiich  he  left  an  account  in  MS.  but 
did  not  reap  that  benefit  from  the  journey  which  be  had 
himself  hoped  and  his  friends  wished.  Returning  to  £ng« 
land  in  the  autumn  of  1739,  he  died  at  Canonbury-house^ 
atid  was  buried  at  Westminster ;  where  the  following  in^ 
scription,  written  by  himself,  is  placed  on  the  north  side  of 
the  cloisters  of  the  abbey  : 

^'  M uUis  pervulgatus, 

Paucis  notus; 

Qui  vitam^  inter  lucem  et  imibram> 

Neceruditus^  necidiota^ 

literis  deditua,  trainegit ;  sad  ut  homo 

•    Qm  humani  nihil  a  se  alknum  putat. 

Vita  simuly  et  laboribus  functus^ 

Hie  requiescere  voluit^ 

Ephraim  Chambers,  R.  S.  S. 

Obiit  XV  Mail,  mdccxl." 

His  writings  were  those  of  a  man  who  had  a  sound  judg«^ 
meot,  a  clear  and  strong  memory,  a  ready  invention,  an 
easy  method  of  arranging  his  ideas,  and  who  neither  spared 
time  nor  trouble.  His  lite  was  spent  rather  in  the  company 
of  books  than  men,  and  bia  pen  was  oftener  employed  than 
bis  tongue :  his  style  is  in  general  good,  and  his  defini«« 
tions  clear  and  unaffected.  In  languag/e  he  applied  ratbec 
to  the  judgment  than  to  the  ear;  and  if  he  deserves  to  be 
censured  for  baldness,  it  should  also  be  remembered  how 
difficult  technical  expression  is,  which  must  be  accommo*^ 
dated  at  once  to  the  scholar  and  the  artificer.  In  his  epis-^ 
tolary  correspondence,  some  specimens  of  which  may  be 
seen  in  the  Gentleman's  Magazine,  he  was  lively  and  easy«, 

His  personal  character  had  many  peculiarities.  Whati 
we  record  with  most  regret  is  that  his  religious  sentioienta 
leaned  to  infidelity,  although  it  has  been  said  in  excas^ 
that  he  avoided  propagating  his  opinions,  and  certainly  did 
nQ%  introduce  them  in  his  writings.  His  mode  of  Ufa 
was  reserved,  for  he  kept  little  company,  and  no  table.  Aq 
intimate  friend  who  called  on  him  one  mprning,  was  asked 
by  him  to  stay  and  dine.  '^  And  what  will  you  give  me^ 
^braim  ?''  said  the  gentlem^^  '^  I  dare  engage  you  have 
nothing  for  dinner;^'  to  which  Mr.  Chambers  oalmly  re<r 
plied,  **  Yes,  I  have  a  fritter ;  and  if  you'll  stay  with  me, 
I'll  have  two."   yet,  though  thus  inattentive  tobimself,  he 

S8  CHAM  BE  R  S. 

was  very  generous  to  the  poor.  He  was  likewise  suflScielitly 
conscious  of  his  defects  in  social  qualities,  and  when  urged 
to  marry  that  ^  he  might  then  have  a  person  to  look  after 
him,  which  his  health  required,  he  replied  somewhat  has-* 
tily,  <^  What !  shall  I  mstke  a  woman  miserable,  to  contri- 
bute to  my  own  ease  ?  For  miserable  she  must  be  the  mo« 
ment  she  gives  her  hand  to  so  unsocial  a  being  as  myself.*' 

It  has  been  said  in  former  accounts  of  Mr.  Chambers, 
that  he  was  not  treated  in'  the  most  liberal  manner  by  the 
booksellers  with  whom  be  was  concerned;  but  this  waa 
far  from  being  the  case,  as  he  experienced  the  most  gene- 
rous behavioar  from  them.  It  is  true  that  the  price  of 
literary  labour  was  not  then  so  high  as  it  has  since  risen, 
but  he  was  paid  up  to  the  standard  of  his  time.  Among 
his  employers  Mr.  Longman  in  particular  (grand  uncle  of 
the  present  Mr.  Longman)  used  him  with  great  liberality 
and  tenderness;  his  house  was  ever  open  to  receive  him,  and 
when  he  was  there,  every  attention  was  paid  to  his  pecn- 
liarities ;  and  during  his  illness,  jellies  and  other  proper 
jrefreshments  were  industriously  left  for  him  at  those  places 
where  it  was  least  likely  he  should  avoid  seeing  theml 
When  we  consider  that  he  was  a  single  man,  with  few  wants 
and  fewer  wishes,  and  that  by  the  assistance  of  his  friends 
he  was  enabled  to  live  happily,  and  die  at  last  possessed  of 
considerable  property,  he  can  scarcely  be  deemed  unsuc«* 
cessful.  Every  deficiency  he  supplied  by  ceconomy  ;  and 
in  pecuniary  matters  he  was  remartwably  exact.  In  his  last 
will,  made  not  long  before  his  death,  and  which  it  has  been 
erroneously  said  was  never  proved,  he  declared  that  he 
owed  no  debts,  excepting  to  bis  tailor  for  his  rocquelaure. 

We  have  already  mentioned  that  the  "  Cyclopaedia" 
came  to  a  fifth  edition  in  1746.  After  this,  whilst  a  sixth 
edition  was  in  agitation,  the  proprietors  thought  that  the 
work  might  admit  of  a  supplement,  in  two  additional  folio 
volumes :  this  supplement,  which  was  published  in  the 
joint  names  of  Mr.  Scott  and  Dr.  Hill,  though  containing  a 
number  of  valuable  articles,  was  far  from  being  uniformly 
conspicuous  for  its  exact  judgment  and  due  selection ;  a 
small  part  only  of  it  being  executed  by  Mr«  Scott,  and  Dr. 
Hill's  task  having  been  discharged  with  his  usual  rapidity. 
Thus  the  matter  rested  for  some  years,  when  the  pr4h 
prietors  determined  to  combine  the  whole  into  one  work ; 
and  after  several  inefFectaal  efforts  for  accomplishing  their 
plan,  the  business  devolved  on  the  rev*  Dr.  Abraham  Rees^ 


C  H  A  M  B  E  R  S.  t* 

F.  R.  S.  who  derived  from  the  favour  of  the  |)ublic9  and  th^ 
singularly  rapid  and  extensive  sale  of  the  work,  a  recom« 
peuse,  which,  independently  of  every  other  consideration, 
he  reckoned  amply  adequate  to  his  labour.  This  edition 
began  to  be  published  in  weekly  numbers  in  1778,  and  the 
publication  was  continued  without  a  single  interruption, 
till  it  was  completed  in  the  year  1785.  The  work  was 
dedicated  aad  presented  to  his  majesty.  The  popularity 
of  the  **  Cyclopaedia*'  gave  rise  to  a  ^variety  of  similar  puln 
lications ;  of  many  of  which  it  may  be  truly  said,  that  most 
of  the  articles  which  compose,  them,  are  extracted  ver^ 
batun,  or  at  least  with  very  few  alterations  and  additions, 
from  this  dictionary;  and  that  they  manifest  very  little 
labour  of  research,  or  of  compilation.  One  defect  seems 
to  have  .been  common  to  them  all,  with  hardly  any  excep- 
tion ;  and  that  is,  that  they  do  not  furnish  the  reader  with 
references  to  the  sources  from  which  their  materials  are 
derived,  and  the  authorities  upon  which  they  depend.  This 
charge  was  alleged  by  the  editors  of  the  French  Encyclo« 
pedie,  with  some  justice,  but  at  the  same  time  with  un«- 
w^rrantable  acrimony,  against  Mr.  Chambers.  The  editors 
joi  that  work,  while  they  pass  high  encomiums  on  Mr. 
Chambers's  Cyclopaedia,  blend  with  them  censures  thatare 
unfounded.  They  say,  e.  ^.  that  the  ^^  merited  honours  it 
has  received  would,  perhaps,  never  have  been  produced 
at  all,  if,  before  it  appeared  in  English,  we  had  not  had  in 
our  own  tongue  those  works,  from  which  Chambers  has 
dra^n  without  measure,  and  without  selection,  the  greatest 
part  of  the  articles  of  which  his  dictionary  is  cqmposed* 
This  being  the  case,  what  must  Frenchmen  think  of  a  mere 
translation  of  that  work?  It  must  excite  the  indignation  of 
the  learned,  and  give  just  offence  to  the  public,  to  whom, 
under  a  new  and  pompous  title,  nothing  is  presented  but 
riches  of  which  they  have  a  long  time  been  in  possession  ?'* 
They  add,  however,  after  appropriate  and  justly  deserved 
commendation  ;  <^  We  agree  with  him,  that  the  plan  and 
the  design  of  his  dictionary  are  excellent,  and  that,  if  it 
were  executed  to  a  certain  degree  of  perfection,  it  would 
idone  contribute  more  to  Che  progress  of  true  science,  than 
one  half  of  the  books  that  are  known."  However,  what 
their  vanity  has  led  them  to  assert,  viz.  that  the  greatest 
part  of  Chambers's  Cyclopaedia  is  compiled  from  French 
authors,  is  not  true.  When  Mr.  Chambers  engaged  ip  hif 
great  undertaking,  he  extended  his  researches  for  materials  to 


tL  variety  of  publications,  foreign  and  domestic,  and  in  the 
matbematical  articles  be  was  peculiarly  indebted  to  Wol- 
fins :  and  it  cannot  be  questioned,  that  he  availed  himself 
no  less  of  the  excellent  writers  of  hi«  native  land  than  those 
of  France.  As  to  the  imperfections  of  which  they  com* 
plain,  they  were  in  a  great  measure  removed,  as  science 
advaiftced,  by  subsequent  improvements;  nor  could  the 
work,  in  its  last  state,  be  considered  as  the  production  of 
a  single  person.  Nevertheless  it  cannot  be  conceived, 
that  any  scientific  dictionary,  comprised  in  four  volumes, 
should  attain  to  the  full  standard  of  human  wishes  and 
human  imagination.  The  proprietors,  duly  sensible  of 
this  circumstance,  and  of  the  rapid  progress  of  literature 
and  science  in  the  period  that  has  elapsed  since  the  publi-^ 
eation  of  Chambers^s  '^  Cyclopedia,**  have  undertaken  a 
work  on  a  much  larger  scale,  which,  with  the  encourage^ 
ment  already  received  and  further  reasonably  expected^ 
will,  it  is  hoped,  preclude  most  of  the  objections  urged 
against  the  former  dictionary.  Of  this  a  very  considerable 
proportion  has  already  been  published,  and  the  editor  bids 
fair  to  accomplish  what  was  once  thought  impossible.  The 
learned  Mr.  Bowyer  once  conceived  an  extensive  idea  of 
improving  Chambers^s  Cyclopiedia,  on  which  his  corre- 
spondent Mr.  Clarke  observes,  "  Your  project  of  improving 
and  correcting  Chambers  is  a  very  good  one ;  but  alas !  who 
can  execute  it  ?  You  should  have  as  many  undertakers  as 
professions ;  nay,  perhaps  as  many  antiquaries  as  there  are 
different  branches  of  ancient  learning.**  This,  in  fact, 
which  appeared  to  Mr.  Clarke  so  impracticable,  has  been 
accomplished  under  Dr.  Rees's  management,  by  combining 
the  talents  of  gentlemen  who  have  made  the  various 
sciences,  arts,  &c.  their  peculiar  study.— ^f  the  contem-> 
jporary  Cyclopedias,  or  Encyclop»dias,  it  may  be  suffi- 
cient to  notice  in  this  place,  that  printed  at  Edinburgh 
under  the  title  of  '^  Encyclopcedia  Britannica,**  the  plan 
of  which  is  different  from  that  of  Dr.  Rees,  but  which  has 
been  uncommonly  successful,  a  third  edition  (in  twenty 
vols»  4to)  being  now  in  the  press ;  and  one  begun  by  Dr. 
Brewster  oh  a  lesser  scale,  seems  to  be  edited  with  qare  and 
accuracy. ' 

1  Biog.  Brit— Nichols's  Bowyer.-- Gent.  Mag.  see  Index,  and  vol  LVII, 

p.  314,  381.— Marty u^s  Dissertations  on  the  ^neids,  Appendix  to  the  Preface^ 
No.  19.— Rees*s  CyclopsBdia, 


CHAMBERS   (Sir  Robert),    for  several  years  chirf 
JQstice  of  the  supreme  court  of  judicature  in  Bengal,  a  oiati 
of  too  exalted  merit  to  be  passed  with  a  slight  notice,  was 
bom  in  1737,  at  Newcastle  on  Tyne,  the  eldest  son  of  Mf« 
Robert  Chambers,   a  respectable  attorney  of  that  town. 
He  was  educated,  as  well  as  his  brothers,  at  the  school  of 
Mr.  Moises  in   Newcastle,  which  had  also  the  honour  of 
training  his  younger  friends  sir  William  Scott   and  the 
present  lord  chancellor,    whose  attachment  to  him,  thus 
oommenced  almost  in  infancy,    was  continued  not  only 
witbout  abatement,  but  with  much  increase,  to  the  verjr 
end  of 'bis  life.     Mr.  Chambers,  and  the  Scotts  afterwards^ 
went  to  Oxford  without  any  other  preparation  than  was 
afforded  by  this  Newcastle  school,  but  his  abilities  sooli 
rendered  him  conspicuous;  and  in  July  1754  he  was  chosen 
an  exhibitioner  of  Lincoln  college.     He  afterwards  became 
a  fellow  of  University  college,  where  he  was  again  united 
with  the  Scotts,  and  with  other  eminent  men,  among  whom 
it  Biay  suffice  to  mention    sir  Thomas  Plomer  and   the 
late  sir  William  Jones.     In  January  1762,  Mr.  Chambers 
was  elected  by  the  university  Vinerian  professor  of  the 
laws  of  England  ;  a  public  testimony  to  his  abilities,  of  the 
strongest  and  most  unequivocal  nature.     In  17^6,  the  eaxl 
of  Lichfield,  then  chancellor  of  Oxford,    gave  him  the 
appointment  of  principal  of  New-inn  hall ;  which  office,  as 
it  required  no  residence  or  attendance,  he  continued  to 
bold  through  life.     He  was  now  advancing  honourably  in 
the  practice  of  the  law,  and  was  employed  in  many  re<- 
markable  causes,  in  which  bis  professional  abilities  were 
evinced.      About  the  same  period,  and  probably  by  the 
same  means,  he  attracted  the  notice  and  lasting  friendship 
of  the  ablest  men  of  the  time,  many  of  whose  names  have 
since  been  absorbed  in    weiUeamed    titles   of  nobility. 
Among  these  may  be  mentioned,  the  earls  Bathurst,  Mans- 
field, Liverpool,  and  Rossiyn,  lords  Ashburtoi^,  Thurlow, 
Auckland,  and  Alvanley ;  to  which  list  we  may  add  the 
names  of  Johnson,  Burke,  Goldsmith,  Garrick,  and  others 
of  that  class,  whose  judgment  of  mankind  was  as  accurate 
as  their  own  talents  were  conspicuous.     At  Oxford,  he  en- 
joyed the  intimacy  of  Thurlow,  afterwards  bishop  of  Dur- 
bam :  and  his  Vinerian  lectures  were  attended  by  many 
popils,  who  have  since  done  honour  to  the  profession  of 
^e  laW|  or  to  other  public  situations.    . 


It  is  a  strong  proof  that  bis  knowledge  and  talents  were 
highly  estimated  at  an  early  period,  that  in  1768,  when  he 
was  only  thirty-one  years  old,  he  was  offered  the  appointr 
ment  of  attorney-general  in  Jamaica,  which,  from  various 
considerations,  be  thought  proper  to  decline.     From  this 
time  he  continued  the  career  of  his  profession,  and  of  his 
academical  labours,  till,  in  1773,  another  situation  of  pub- 
lic trust  and  honour  was  proposed  to  him,  which  he  was 
more  easily  induced  to  accept.     This  was  the  appointment 
of  second  judge  to  the  superior  court  of  judicature  in  Ben- 
gal, then  first  established.     On  this  occasion,  the  esteem 
and  regard  of  the  university  of  Oxford  for  their  Vinerian 
professor  was  fully    evinced.     The   convocation  allowed 
three  years  for  the  chance  of  his  return,  from  ill  health  or 
any  other  cause :  during  which  interval  his  office  was  held 
for  him,  and  his  lectures  read  by  a  deputy.     Immediately 
before  his  departure  for  the  East  Indies,  Mr.  Chambelrs 
married  Miss  Wilton,  the  only  daughter  of  the  celebrated 
statuary  of  that  name,  and  his  mother,  Mrs.  Chambers,  a 
woman  of  uncommon  virtues,  talents,  and  accomplishments, 
undertook  the  voyage  with  them,  and  continued  an  inmate 
in  their  family  till  her  death,  which  happened  in  17.32. 
They  sailed  for  India  in  April,  1774;  and  the  climate  not 
proving  unfriendly,  the  Vinerian  professorship  was  in  due 
time  resigned. 

The  honour  of  knighthood  was. not  conferred  on  Mr. 
Chambers  at  the  time  of  his  appointment,  but,  within  four 
years  after,  was  sent  out  to  him  unsolicited,  as  an  express 
mark  of  royal  approbation.  How  well  his  original  nomi- 
nation, and  his  subsequent  advancement  to  the.  office. of 
chief  justice  were  deserved,  it  is  not  necessary  here  to 
demonstrate.  They  who  acted  with  him,  orVere  present 
in  any  arduous  discussions,  can  bear  witness  how  often  his 
mild  but  convincing  arguments  contributed  most  essen- 
tially to  the  public  service.  Without  taking  a  violent  part 
in  any  contentions  of  politics,  sir  Robert  Chambers  was 
steady  in  pursuing  the  course  which  his  mature  judgment 
approved ;  and,  in  all  the  struggles  that  arose,  no  oppo- 
nent ever  ventured  to  insinuate  a  doubt  of  his  integrity. 

The  unfortunate  loss  of  the  Grosvenor  East  Indiaman^  in 
1782,  was  a  calamity  in  which  the  private  share  of  .sir 
Robert  Chambers  was  disproportionately  heavy.  He  lost 
his  eldest  son,  a  promising  youth,  then  going  to  England 


tor  edacation  ;  and  the  uncertain  circumstances  of  the  case 
left  to  imagination  the  most  dreadful  materials  for  conjee^ 
tare.-  In  this,  as  in  every  other  situation,  in  proportion  to 
the  exigence,  the  firm  and  truly  Christian  piety  of  sir 
Bobert  Chambers  afforded  a  great  example ;  and  he  ap- 
peared a  worthy  son  of  that  excellent  national  church, 
which,  on  some  occasions,  he  had  strenuously  defeiided 
while  he  was  an  advocate.  On  the  resignation  of  sir  Elijah 
Impey,"  in  1791,  sir  Robert  Chambers  was  advanced  to  the 
office  of  chief  justice :  and  in  1797  he  became  president  of 
the  Asiatic  society.  At  length,  after  having  remained  in 
India  twenty-five  years,  he  also  obtained  permission  to 
resign,  and  was  succeeded  by  sir  John  Anstruther. 

He  returned  to  England  in  1799,  but  in  a  state  of  health 
which  forbade  the  expectation  of  enjoying  his  friends  and 
fais  well-earned  leisure.  In  the  autumn  of  1802  his  lungs 
were  so  much  affected  that  he  was  advised  to  winter  in  the 
inilder  air  of  France,  and  was  to  have  proceeded  to  the 
southern  provinces :  but  the  season  was  then  too  far  ad- 
vanced, and  he  remained  at  Paris,  where,  after  a  partial 
recovery, '  he  had  an  attack  of  a  paralytic  nature,  and  died 
May  9,  1803.  The  body  was  brought  to  England,  and 
interred  on  the  23d  of  the  same  month  in  the  Temple 
church.  He  had  been  a  bencher  of  the  Middle  Temple, 
and  his  funeral  was  attended  by  a  considerable  number  of 
thCit  society,  and  many  private  friends. 

Sir  Robert  Chambers  had  that  love  for  books  which  na- 
turally arises  from  a  sound  education  and  early  habits  of 
study.  His  collection,  therefore,  was  considerable,  and 
his  knowledge  proportionally-extensive.  Even  at  the  close 
of  his  life,  of  which  so  large  a  part  had  b6en  engaged  in 
the  practice  or  administration  of  the  laws,  he  had  not  lost 
his  academical  accomplishments  :  and  a  Latin  epitaph  on 
his  friend  sir  William  Jones,  inscribed  by  Flaxman  on  a 
monument  erected 'tft  Oxford  in  1H03,  may  testify  that  the 
cares  of  the  judge  had  not  obliterated  the  studies  of  the 
professor.  His  collection  of  Oriental  books  was  particu* 
larly  valuable.  That  his  fortune,  after  so  long  continuance 
in  office,  was  extremely  moderate,  must  be  considered  as 
an  important  topic  of  his  praise,  since  it  was  occasioned 
by  his  strict  integrity  and  extensive  bounty.  He  received 
no  presents,  and  he  gave  abundant  charities.  On  his  re- 
signation^ therefore,  he  could  not  attempt  to  decline  the 


pension  which  parliament  has  now  assigned  to  the  judges 
of  India,  after  a  much  less  period  of  service.  ^ 
.,  CHAMBERS  (Sir  William),  an  eminent  architect,  waa 
a  native  of  Sweden,  but  originally  descended  from  tha 
family  of  Chalmers  in  Scotland,  barons  of  Tartas,  in  France. 
His  grandfather  was  an  opulent  merchant,  who  supplied 
the  armies  of  Charles  XII.  with  money  and  military  stores, 
9,ud  suffered  considerably  in  his  fortune  by  being  obliged 
to  receive  the  base  coin  issued  by  that  monarch.  Thia 
circumstance  occasioned  his  son  to  reside  many  years  ia 
Sweden,  in  order  the  more  effectually  fo  prosecute  his  p^ 
euniary  claims..  The  subject  of  this  article  was  born  in 
that  country,  and  for  what  reason  is  not  known,  was 
brought  over  from  Sweden  in  172S,  at  the  age  of  two  years, 
and  placed  at  a  school  at  Kippon,  in  Yorkshire.  His  firs( 
entrance  into  life  was  as  a  supercargo  to  the  Swedish  East 
India  company*  In  this  capacity  he  made  one  voyage  to 
China ;  and,  it  appears,  lost  no  c^porttinity  pf  observing 
what  was  curious  in  that  country.  At  the  age  of  eighteen, 
however,  he  quitted  this  profession,  and  with  it  ail  com-r 
mercial  views,  to  follow  the  bent  of  his  inclination,  which, 
led  him  to  design  and  architecture. 

His  first  residence  in  London  was  in  Poland-street,  but 
not,  as  has  been  asserted,  in  the  business  of  a  carpenter. 
At  a  very  early  period  of  bis  life  he  was  considered  as  one 
of  the  best  architects  and  draughtsmen  in  Europe ;  and  his 
abilities  introduced  him  to  the  patronage  of  the  late  Joha 
earl  of  Bute,  by  whose  interest  he  was  appointed  to  be 
drawing  master  to  his  present  majesty,  then  prince  of 
Wales*  The  first  ^ork  of  consequence  in  which  he  was 
engaged  was  the  villa  of  the  late  earl  of  Besborough,  at 
Roehampton,  in  Surry.  He  delivered  to  his  lordship  his 
plan  as  architect,  and  bb  estimate  as  surveyor,  and,  on 
being  applied  to  afterward  to  know  whjether  he  would  uu** 
dertake  to  complete  the  building  himself  for  the  money 
mentioned  in  the  estimate,  he  readily  consented,  and,  in 
the  execution  of  his  contract,  gave  and  received  that  sa- 
tisfaction which  seldom  fails  to  result  from  the  happy  con* 
currence  of  professional  taste  and  skill  with  the  most  dis-r 
tiuguished  character  for  punctuality  and  probity.  His 
conduct  on  this  occasion  became  the  most  honourable  in-- 

1  From  a  pamuhlet  privately  priated,  and  eutiUed  **  A  few  Memorials  of  tbe 
late  sir  Robert  Chambers,  Imt."  obligingly  eommniitcated  to  Ihe  editor  by  Mr, 


tiodactioQ  to  con$iderabIe  ediploym^rit  aknong  the  nobility 
and  gentry. 

As  an  aotbor,  Mr.  Chambers  viery  soon  distinguished 
biofiseif.  In  1759  be  published  ^^,  Designs  for  Chinese 
Buildings/'  and  a  '^  Treatise  on  Civil  Architectute.*'  Soon 
after  bis  present  majesty's  accession  to  the  throne,  he  was 
employed  to  lay  out  and  improve  the  royal  gardens  ait 
Kew.  The  result  of  his  labours  appeared  in  1765,  in  a 
splendid  publication  in  large  folio,  entitled  *^  Plans,  ele- 
vations, sections,  and  perspective  views  of  the  Gardens 
and  Buildings  at  Kew  in  Surry,  the  seat  of  her  royal  high*- 
oesi  the  princess  of  Wales,"  In  the  execution  of  this 
magnificent  work,  the  talents  of  several  of  our  ablest  de- 
signers and  engravers  are  eminently  displayed :  the  archt*^ 
tectural  designs  being  drawn  by  Mr.  Chambers,  the  figures 
by  Cipriani^  and  the  views  by  Kirby,  Thomas  Sandby,  and 
Marlow.  The  engravings  were  executed  by  Paul  Sandby, 
Wooliett,  Major,  Grignion,  Rooker,  and  others.  The  plates 
were,  consequently,  universally  admired,  but  with  reapeeH 
to  the  designs,  the  greater  part  were  considered  rather  as 
objects  of  curiosity  than  of  taste ;  and  Mr.  Chambers  him^ 
seM^  as  if  apprehensive  that  the  style  of  decoration  he  had 
adopted  would  be  censured,  anticipates  the  objections  by 
an  apology  for  the  disadvantages  of  situation  under  which 
helaboui^d*  ^^  The  gardens  at  Kew,"  he  observes,  <*are 
not  very  large :  nor  is  their  situation  by  any  means  ad« 
vantageous,  as  it  is  low,  and  commands  no  prospects. 
Originally,  the  ground  was  one  continued  dead  flat :  the 
soil  was,  in  general,  barren,'  and  without  either  wood  or 
water.  '  With  so  many  disadvantages,  it  was  not  easy  to 
produce  any  thing  even  tolerable  in  gardening;  but  princely 
munificence,  and  an  able  director,  have  overcome  all  dif-* 
ficulties,  and  converted  what  was  once  a  desert  into  an 

Such  is  the  apology  of  Mr.  Chambers ;  and  it  must  be 
ackuowledged,  perhaps,  that  these  gardens  are  laid  out  as^ 
well  as  the  nature  of  the  place  would  permit ;  but,  with 
regard  to  the  ornaments  and  buildings,  it  cannot  be  suf- 
ficiently regretted,  that  a  fondness  for  the  unmeaning  fal.- 
kalas  of  Turkish  and  Chinese  chequer-work  should  prevail 
over  a  taste  for  the  beautiful  models  of  Grecian  and  Rooian 
architecture.  It  is  yet  more  to  be  regretted  that  our  ar^ 
ckitect  proved  in  a  subsequent  publication  that  he  was  not 
•0  much  constrained  by  the  situation  of  the  place^  as  im- 


pelled  by  an  irresistible  predilection  for  the  Chinese  mtfd^ 
of  gardening. 

In  177}  I  Mr.  Chambers  was  announced  in  the  catalogue 
of  the  royal  academy  as  a  knight  of  the  Swedish  order  of 
the  Polar  Star ;  and  the  following  year  he  published  the 
work  just  alluded  to,  and  entitled  *<  A  Dissertation  on 
Oriental  Gardening/*  4to.  The  design  of  this  work  is  to 
demonstrate,  that  notwithstanding  the  boasted  improvement 
of  our  national  taste  in  ornamental  gardening,  we  are  yet  in 
a  state  of  ignorance  and  barbarism  with  respect  to  this 
pleasing  art,  of  which  the  Chinese  alone  are  masters.  In 
the  preface  be  says,  that  bis  acct)unt  of  the  Chinese  man- 
ner of  gardening  was  collected  from  his  own  observations 
in  China,  from  conversations  with  their  artists,  and  remarks 
transmitted  to  him  at  different  times  by  travellers.  Be- 
sides sir  William's  failure  in  proving  his  main  point,  this 
publication  was  very  unlucky  in  another  respect.  A  sketch 
of  it  had  been  published  some  years  before ;  but  the  per- 
formance itself  appearing  immediately  after  the  publica- 
tion of  Mr.  Mason's  <*  English  Garden,''  it  was  suggested^ 
very  invidiously  perhaps,  that  our  author's  intention  was 
to  depreciate  the  designs  of  our  English  gardeners,  in  order 
to  divert  his  sovereign  from  his  plan  of  improving  Rich- 
mond gardens  into  the  beautiful  state  in  which  they  novir 
appear.  The  strange  and  horrible  devices  described  in 
thi^  <^  Dissertation^'  have  been  much  ridiculed,  but  are  no 
more  than  what  had  been  before  published  by  father  Attiret, 
in  his  account  of  the  emperor  of  China's  gardens,  near 
Pekin,  translated  by  Mr  Spence  (under  the  assumed  lite- 
rary name  of  sir  Harry  Beaumont)  in  1753,  and  since  re- 
published in  Dodsley's  "  Fugitive  Pieces.'*  In  whatever 
lighty  however,  the  ^'  Dissertation"  might  be  considered,  it 
was  certainly  productive  of  amusement,  and  the  cause  of 
gardeners  and  gardening  was  amply  revenged  by  a  publi- 
cation which  appeared  next  year,  and  was  generally  at- 
tributed to  Mr.  Mason,  entitled  ^^  An  Heroic  Epistle  to 
sir  William  Chambersi,  knt,  comptroller-general  of  his 
majesty's  works,  and  author  of  a  late  Dissertation  on  Ori^ 
ental  Gardening ;  enriched  with  explanatory  notes,  chiefly 
extracted  from  that  elaborate  performance."  A  vein  o( 
solemn  irony,  and  delicate  yet  keen  satire,  runs  through 
this  poetical  commentary ;  and  sir  William's  principles  of 
design  in  gardening,  or  rather  the  Oriental  principles, 
which  lie  had  so  fondly  adopted,  are  treated  with  very 


Jittle  respect  It  was  followed  in  1774,  by  **  Atl  Hbroic 

In  1775,  sir  W.  Chardbers  was  appointed  to  conduct  th^ 
building  of  that  greiat  national  work,  Somerset-place.  This 
appointment  was  worth  2000/.  a  year  to  him,  nor  was  he 
too  liberally  rewarded.  The  terrace  behind  this  magnifi- 
cent building  is  a  bold  effort  of  conception.  His  designs 
for  interior  arrangements  were  excellent,  but  his  staircases 
were  his  niaster-piieces,-  particularly  those  belonging  to  the 
royal  and  Antiquary  societies.  He  did  not  live,  however,  to 
S6e  the  whole  Bnished  according  to  the  original  plan,  and 
all  intention  of  completing  what  would  be  truly  a  national 
honour,  and  a  great  ornament  to  the  metropolis,  seems  n6w 
to  be  given  up.  Sir  William,  however,  continued  foi? 
many  years  in  the  highest  rank  of  his  profession,  arid  be- 
sides beirtg  architect  to  the  king,  he  was  surveyor-general 
of  his  majesty's  board  of  works,  treasurer  of  the  royal 
academy,  F:  R.  S.  and  F.  S*  A.  and  member  of  the  royal 
academy  of 'arts  at  Florence,  and  of  the  royal  acadetny  of 
architecture  at  Paris. 

Previously  to  his  death,  he  had  sustained  a  long  and 
severe  illness,  arising  from  a  derangement  of  the  nervous 
system,  fof  which  many  remedies  wer^  applied  without 
success.  He  died  at  his  house  in  Norton -street,  Mary- 
bone,  March  8,  1796,  in  the  sixty-ninth  year  of  his  age^ 
and  Was' interred  on  the  18th,  in  Poets-corner,  Westmin- 
ster-abbey, He  left  a  son  and  three  daughters^  whd  shared 
his  ample  fortune,  which  he  acquired  with  gredt  hodourj 
and  enjoyed  with  hospitality  bordering  on  niagTiificencei 
His  country  retirement  for  some  years  had  b^en  at  Whit- 
ton-place,  near  Hounslow-heath ;  in  the  improvement  of 
which  delightful  spot  he  appears  to  have  studied  the  deco- 
rations of  an  Italian  villa.  His  character  in  private  life 
was  very  amiable,'  and  the  courtesy  and  affability  with 
which  he  treated  the  workmen  employed  under  him  en- 
deared him  to  them,  and  made  it  ^asV  for  him  to  collect  a 
numerous  and  able  body  of  artificers  wheii  any  of  his  works 
requiVed  extraordinary  expedition.  * 

CHaMBRE  (Fuancis  Illharrart  dela),  an  ingenidus 
doctor  of  the  Sorbonne,  Was  born  Jan.  2y  1698,  at  Paris* 
He  lived  a  sedentary  life>  was  appointed  canon  pf  St.  Be- 
noit,  and  died  of  a  malignant  fever  at  Paris^  August  16^ 

)  Qentlem^p's  and  European  Magazines. 

VoL.lJ^.  H 

9.8  C  H  A  M  B  R  E. 

«  — 

17 $3,  ^ged  fifty^six.  His  genius  was  extremely  accurate, 
with  great  clearness  and  precision  of  ideas;  bis  temper 
mild,  easy,  and  sociable.  The  principal  works  of  this 
author  which  haye  been  printed  are  :  a  <*  Treatise  on  the 
Truth  of  Religion,"  5  vols.  i2mo  i  a  "  Treatise  on  the 
Formulary/'  4  vols.  1 2mo  ;  another  on  the  ^^  Bulls  against 
Baius/*  2  voU.  12mo  ;  another  on  the  ^^  Constitution  Uni^ 
genitus,''  2  vols.  l2mo;  and  a  volume  in  12mo  entitled 
**  La  Reality  du  Jansenisme.'*  It  appears  from  all  these 
treatises,  that  a  good  Thomist  may  accept  the  bulls  against 
Baius  and  Jansenius,  and  the  Constitution  Unigenitus. 
The  dogma  is  unfolded  with  much  clearness  and  solidity  ; 
the  theological  opinions  treated  in  a  very  methodical 
manner,  and  with  great  precision.  His  other  works  are^ 
"  Introduction  a  la  Theologie,"  I  vol.  1 2nM).  "  £xposi« 
tion  claire  et  precise  des  differens  points  de  doctrine  qui 
ont  raport  aux  matieres  de  religion/*  Paris,  1745,  12mo« 
This  contains  the  substance  of  twenty-two  theological  trea-^ 
tises;  «  Tr.  de  PEglise,"  6  vols,  Ifmo  ;  «  Tr.  de  la 
Grace,'*  4  vols.  i2mo  ;  ^^  La  Logique,  la  Morale^  et  la 
Metaphysique,"  Paris,   1754,  2  vols.  12mo,  &c.^ 

CHAMBRE  (Marin  Cureau  de  la),  a  native  of  Mans, 
and  king's  physician  in  ordinary.  He  was  received  into 
the  French  academy  1635,  afterwards  into  that  of  sciences; 
Chancellor  Sequier  and  cardinal  Richelieu  gave  him  public 
tesGmonies  of  their  esteem  ;  and  be  acquired  great  repu*^ 
tation  by  his  knowledge  in  physic,  philosophy,  and  the 
belles-lettres.  He  died  November  29,  1669,  at  Parls^ 
aged  seventy*five,  and  left  many  works,  the  pripcipal  of 
which  are :  ^^  Les  Characteres  des  Passions,"  4  vols.  4to  ; 
or  Amsterdam,  1658,  5  vols.  12mo.  ^^  L'Art  de  connoitre 
les  Hommes."  "  De  la  Connoissance  des  Bites."  "  Con- 
jectures sur  la  Digestion,"  **  De  I'lris."  "  De  la  Lu- 
miere."  "  Le  Systeme  de  I'Ame."  **  Le  Debordemeut 
du  Nil,"  each  1  vol.  4to.  Peter  de  la  Chambre,  his  se- 
cond son,  was  curate  of  St.  Bartholomew,  and  4>ne  of  the 
forty  members  of  the  French  academy,  and  died  1693^. 
leaving  several  panegyrics,  printed  separately  in  4to.^ 

CHAMFORT  (Sebastian  Roche  Nicolas),  an  inge-  . 
nious  French  writer,  and  one  of  the  victims  of  the  revolu- 
tion, was  born  in  1741,  in  a  bailiwick  near  Clermont,  in/ 

t  LMdvocat  Diet  Hist. 

'  IbiU.—'Moreri.— Eloges  des  Acadenuciens,  yol.  I.         .  .« 

C  H  A  M  F  O  R  T.  9*^ 

iuvergne.  In  supporting  a  revolution  which  levelled  ail 
family  distinctions,  be  had  no  prejudices  to  ovek*come, 
being  the  natural  son  of  a  man  whom  he  never  knew.  Thid 
circumstance^  however,  ^nlid  not  diipinish  his  afFection  tot 
bis  inotbdr,  who  Was  a  peasant  girl,  to  supply  whose  wants 
he  often  dehied  hiddself  the  necessaries  of  life.  He  was 
taken  at  a  x^e^y  ^afiy  age  into  the  college  des  Pra^sins  at 
Paris,  as  a  bursar,  or  exhibitioner,  and  was  there  known 
by  his  Christian  name  of  Nicolas.  During  the  first  two 
years  he  indicated  no  extraordinary  talents,  but  in  the 
third,  out  of  the  five  prizes  which  were  distributed  annu- 
ally, he  gained  four,  failing  only  in  Latin  verses.  The 
next  year  he  gained  the  whole,  and  used  to  say^  ^^  I  lost 
the  prize  last  year,  because  I  imitated  Virgil ;  and  this 
year  I  obtained  it,  because  I  took  Buchanan,  Sarbievius^ 
and  other  moderns  for  my  guides/'  In  Greek  he  made  a 
rapid  progress,  but  his  petulance  and  waggish  tricks  threw 
the  class  into  so  much  disordet*,  that  h^  was  expelled,  and 
not  bng  after  left  the  (;oUiege  altogether.  Tbrowii  now  on 
the  woi^d,  without  friends  ot*  mdney^  he  became  derk  to 
^procurat6r,  and  aftef wards  was  taken  into  the  family  of 
a  rich  gentleman  of  Liege,  as  tutor.  After  this  be  wad 
employed  on  the  "  Journal  Encyclopedique,*'  and  having 
published  his  Eloges  on  MoUere  and  La  Fontaine,  they 
were  so  much  adihired  as  to  be  honoured  with  the  pHzes  ^ 
of  the  French  academy,  and  that  of  Marseilles.  About 
this  time  he  had  little  other  maintenance  than  what  he  de- 
rived from  the  patronage  of  the  duke  de  Choiseul  and 
madame  Helvetius,  and  therefore  was  glad  to  take  such 
employment  as  the  booksellers  offered.  For  them  he  com- 
piled a  **  French  Vocabulary,"  and  a  "  Dictionary  of  th6 
Theatres.^'  While  employed  on  this  last,  he  fancied  hiil 
talents  might  succeed  on  the  stage,  and  was  not'  disap-^ 
pointed.  His  tragedy  of  "  Mustapha,"  acted  in  1778, 
was  acknowledged  to  have  great  beauties ;  and  yoltaire, 
Ivho  witnessed  the  performance,  said  with  an  exclamation^ 
that  he  was  reminded  of  Racine.  This  was  followed  by 
two  comedies,  fugitive  pieces  of  poetry,  letters,  epigrams, 
ttanslations  of  the  Anthology,  and  of  Martial,  all  which 
Contributed  very  considerably  to  his  reputation.  His 
poetical  ^^  Epistle  from  a  father  to  a  son,  on  the  birth  of  a 
grandson,^'  gained  him  the  prize  of  the  French  academy, 
although  it  appears  inferior  to  his  '^  L' Homme  de  Lettres^ 
discours  philosophique  en  vers.*^     At  length  be  gained  a 

H  2 

1*0  CHAM  P  0  R  T. 

seat  10  tiie  academy^,  on  the  death  of  St  Palaye,  on  tvhom 
he  wrote  an  elegant  eloge.  His  tragedy  of  ^^  Mustapha^^ 
procared  him  the  situation  of  principal  secretary  to  the 
primoe  of  Cond£,  but  his  love  of  liberty  and  independence 
prevented  him  from  long  discharging  its  duties.  After  re* 
Agoing  it,  he  devoted  himself  wholly  to  the  pleasures  of 
society^  where  he  was  considered  as  a  most  captivating 
companioQ.  He  also  held  some  considerable  pensions^ 
whicby  however, .  he  lost  at  the  revolution. 

When  this  great  event  took  place,  his  intimacy  with 
Micabeau  led  him  to  join  the  revolutionists,  and  he  assisted 
Mirabeau  in  many  of  his  works.  He  even  obtained  ad- 
mission into  the  Jacobin-club,  and  in  1791  was  appointed 
secretary,  but  soon  saw  through  their  hypocrisy,  detested 
their  sanguinary  principles,  and  left  them.  After  the  10th 
of  August,  Roland  procured  him  to  be  appointed  national 
librarian,  in  conjunction  with  Carra.  He  saw  with  horror 
the  excesses  of  all  parties,  and  when  the  words  *'  Frater- 
nity or  Death"  appeared  on  all  the  walls  of  Paris,  he  ex« 
claimed  <<  The  fraternity  of  these  fellows  is  that  of  Cain 
and  Abel.'*  These^  and  other  sarcasms,  made  him  ob* 
noxious  to  Robespierre,  and  he  was  apprehended,  and  en- 
deavoared  to  commit  suicide.  He  only,  however,  mangled 
himself  shockingly  on  this  occasion,  and  lived  till  April 
1794.  He  was  unquestionably  a  man  of  talents,  but  in 
his  political  conduct  inconsistent  and  frivolous,  attaching 
himself  to  no  party^  yet  maintaining  the  pernicious  prin- 
ciples from  which  each  party  had  arisen.  In  1795,  his 
friend  Ginguen6  published  his  works  in  4  vols.  8vo,  with  a 
Life.  They  are  entirely  of  the  miscellaneous  ^ind,  and 
the  fourth  volume  consists  of  Maxims  and  Opinions,  which 
have  ;Since  been  published  separately  under  the  title  of 
^^  Chamfortiana.''  Many  of  them  are  founded  on  an  accu- 
rate observation  of  human  nature,  and  of  the  manners  of 
hi9  age  and  country. ' 

CHAMIER  (Daniel),  an  eminent  French  protestant 
divine,  was  born  in  Daupbiny,  and  was  long  minister  at 
Montelimart,  in  that  province,  from  whence  he  remoii^ed 
in  1€12  to  Montapbon,  to  be  professor  of  divinity;  and 
was  killed  at  the  siege  of  that  place  by  a  cannon  ball  in 
1621.     He  was  no  less  distinguished  among  his  party  as  a 

I  Diet.  Ht$t. — Blpg.  Modenie.-:-Anecdotes  of  the  Founders  of  the  French 
Repttbiic*  -  -  -     . 

C  H  A  M  I  E  R.  roi 

statesman  than  as  a  divine.    No  man  opposed  the  artifices 
employed  by  the  court   to  distress  the  protestants  with 
more  steadiness  and  infle?s;bility.     Varillas  says  it  was  be 
who  drew  up  the  edict  of  Nantss.     Though  politics  took  Ujf 
a  great  part  of  his  time^  he  acquired  a  large  fund  of  ex* 
tensive  learning,  as  appears  from  his  writings*     His  trea- 
tise <^  De  oecumenico  pontifice/*  and  bis  *^  Epistolie  Je« 
suitlcae/'    are  commended    by   Scaliger.      His   principal 
work  is  his  <^  Catholica  Panstratia,   or  the  Wars  of  the; 
Lord/'  in  which  the  controversy  between  the  protestants 
and  Roman  catholics  is  learnedly  handled.     It  was  written 
at  the  desire  of  the  sypod  of  the  reformed  churches  in 
France,  to  confute  Bellarmine.     The  synod  of  Privas,  in 
1612,  ordered  him  2000  livres  to  defray  tlie  charges  of  the 
impression  9f  the  first  three  volumes.     Though'  this  work 
makes  four  large  folio  volumes^  it  is  not  complete :  for  it 
wants  the  controversy  concerning  the  church,  intended 
for  a  fifth  volume,    which  the  author's  death  prevented 
him  from  finishing.     This  body  of  controversy  was  printed 
at  Geneva  in  1626,  under  the  care  ofTurretin,  professor 
of  divinity.     An  abridgment  of  it  was  published  in  the 
same  city  in  1643,  in  one  vol.  folio,  by  Frederick  Spanheim^ 
the  father.     His  *«  Corpus  Theologicum,*'  and  bis  "  Epis- 
tolas  Jesuiticse,"  were  printed  in  a  small  folio  volume^  1693, 
but  there  are  8vo  editions  of  the  latter,  one  Genev.  1599^ 
and  the  >^  Oe  oecumenico  pontificeV  was  also  published  in 
Svo,  Genev.  1601.* 

CHAMILLARD  (Stephen),  a  learned  French  antiquary, 
was  born  at  Bourges,  in  1656.  In  1673  he  entered  among 
the  Jesuits,  and  according  to  their  custom,  for  some  time 
taught  grammar  and  philosophy,  and  was  a  popular 
preacher  for  about  twenty  years.  He  died  at  Parisj  iu 
1730.  He  was  deeply  versed  in  the  knowledge  of  anti- 
quity. He  published:  1,  A  learned  edition  of  "  Pru- 
deutius^'  for  the  use  of  the  Dauphin,  with  an  interpreta- 
tion and  notes,  Paris,  1687,  4to,  in  which  he  was  much. 
indebted  to  Heinsius.  It  is  become  scarce.  2.  Disserta- 
tions, in  number  eighteen,  on  several  medals,  gems,  and 
other  monuments  of  antiquity,  Paris,  1711,  4to.  Smitten 
with  the  desire  of  possessing  something  extraordinary,  and 
which  was  not  to  be  found  in  the  other  cabinets  of  Europe^ 
h^  strangely  imposed  on  hin^self  in  regard  to.  two  medals 

1  Qen,  Diet,— Moreri.— Sftxil  Onomuft, 

108  .  C  H  A  M  I  L  L  A  R  D. 

li^ich  he  imagined  to  be  antiques.  .  The  first  ivas  a  Paca^* 
tianuscof  silrer,  a  medal  unknown  till  his  days,  and  which 
is  so  stilly  for  that  it  was  a  perfect  counterfeit  has  been 
jgenerally  acknowledged  since  the  dfeath  of  its  possessor. 
*the  other  medaly  on  which  he  was  the  dupe  of  his  own 
fanpy,  was  an  Annia  Faustina,  Greek,  of  the  true  bronze. 
The  princess  there  bore  the  name  of  Aurelia  ;  whence 
&ther  Chamillard  concluded  that  she  was  descended  from 
f he  family  of  the  Antqnines.  It  had  been  struck,  as  he 
pretended,  in  Syria,  by  order  of  a  Quirinus  or  Cirinus, 
descended,  he  asserted,  from  that  Quirinus.  who  is  -spoken 
of  by  St.  |!^uke.  Chamillard  dispjaj'ed  his  erudition  on 
the  subject  in  a  studied  dissertatiW;  but  while  he  was 
enjoying  his  triumph,  a  dealer  in  antiques  at  Rome  de- 
dared  himself  the  father  of  Annia  Faustina,  at  the  same 
time  shewing  others  of  the  manufacture.  ^ 

CHAMOUSSET  (Charles  Humreet  Purron  de),  wag 
born  at  Paris  in  1717,  and  destined  to  supply  his  father's 
place  in  the  parliament  of  that  city  as  a  judge,  as  well  as 
that  of  his  uncle  in  the  same  situation.     He  made  choice 
of  the  one  of  them  that  would  give  him  the  least  trouble,  apd 
^ord  him  the  most  leisure  for  his   benevolent  projects. 
Medicine  was  his  favourite  study.     This  he  practised  on 
the  poor  only,  with  such  an  ardour  and  activity  of  mind» 
that  the  hours  which  many  persons  give  to  sleep,  he  be- 
stowed upon  the  of  the  sick.     To  make  himself 
more  useful  to  them,  he  had  learned  to  bleed,  which  ope- 
ration he  performed  with  all  the  dexterity  of  tlie  most  ex- 
perienced surgeon.     His  disposition  to  do  good  appeared  so 
(early  that  when  he  was  a  boy,  he  used  to  give  to  the  poor 
the  money  which  other  boys  spent  in  general  in  an  idle  and . 
iiiiproii table  manner.    He  was  once  very  much  in  love  with  a 
young  lady   of  great  beauty  and   accomplishment ;  but; 
Imagining  that  she  would  not  make  him  a  suitable  assistant  * 
in  .his  attendance  upon  the  poor,  he  gave  over  all  thoughts 
of  marriage  ;  not  veiy  wisely,  perhaps,  sacrificing  to  the 
extreme  delicacy  of  one   woman  only  his  attachment  ta. 
that  sex,  in  whose  tenderness  of  disposition,  and  in  whose 
instinctive  quickness  of  feeling,  he  would  have  foUnd  that 
reciprocation  of  bebevolence  h^  was  anxious  tQ  procure.- 
He  was  so  forcibly  struck  with  the  wretched  situation  of  * 
the  great  hospital  of  Paris  (the  Hotel  Dieu,  as  it  is  called), 

*  Moteri,— Saxii  Onomasticon. 

<J  H  A  M  O  U  S  9  E  T.  lOJ 


ifcere  the  dead,  the  dying,  and  the  living,  are  very  often 
crowded  together  in  the  same  bed  (five  persons  at  a  iits^ 
occasionally  occupying  the  same  bed),  that  he  wrote  A 
plan  of  reform  for  that  hospital,  which  he  shewed  in  ma- 
nuscript to  the  famous  John  James  Rousseau,  requesting 
hiffl  to  correct  it  for  him.  "  What  correction,"  replied 
Rousseau,  '^  can  a  work  want,  that  one  cannot  read  with- 
out shuddering  at  the  horrid  pictures  it  represents  ?  What 
is  the  end  of  writing  if  it  be  not  to  touch  and  interest  the 
passions  ?"  M.  de  Chamousset  was  occasionally  the  author 
of  many  benevolent  and  useful  schemes ;  such  as  the  esta- 
blishment of  the  penny  post  at  Paris ;  the  bringing  good 
water  to  that  city ;  a  plan  for  a  house  of  association,  by 
which  any'man,  for  a  amall  sum  of  money  deposited,  may 
be  taken  care  of  when  he  is  sick ;  and  many  others ;  not 
forgetting  one  for  the  abolition  of  begging,  which  is  to 
be  found  in  ^^  Les  vues  d'un  citoyen."  M.  de  Chamousset 
was  now  so  well  known  as  a  man  of  active  and  useful  bene- 
volence, that  M.  de  Choiseul  (when  he  was  in  the  war 
department)  made  him,  in  1761,  intendant-geheral  of  the 
military  hospitals  of  France,  the  king,  Louis  XV.  telling 
him,  ^'  that  he  had  never,  since  he  came  to  the  throne, 
made  out  an  appointment  so  agreeable  to  himself ;"  and 
added,  **  I  am  sure  I  can  never  make  any  one  that  will  be 
of  such  service  to  my  troops."  The  pains  he  took  in  this 
employment  were  incredible.  His  attention  to  his  situa- 
tion was  so  great,  and  conducted  with  such  good  sense 
and  understanding,  that  the  marshal  de  Soubise,  on  visiting 
one  of  the  great  military  hospitals  at  Dusseldorf,  under 
the  care  of  M.  de  Chamousset,  said,  **  This  is  the  first  time 
I  have  been  so  happy  as  to  go  round  an  hospital  without 
hearing  any  complaints."  Another  marshal' of  France  told 
bis  wife :  **  Were  I  sick,"  said  he,  "  I  would  be  taken  to 
the  hospital  of  which  M.  de  Chamousset  has  the  manage- 
ment" M«  de  Chamousset  was  one  day  saying  to  die 
minister,  that  he  would  bring  into  a  court  of  justice  the 
peculation  and  rapine  of  a  particular  person.  •*  Gbd  for- 
bid you  should !"  answered  the  minister,  "  you  run  a  risk 
of  not  dying  in  your  bed."  "  I  had  rather,"  replied  he, 
*^  die  in  any  manner  you  please,  than  live  to  see  my  coun- 
try devoured  by  scoundrels." 

This  good  m^n  died  in  1773,  at  the  age  of  56  years 
t>nly.  He  is  supposed  to  have  hastened  his  death  by  not 
utking  sufficient  care  of  himself  in  bis  illness^    saying 

JO*  C  H  A  M  O  US  S  E  T. 

t|.Iways,  wbfn  pressed  to  do  so,  that  he.  bad  not  time  4o 
^pare  for  it.  He  died  as  he  lived,  with  the  sentiments  of 
^  good  Christian,  and  left  a  considerable  sum  of  money  in 
charity ;  not,  however,  without  providing  for  his  relations 
?nd  dependents,  * 

.  CHAMPAGNE  (Philip  de),  a  celebrated  painter,  was 
bori^  at  Brussels  in  1602.  I}e  discovered  an  inclination  to 
painting  from  his  youth  ;,  and  owed  but  little  to  masters  for 
the  perfection  be  attained  in  it,  excepting  that  he  learned 
landscape  from  Fouquiere.  In  all  other  branches  of  his  art 
nature  was  his  master,  and  he  is  said  to  have  followed. her 
very  faithfully.  At  nineteen  years  of  age  he  set  off  foe 
Italy,  taking  prance  in  his  way.;  bpt  be  pro9eede(j,  a^  it 
happened,  no  faii-ther  ^han  Paris,  and  Iqdged  in, the  college 
of  L?iop,  \yhere  foussin  also  dwejt;  and  these  tvvo  painter* 
liecame  very  gpod  friends.  Du  Chesne,-  painter  to  queen 
^lary  of  Medicis,  was  emplpyed  about  the  paintings  in  the 
palace  of  Luxembourg,  and  set  Poussin  and  Champagne  at 
work  under  him.  Poussin  did  a  few. small  pieqes  in  the 
cieling,  and  Champagne  drew  some  sipall  pictures  in  the 
flueen's  apartment.  Her  majesty  liked  them  so  well,  th^t 
du  Chesrie  grew  jealous  of  him  ;  upon- which  Champagne, 
|vho  loved  peace,  returned  to  Brussels,  with  an  intent  tq 
go  through  Germany  into  Italy.  He  was  scarcely  gat 
there,  when  a  letter  came  to  him  from  the  abbot  of  8t. 
Ambrose,  who  was  surveyor  of  the  buildings,  to  advertlW 
Jiim  of  du  Chesqe's  death,  and  to  invite  him  back  to  France. 
He  accordingly  returned  thither,  and  was  presently  made 
director  of  fhe  queen's  paintings,  vyho  settled  on  him  a 
yearly  pension  of  12Q0  livres,  and  allowed  him  lodgings  in 
the  palace  of  Luxembourg.  Being  a  lover  of  his  business^ 
he  went  through  a  great  deal  of  it.  There  are  a  vast  nuna- 
ber  of  his  pieces  at  Paris,  and  other  parts  of  the.  kingdoca  i 
and  among  other  places,  some  of  his  pictures  are  to  be 
seen  ip  the  chapter-house  of  Notre-dauie  at  Paris,  and  in 
several  churches  in  that  city;  without  reckoning  an  in-»> 
finity  of  portraits,  which  are  noted  for  their  likeness,  9,^ 
^ell  as  for  being  finished  to  a  very  high  degree.  The 
queen  also  ordered  him  to  paint  the  vault,  of  the  Carmelites 
church  in  the  suburbs  of  St.  James,  where  his  crucitix  is 
much  esteemed  :  but  the  best  of  his  works  is  thousrht  to  be 
his  cieling  in  th<^  king's  apartment  at  Vincennes,  composed 
pn  the  subject  of  the  pes^ce  in  1659.     After  this  he  yva,$ 

1  Last  edition  of  this  Dictionaryi-^Dict.  ](iist. ' 

.CHAMPA  G  N  E.  lOS 

made  rector  of  tbe  royal  academy  of  painting,  which  office 
he  exercised  many  years. 

He  had  been  a  long  while  famous  in  his  profession,  when 
le  Brun  arrived  at  Paris  from  Italy  ;  and,  thotigh  le  Brun 
was  soon  at  the  head  of  the  art,  and  made  principal  painter 
to  tbe  king,  he  shewed  no  disgust  at  the  preference  that 
was  given  to  his  detriment  and  loss.  There  is  another  in- 
stance upon  record  of  Champagne's  goodness  of  disposition 
and  integrity.  Cardinal  Richelieu  had  offered  to  make  his 
fortune,  if  he  would  quit  the  queen-mother's  service  ;  but 
Champagne  refused.  The  cardinal's  chief  valet-de-cham- 
bre  assured  him  farther,  that  whatever  be  would  ask,  bis 
eminency  would  grant  him :  to  which  Champagne  replied^ 
^'  if  the  cardinal  could  make  me  a  better  painter^  the  only 
thing  I  am  ambitious  of,  it  would  be  something ;  but  since 
that  was  impossible,  the  only  honour  be  begged  of  his 
eminency  was  the  continuance  of  his  good  graces."  It  is 
said,  tbe  cardinal  was  highly  aflPected  with  the  integrity  of 
the  painter ;  who,  thougii  he  refused  to  enter  into  his  ser- 
vice, did  not  however  refuse  to  work  for  him.  Among 
other  things  he  drew  his  picture,  and  it  is  supposed  to  be 
one  of  the  best  pieces  he  ever  painted.  Sir  Robert  Strange 
had  his  portrait  of  Colbert,  which  he  thought  claimed  a 
rank  with  the  finest  of  Vandyke's. 

Champagne  died  in  1674,  having  been  much  beloved 
by  all  that  knew  him,  both  as  a  good  painter  and  a  good 
man.  He  liad  a  son  and  two  daughters  by  bis  wife,  da 
Chesne's  daughter,  whom  he  married  after  her  father's 
death :  but  two  of  these  children  dying  before  him,  and  the 
third  retiring  to  a  nunnery  (for  she  was  a  daughter),  he  left 
)iis  substance  to  John  Baptiste  de  Champagne,  his  nephew. 
John  Baptiste  was  also  born  at  Brussels,  and  bred  up  in 
^be  profession  of  painting  under  his  uncle;  whose  mannelr 
And  gusto  he  always  followed,  though  he  spent  fifteen 
ffionths  in  Italy.  He  lived  in  the  most  friendly  and:  affec- 
tionate manner  with  his  uncle,  and  died  professor. of  the 
ficademy  of  painting  at  Paris,  in  1688,  aged  42  years.* 

CHAMPEAUX  (William  de),  in  Latin  Campellensis, 
^^  a  native  of  the  village  of  Cbampeaux  near  Melon,  in 
the  province  of  Brie,  and  flourished  in  the  eleventh  and 
twelftjj  centuries.  After  studying  law  under  Anselm,  dean 
of  t)ie  catl^edral  church  of  Melun,  he  was  ordained  archr 

*  piJ  Plles.-7Ar2ei^¥ille— Descainpf  .r»l^ilKiB^<'n. — ^Strang^'^  Cati^ogue,  p.  24, 


deacon  of  Paris,  and  appointed  to  read  lectures  on  logic  ih 
the  schools  of  that  church.  Some  time  after  be  retired 
with  some  of  his  pupils  to  a  monastery,  in  which  was  St. 
Victor's  chapel,  near  Paris,  and  there  founded  the  abbey 
of  regular  canons.  He  continued  to  teach  in  that  convent, 
and,  as  generally  supposed,  was  the  first  public  professor  of 
scholastic  divinity.  He  was  made  bishop  of  Chalons  in 
1113,  and  died  in  Jan.  1121.  None  of  his  works  are  ex» 
tant,  for  the  *'  Dialogue  between  a  Christian  and  a  Jew,** 
printed  under  his  name  in  the  *^  Bibliotheca  Patrum,** 
belongs  to  Gilbert  of  Westminster.  It  is  thought  that  be 
wrote  a  book  of  sentences  before  Peter  Lombard,  of  which 
a  MS  copy  was  in  the  library  of  Notre^dame  at  Paris.  He 
maintained  the  doctrine  of  the  Realists,  who  held  that  all 
individual  things  partake  of  the  one  essence  of  their  spe* 
cies,  and  are  only  modified  by  accident.  He  had  the  ap- 
pellation of  the  Venerable  Doctor.  Brucker  has  given  a 
long  account  of  his  disputes  with  Abelard,  who  was  One  of 
his  scholars,  and  who  ventured  to  question  the  opinions  of 
his  master,  and  leaving  him,  opened  a  school  of  his  own  at 
Melun,  where  the  splendour  of  his  superior  talents  in  dispu- 
tation attracted  general  admiration,-  and  eclipsed  the  fame 
of  Cbampeaux.  * 

CHAMPIER  (Benedict  Curtius  Symphorien),  a  most 
voluminous  medical  and  historical  writer,  was  born  in  1472> 
After  studying  medicine  he  took  his  degree  of  doctor  at 
Pavia  in  1515,  and  in  1520  was  made  consul  at  Lyons,  an 
honour  which  he  again  enjoyed  in  1533,  on  returning 
from  Italy,  whither  he  had  accompanied  Anthony  duke  of 
Lorrain  as  bis  army  physician,  and  by  whom  he  was 
knighted  for  his  bravery  as  well  as  skill.  He  died  in  1 539 
or  1540,  after  having  founded  the  college  of  physicians  at 
Lyons.  His  works  amount  to  twenty-four  volumes,  mostly 
quarto,  of  which  a  list  may  be  seen  in  our  authorities,  but 
there  is  not  one  of  them  that  can  be  noticed  for  excellence 
fiither  of  niatter  or  style.  Perhaps  the'  best  of  his  histori- 
cal compilations  is,  **  Les  Grandes  Chroniques  des  dues 
de  Savoie,v  Paris,   1516,  fol.' 

CHAMPION  (Anthony),  a  miscellaneous  writer,  was 
the  son  of  Peter  Champion,  a  gentleman  of  an  ancient  and 
respectal>le  family,  seated  at  St.  Columb  in  Cornwall,  who 
acquired  a  considerable  fortune  as  a  merchant  at  Leghorn  t 

'  DupiD.^Brucker.  •  Morcri.— Pict^  Hist.-.  Saxli  Oaomasticdii. 


he  was  bom  February  5,  1724*5,  at  Groydon,  m  Surrey^ 
and  received  his  first  instruction  in  the  Greek  and  Latin 
languages  at  Cheam  school  in  that  couilty ;  from  whence^ 
in  1739,  be  was  removed  to  Eton,  and  in  Februfiry  1742, 
became  a  member  of  the  university  of  Oxford;  having 
been  placed  at  St.  Mary-hall,  under  the  care  of  the  rev* 
Walter  Harte,  a  celebrated  tutor,  who  was  selected  at  sc 
later  period  by  the  earl  of  Chesterfield  to  finish  his  soii 
Mr.  Stanhope's  education  in  classical  literature.  After 
kaviog  passed  two  years  at  Oxford,  be  was  entered  as  a 
student  of  law  at  the  Middle^emple,  where  he  continued 
to  reside  to  the  day  of  his  decease ;  and  was  a  bencher  of 
that  society,  to  which  he  bequeathed  one  thousand  pounds; 
He  served  in  two  parliaments,  having  been  elected  in 
1754  for  the  borough  of  St.  Germain's,  and  in  1761  for 
liskard  in  Cornwall ;  but  the  same  great  modesty  and  re- 
serve restrained  him  from  displaying  the  powers  of  his  very 
discerning  and  enlightened  mind  in  that  illustrious  assem* 
Uy,  which  prevented  him  also  from  communicating  to  the 
world  his  poetical  effusions,  a  collection  of  which  wai 
published  in  an  elegant  volume  in  1801,  by  William  Henry 
lord  Lyttelton,  who  prefixed  a  biographical  article,  from 
which  the  above  account  is  taken.  He  died  Feb.  22,  1801, 
beloved  and  lamented,  as  his  noble  friend  says,  by  all 
who  were  acquainted  with  the*  brightness  of  his  genius,  his 
taste  for  the  finer  arts,  his  various  and  extensive  learning, 
and  the  still  more  valuable  qualities  of  his  warm  and  bene- 
volent  heart.  From  his  *^  Miscellanies  in  prose  and  verse,j 
English  and  Latin,"  it  is  discernible  that  he  was  a  polite 
acholar,  and  had  many  qualities  of  a  poet,  but  not  unmixed 
with  a  love  for  those  disgusting  images  in  which  Swift 
delighted.  * 

CHAMPION  (Joseph),  a  celebrated  English  penman, 
was  born  at  Chatham  in  1709,  and  received  his  education 
chiefly  under  Snell,  who  kept  sir  John  Johnson's  firee 
writing-school  in  Foster-lane,  Cheapside,  and  with  whom 
he  served  a  regular  clerkship;  He  kept  a  boaraing«-school 
in  St  Paul's  church-yard,  and  taught  many  of  the  nobility 
and  gentry  privately.  He  was  several  years  settled  in  the 
New  academy,  in  Bedford-street,  where  he  had  a  good 
number  of  scholars,  whoca  he  instructed  with  great  success; 
iK^d  he  has  x|ot  hitherto  been  ejccelled  in  his  art.     Tha 


year  of  his  deftth  we  cannot  preciaely  ascertain.  Hta  firrt 
performance  appears  to  have  been  his  ^^  Practical  Arith- 
metic/* 1733,  8vo;  and  in  1747  he  publislied  his  <*  Tutor's 
assistant  in  teaching  arithmetic/'  in  40  plates,  4to.  But 
bis  most  elaborate  and  curious  performance  is  bis  ^^  Com* 
parative  Penmanship,"  24  oblong  folio  plates,  1750.  It  is 
engraved  by  Tborowgood,  and  is  an  honour  to  British  pen* 
manship  in  general.  His  '^  New  and  complete  alphabets,'* 
Mrjth  the  Hebrew,  Greek,  and  German  characters,  in. 21 
plates  oblong  folio,  engraved  by  Bickham, .  came  out  in 
1754,  and  in  1758  he  began  to  publish  bis  ^^  Living-^ 
hands,"  or  several  copy-books  of  the  di^erent  hands,  in 
common  use,  upwards  of  40  plates,  4to.  He  contributed 
47  folio  pieces  for  Bickham's  ^<  Universal  Penman,"  in 
which  he  displays  a  beautiful  variety,  of  writing,  both  for 
use  and,  ornament.  His  principal  pieces  besides  are  ^'  En* 
grossing  bands  for  young  clerks,"  1757.  *^  The  young 
Penman's  practice," .  1 760.  "  The  Penman's  employment," 
folio,  1759 — 1762.  In  1754  he  addressed  and  presented 
to  the  Royal  Society  a  large  body  of  penmanship,  in  20 
leaves,  folio,  which  remains  in  MS.  ^ 

CHAMPLAIN  (Samu£L  de),  born  in  Saintopge,  waa 
jient  by  Henry  IV.  on  a  voyage  to  the  newly-discovered 
continent  of  America,  in  quality  of  captain  of  a  man  of 
war.  In  this  expedition  he  signalized  himself  not  less  by 
his  courage  than  his  prudence,  and  may  be  considered  as 
the  founder  of  New  France.  It  was  he  who  caused  the 
town  of  Quebec  to  be  built ;  he  was  the  first  governor  of 
that  colony,  and  greatly  exerted  himself  in  the  settling  of 
a  new  commercial  company  at  Canada.  This  company, 
established  in  1628,  was  called  the  company  pf  associates, 
and  the  cardinal  de  Richelieu  put  himself  at  their  head. 
He  published:  "Voyages  de  la  Nouyelle  France,  dite 
Canada,"  1632,  4to.  He  goes  back  to  the  first  discoveries 
^ade  by  Verazaiii,  coming  down  to  the  year  1631.  This 
work  is  excellent  in  regard  to  ma.terial  points,  and  the 
simple  and  natural  manner  in  which  they  are  exhibited.  If 
he  is  censurable  for  any  thing,  it  is  for  rather  too  much, 
credulity.  The  author  seems  to  be  a  person  of  sound, 
judgment  and  strong  resolution ;  disinterested,  and  zealous 
for  the  religion  and  interests  of  bis  country.  He  was  ex-> 
polled,  with  the  French,  from  the  colony  in   1631^  huX 

}  Maisey't  Qufum  and  Pfogreisof  Lcttem 


C  H  A  M  P  L  A  I  N.  109 

when  restored  at  the  peace,  be  returned  again  in  1634, 
afid  was  appointed  governor-generaL  He  died  about  1635. 
Lake  Champlain  in  North  America  bad  its  name  from  him. 
He  di>icovered  it  in  1608,  and  before  his  time  it  was  called 
CorIaer*s  lake.  ^ 

CHANDLER  (Edward),  a  learned  English  prelate,  was 
the  son  of  Samuel  Chandler,  esq,  of  the  city  of  Dublin, 
by  bis  wife  Elizabeth,  whose  maiden  name  was  Calvert. 
Our  prelate  was  probably  born  in  that  city,  but  received 
bis  academical  education  at  Emanuel  college,  Cambridge, 
where  at  the  age  of  twenty-^five^  he  commenced  M.  A.  was. 
ordained  priest,  and  made  chaplain  to  Lloyd,  bishop  of 
Winchester,  in  1693.     He  was  prebendary  of  Pipa  Minor, 
April  27,  1697,   and  afterwards  canon  of  Lichfield  and 
Worcester,     He  was  nominated  to  the  bishopric  of  Lich« 
field,  Sept  5,  1717,  and  consecrated  at  Lambeth,  Nov.  17. 
From  that  see  he  was  translated  to  Durham^  Nov«.5,  1730 ; 
and  it  was  then  publicly  said  that  he  gave  9000^.  for  that 
opulent  see,  which  is  scarcely  credible.     He  was,  it  is  uni- 
versally acknowledged,  a  prelate  of  great  erudition,  'having 
rendered  himself  justly  valued  and  esteemed  as  a  worthy 
father  of  the  church  of  England,  and  patron  of  the  truth, 
by  his  learning  and  convincing  writings^  particularly  *^  A 
Defence  of  Christianity  from  the  prophecies  of  the  Old 
Testament,    wherein    are    considered   all  the   objections 
against  this  kind  of  proof  advanced  in  a  late  Discourse  on 
the  Grounds  and  Reasons  of  the  Christian  Religion,"  Lon- 
don, 1725,  8vo.     This  was  reckoned  a  very  learned  and 
daborate  work,  and  compelled  Collins  to  produce  in  1 727 
a  second  book,  particularly  in  answer  to  the  bishop  of 
Lichfield,  which  rank  our  author  then  held  :  this  was  en- 
titled "  The  Scheme  of  Literal  Prophecy  considered,"  and 
this  occasioned  a  second  antswer  from  the  learned  bishop, 
entitled  "  A  Vindication  of  the  Defence  of  Christianity,: 
from  the  prophecies  of  the  Old  Testament,"  published  ii^ 
1728  :  in  this  he  largely  and  very  solidly  vindicates  the 
antkjuity  and  authority  of  the  book  of  Daniel,  and. the  ap-  . 
plication  of  the  prophecies  there  contained  to  the  Messiah^ : 
against  Collins's  objections;  and  also  fully  obviates v what i 
he  had  farther  advanced  against  the  antiquity  and  univer- 
sality of  the  tradition  and  expectation  among  the  Jews . 
ci*^cerning  the  Messiah.      His  other -publications    were 


*  Moreri.— Diet.  Hist. 


eight  occasional  Sermons,  the  *'  Chronological  Disserta* 
tion^'  prefixed  to  Aroald^s  Ecclesiasticns,  and  a  preface  to  a 
posthumous  work  of  Dr.  Ralph  Cadwortli%  entitled  **  A 
Treatise  concerning  eternal  and  immutable  Morality.^'  He 
died  at  his  house  in  Grosvenor-square  July  20,  1750,  of 
the  stone,  several  large  ones  being  found  in  his  body, 
when  opened,  and  was  buried  .dt  Farnham  Royal^  in  the 
county  of  Bucks.  Whilst  he  was  bishop  of  Durham,  he 
gave  50L  towards  augmenting  Monkwearmouth  living,  also 
200/.  to  purchase  a  house  for  the  minister  of  Stockton,  and 
2000/.  to  be  laid  out  in  a  purchase  for  the  benefit  of  cler- 
gymen's widows  in  the  diocese  of  Durham ;  and  it  is  re- 
corded, much  to  his  honour,  tbat  he  nevex  sold  any  of  his 
patent  offices.  ^ 

CHANDLER  (Mary),  an  ingenious  English  lady^  sister 
to  the  subject  of  the  following  article,  was  borii  at  Malms^ 
bury,  in.Wiltshi/e,  in  1687,  and  was  carefully  trained  up 
in  the  principles,  of  religion  and  virtue.  As  her  father's 
circumstances  rendered  it  necessary  tbat  she  should  apply 
herself  to  some  business,  she  was  brought  up  to  that  of  a 
milliner.  But,  as  she  had  a  propensity  to  literature,  she 
employed  her  leisure  hours  in  perusitig  the  best  modern 
writers,  and  as  many  as  she  could  of  the  antient  ones, 
especially  the  poets,  as  far  as  the  best  translations  could 
assist  her.  Amongst  these,  Horace  was  her  particul:^  fa- 
vourite, and  she  greatly  regretted  that  she  could  not  read 
him  in  the  original.  She  was  somewhat  deformed  in  her 
person,  in  consequence  of  an  accident  in  her  childhood. 
This  unfavourable  circumstance  she  occasionally  made  a 
subject  of  her  own  pleasantry,  and  used  to  s&y,  *^  That  as 
her  person  would  not  recommend  her,  she  ttiust  endeavour 
to  cultivate  her  mind,  to  make  herself  agreeable."  This 
she  did  with  the  greatest  care,  being  an  admirable  oecono- 
mist  of  her  time ;  and  it  is  said,  that  she  had  so  tnany  ex- 
cellent qualities  in  her,  that  though  her  first  appearance 
could  create  no  prejudice  in  her  favour,  yet  it  was  iitipos-t 
sible  to  know  her  without  valuing  and  esteeming  her. '  She 
thought  the  disadvantages  of  her  shape  were  such,  as  gave 
ber  no  reasonable  prospect  of  being  happy  in  the  married 
state,  and  therefore  chose  to  remain  single.  She  had, 
however,  an  honourable  offer  from  a  worthy  country  gen- 

1  Shaw's  Hist,  of  Staffordshire. — Hutchinscn^s  Durham. — Leland's  View  of 
Dteisttcal  Writers. — Gent  Mag*  vol.  LXIII.  in  which  there  is  an  account  of  bis 
family  and  descendants,— -Whiston's  Life.— Nichols's  Bowyer. 


tleman,  of  considerable  fortune,  who,  attracted  merely  bj 
the  goodness  of  her  character,  took  a  journey  of  an  bun^- 
dred  miles  to  visit  her  at  Bath,  where  she  kept  a  milliner^9 
shop,  and  where  he  paid  her  his  acldresses.  But  she  de* 
dined  his  offers,  and  is  said  to  have  convinced  him  that 
such  a  match  could  neither  be  for  his  happiness,  nor  her 
own.  She  pi^blished  several  poems  in  an  8vo  volume, 
but  that  which  she  wrote  upon  '^  Bath'*  was  the  best  re- 
ceived. It  passed  through  several  editions.  She  intended 
to  have  written  a  large  poeoi  upon  the  being  and  attributes 
of  God,  and  did  execute  some  parts  of  it,  but  did  not  live 
to  finish  it.  It  was  irksome  to  her  to  be  so  much  confined 
to  her  business,  and  the  bustle  of  Bath  was  sometimes  dis« 
agreeable  to  her.  She  often  languished  for  more  leisure 
and  solitude  :  but  the  dictates  of  prudence,  and  a  desire 
to  be  useful  to  her  relations,  whom  she  regarded  with  the 
warmest  affection,  brought  her  to  submit  to  the  fatigues 
of  ber  business  for  thirty-five  years.  She  did,  however, 
sometimes  enjoy  occasional  retirements  to  the  country 
seats  of  some  of  her  acquaintance;  and  was  then  extremely 
delighted  with  the  pleasures  of  solitude,  on  which  she 
wrote  some  beautiful,  verses,  and  the  contemplation  of 
the  works  of  nature.  She  was  honoured  with  the  esteem 
and  regard  of  the  countess  of  Hertford,  afterwards 
duchess  of  Somerset,  who  several  times  visited  her._  Mr* 
Pope  also  visited  her  at  Bath,  and  complimented  ber 
for  her  poem  on  that  place,  and  the  celebrated  Mrs.  Rowe 
was  one  of  her  particular  friends.  She  bad  the  misfortune 
of  a  very  valetudinary  constitution,  which  was  supposed 
to  be,  in  some,  measu/e,  owing  to  the  irregularity  of  her 
form.  By  the  advice  of-  Dr.  Cheyne,  she  entered  on  a 
vegetable  diet,  and  adhered  to  it  even  to  an  extreme.  She 
died  on  the  litb  of  September,  1745,  in  the  fifty -eighth 
year  of  her  age,  after  about  two  days  illness.  * 

CHANDLER  (SaMU£L),  an  eminent  dissenting  minister, 
was  born  at  Hungerford,  in  Berkshire,  in  1693,  where  bis 
father  was  then  pastor  of  a  congregation  of  protestant  dis- 
senters. He  early  discovered  a  genius  for  literature,  which 
was  carefuily  cultivated  ;  and  being  placed  under  proper 
masters,  he^  made  a  very  uncommon  progress  in  clafisicel 
learning,  and  especially  in  the  Greek  tongue.  As  it  was 
intended  by  his  friends  to  bring  him  up  for  the  ministry, 

*'  Cibber'B  Lives*  written  by  her  brother.-^o|;.  Brit 

112  C  H  A  N  C  L  i:  IL 

he  was  sent  to  an  academy  at  firidgewater ;  l>ut  was  soon 
removed  to  Gloucester,  that  he  might  becoihe  a  pupil  to 
Mr.  Samuel  Jones,  a  dissenting  minister  of  great  eriiditioii 
and  abilities,  who  had  opened  an  academy  in  that  city,! 
afterwards  transferred  to  Tewkesbury.  Such  was  the  at- 
tenttonof  that  gentleman  to  the  morals  of  bis  pupils,  and 
to  their  progress  in  literature,  and  such  the  skill  and  dis- 
cernment with  which  be  directed  their  studies,  that  it  was 
a  singular  advantage  to  be  placed  under  so  able  and  ac- 
complished a  tutor. '  Chandler  'made  the  proper  use  of  so 
happy  a  situation,  applying  himself  to  his  studies  with 
great  assiduity,  and  particularly  to  critical,  biblical,  and 
oriental  learning.  Among  the  pupils  of  Mr.  Jones,  were 
Mr.  Joseph  Butler,  afterwards  bishop  of  Durham,  and  Mr. 
Thomas  Seeker,  afterwards  archbishop  of  Canterbury, 
with  whom  he  contracted  a  friendship  that  continued  to  the 
end  of  their  lives,  notwithstanding  the  different  views  by 
which  their  conduct  was  afterwards  directed,  and  the  dif- 
ferent situations  in  which  they  were  placed. 

On  leaving  the  academy,  he  continued  bis  studies  at 
Leyden,  and  these  being  finished,   he  began  to  preach 
about  July  1714;  and  being  soon  distinguished  by  his  ta- 
lents in  the  pulpit,  he  was  chosen,  in  1716,  minister  of 
the  presbyterian  congregation  at  Peckham,  near  London, 
in  which  station  he  continued  some  years.     Here  he  en« 
tered  into  the  matrimonial  state,  and  began  to  have  an  in- 
creasing family,  when,  by  the  fatal  South-sea  scheme  of 
1720,  be  unfortunately  lost  the  whole  fortune  which  he 
had   received  with   bis  wife.      His   circumstances  being 
thereby  embarrassed,  and  his  income  as  a  ministef  being^ 
inadequate  to  bis  expences,  he  engaged  in  the  trade  of  a 
bookseller,  and  kept  a  shop  in  the  Poultry,  London,  in 
partnership  with  John  Gray,  who  afterwards  became  a  dis- 
senting minister,  but  conformed,  and  had  a  living  in  York- 
shire.    Mr.  Chandler  continued  this  trade  for  about  two 
or  three  years,  still  continuing  to  discharge  the  duties  of 
tlie  pastoral  office.     It  may  not  be  improper  to  observe, 
that  in  the  earlier  part  of  his  life  Mr.  Chandler  was  subject 
to  frequent  and  dangerous  fevers;  one  of  which  confined 
him  more  than  three  months,  and  threatened  by  its  effects 
to  disable  him  for  public  service.     He  was,  therefore,  ad- 
vised to  confine  himself  to  a  vegetable  diet,  which  he  ac^ 
cordingly  did,  ai\d  adhered  to  it  for  twelve  years.     Thia 
produced  so  happy  an  alteration  in  his  constitatioh;  tha^ 


tbougli  he  tdPterwards  returned  t6  Ae  usual  way  of  living, 
he  enjoyed  art  uncommon  share  of^  spirits  and  vigour  till 
seventy;  • 

While  Mr.  Chandler  was  minister  of  the  congregation  at 
Peckham,  some  gentlemen  of  the  several  denominations 
of  dissenters  in  the  city,  came  to  a  resolution  to  set  up  and 
support  a  weekly  evening  lectiite  at  the  Old  Jewry,  for  the 
winter  half  year.    The  subjects  to  be  treated  in  this  lec- 
ture were  the  evidences  of  natural  and  revealed  religion, 
and  answers  to  the  principal  objections  against  them.   Two 
of  the  most  eminent  yoiuig  ministers  among  the  dissenters 
were  appointed  for  the  execution  of  this  design,  of  which 
Mr.  Chandler  was  One,  and  Mr.  (afterwards  Dr.)   Lardner, 
who  is  so  justly  celebrated  for  his  learned  writings,  was 
Another.     But  after  some  time  this  lecture  was  dropped, 
and  another  of  the  same  kind  set  up,  to  be  preached  by 
eoe  person  only,  it  being  judged  that  ip  might  then  be 
conducted  with  m6re  consistency  of  reason  and  uniformity 
of  design;  and  Mr.  Chandler  was  appointed  for  this  ser- 
vice.    In  the  course  of  this  lecture  he  preached  some 
sermons  on  the  confirtnation  which  miracles  gave  to  the 
divhie  mission  of  Christ,  and  the  truth  of  his  religion;  and 
vindicated  the  argument  against  th6  objections  of  Collins, 
ill  his  **  Discourse  of  the  grounds  and  reasons'  of  the 
Christian  religion;"     These  sermons,  by  the  advice  of  a 
friend,  he  enlarged,  and  threw  into  the  forhi  of  a  con- 
tinued treatise,  Tuid  published  in   17;25,  8vo,  under  the 
following  title:  "  A  Vindication  of  the  Christian  Religion, 
in  two  parts,  I.  A  discburse  on  the  nature  and  use  of  Mi- 
racles ;*  II.  An  answer  to  a  late  book,  entitled  a  Discourse 
on  the  grounds  and  reasons,  of  the   Christian   religion." 
Having  presented  A  copy  of  this  book  to  archbishop  Wake, 
his  grace  expressed  his  sense  of  the  value  of  the  favour, 
in  a  letter,    which  is  sLn  honourable   testimony   to   Mr. 
Chandler's  merit.   *  It  appears  from  the  lietter,    that  the 
archbishop  did  not  then  know  that  the  author  was  any  other 
than  a  bookseller ;  for  he  says  r  "  I  cannot  but  own  myself 
to  be  surprised  to  see  so  much  good  learning  and  just  rea- 
soning in  a  person  of  your  profession  ;  and  do  thmk  it  a 
pity  you  should  not  rather  spend  your  time  in  writing  books 
than  in  selling  them.     But  I  am  glad,  since  your  circum- 
stances oblige  you  to  the  latter,  that  you  do  not  wholly 
omit  the  former."     Besides  gaining  the  archbishop's  ap- 
.    VpL.  Dj;,  .    :  I 


114  C  H  A  N  D  L  E  It 

probation,  Mr.  Chandler^s  performance  considerably  a^-^ 
vanced  his  reputation  in  general,  and  contributed  to  Iiis 
receiving  an  invitation,  about  1726,  to  settle  as  a  minister 
with  the  congregation  in  the  Old  Jewry,  which  was  one  of 
the  most  respectable  in  London.  'Here  he  continued,  first 
as  assistant,  and  afterwards  as  pastor,  for  the  space  of  forty 
years,  and  discharged  the  duties  of  the  ministerial  office 
with  great  assiduity  and  ability,  being  much  estecQied  and 
regarded  by  his  own  congregation,  and  acquiring  a  dis- 
tinguished reputation,  both  as  a  preacher  and  a. writer* 

His  writings  having  procured  him  a  high  reputation  for 
learning  and  abilities,  he  might  easily  have  obtained  the 
degree  of  D.  D.  and  offers  of  that  kind  were  made  him  ; 
but  for  some  time  he  declined  the  acceptance  of  a  diploma, 
and,  as  he  once  said  in  the  pleasantness  of  conversation,  "  be- 
cause so  many  blockheads  had  been  made  doctors.''  How- 
ever, upon  making  a  visit  to  Scotland,  in  company  with  his 
friend  the  earl  of  Finlater  and  Seafield,  he  with  great  pro- 
priety accepted  of  this  honour,  which  was  conferred  upoa 
him  without  solicitation,  and  with  every  mark  of  respect,  by 
the  two  universities  of  Edinburgh  and  Glasgow.  He  had 
likewise  the  honour  of  being  afterwards  elected  F.  R.  and 
A.  SS.  the  former  in  1754.  On  the  death  of  George  II. 
in  1760,  Dr.  Chandler  published  a  sermon  on  that  event, 
in  which  he  compared  that  prince  to  king  David.  This 
gave  rise  to  a  pamphlet,  which  was  printed  in  1761,  en- 
titled "  The  History  of  the  Man  after  God's  own  Heart  ;'* 
in  which  the  author  ventured  to  exhibit  king  David  as  an 
example  of  perfidy,  lust,  and  cruelty,  fit  only  to  be 
ranked  with  a  Nero  or  a  Caligula;  and  complained. of  the 
insult  that  had  been  offered  to  the  memory  of  the  late 
British  monarch,  by  Dr.  Chandler^s  parallel  between  him 
and  the  king  of  Israel.  This  attack  occasioned  Dr. 
Chandler  to  publish,  in  the  following  year,  "  A  Review  of 
the  History  of  the  Man  after  God's  own  Heart ;"  in  whiclji 
the  falsehoods  and  misrepresentations  of  the  historian  are 
exposed  and  corrected.  He  also  prepared  for  th^  press  a. 
more  elaborate  work,  which  was  afterwards  published  in 
2  vols.  8vo,  under  the  following  title :  ".  A  Critical  His- 
tory of  the  Life  of  David ;  in  which  the  principal  events 
are  ranged  in  order  of  time ;  the  chief  objections  of  Mr. 
£ayle,  and  others,  against  the  character  of  t|iis  prince^ 
a^d  the  scripture  account  of  him,  and  the  occurrences  of 

G  H  AN  D  L  E  R.  US 

biis  reign^  af e  examined  and  refuted ;  and  the  psalms  which 
refer  to  him  explained.^^  As  this  was  the  last,  it  was^ 
IScewise,  one  of  the  best  of  Dr.  Chandler's  productions. 
The  greatest  part  of  this  work  was  printed  off  at  the  time 
of  our  author's  death,  which  happened  May  8,  it  66,  aged 
seventy-three.  During  the  last  year  of  his  life,  he  was 
visited  with  frequent  returns  of  a  very  painful  disorder, 
which  he  endured  with  great  resignation  and  Christian  for-> 
titude.  He  was  interred  in  the  burying-ground  at  Bun- 
bill-fields,  on  the  16th  of  the  month;  and  his  funeral  was 
very  honourably  attended  by  ministers  and  other  gentle- 
men. He  expressly  desired,  by  his  last  will,  that  no  de- 
lineation of  his  character  might  be  given  in  his  funeral 
sermon,  which  was  preached  by  Dr.  Amory.  He  had 
several  children  ;  two  sons  and  a  daughter  who 'died  before 
him,  and  three  daughters  who  survived  him.  His  library 
was  sold  the  same  year.  '  « 

Dr.  Chandler  was  a  man  of  very  extensive  learning  and 
eminent  abilities;  his  apprehension  was  quick  and  his 
jadgment  penetrating ;  he  had  a  warm  and  vigorous  ima- 
gination ;  he  was  a  very  instructive  and  animated  preacher; 
and  his  talents  in  the  pulpit,  and  as  a  writer,  procured  him 
very  great  and  general  esteem,  not  only  among  the  dis- 
senters, but  among  large  numbers  of  the  established 
church.  He  was  well  known  and  much  respected  by  many 
persons  of  the  highest  rank,  and  was  offered  considerable 
preferment  in  the  church;  but  he  steadily  rejected  every 
proposition  of  that  kind.  He  was  principally  instrumental 
in  the  establishment  of  the  fund  for  relieving  the  widows 
aod  orphans  of  poor  protestant  dissenting  ministers :  the 
plan  of  it  was  first  formed  by  him ;  and  it  was  by  his  in- 
terest and  application  to  his  friends  that  many  of  the  sub- 
scriptions for  its  support  were  procured. 

Dr.  Chandler's  other  works  were:  1.  "  Reflections  on 
the  Conduct  of  the  Modern  Deists,  in  their  late  writings 
against  Christianity,*'  1727.  2.  "  A^  Vindication  of  the 
Antiquity  and  Authority  of  Daniel's  Prophecies,"  1723. 
3^  A  translation  of  Limborch's  "  History  of  the  Inquisi- 
tion,'* 173!,  2^vols.  4to.  To  this  he  prefixed  **  A  lisirge 
iisiiroductioti,  concerning  the  rise  and  progress  of  perse- 
cution, and  the  real  and  pretended  causes  of  it."  This 
W4tt^  attacked  by  Dr.  Berriman,  in  a  pamphlet  entitled 
^' Brief  Remarks  on  Mr.  Chandler's  Introduction  to  t!^^ 
Ilistory  of  the  Inquisition."     Our  author  published,  in  the 

I  2 

Hi  C  H  A.N  D  L  E  R. 

form  of  a  letter,  an  answer  to  these  ^^  Remarks/-  which 
engaged  Dr.  Berriman  to  write  "  A  Review  of  hb  Re- 
marks,'*  to  which  Mr.  Chandler  replied  in  "  A  second 
Letter  to  William  Berriman,  D.  D.  &c.   in  which  his  Re- 
view of  his  Remarks  on  the  Introduction  to  the  History  of 
the  Inquisition  is  considered,  and  the  Characters  of  St. 
Athanasiusy  and  Martyr  Laud,  are  farther  stated^nd  sup- 
ported."    This  publication  was  soon  followed  by  another, 
entitled  **  A  Vindication  of  a  passage  of  the  Right  Reve- 
rend the  Lord  Bishop  of  London,  in  his  second  Pastoral 
Letter,   against  the  misrepresentations  of  William  Berri- 
man, D.  D.  in  a  Letter  to  his  Lordship ;"  and  here  the 
controversy  ended.      4.    "  The  Dispute   better  adjusted 
about  the  proper  time  of  applying  for  a  repeal  of  the  Cor- 
poration and  Test  Acts,"  &c."    1732,  8vo.     5»  "  A  Para- 
phrase and  critical  Commentary  on  the  prophecy  of  Joel," 
1735,  4to.     This  was.  part  of  a  commentary  on  the  whole 
of  the  prophets,  which  he  did'  not  live  to  finish.     6.  "  The 
History  of  Persecution,"   1736,  8vo.     7.  "  A  Vindication 
of  the  History  of  the  Old  Testament,"  in  answer  to  Mor- 
gan's "  Moral  Philosopher,"   1741,  8vo.     8.  "  A  Defence 
of  the  Prime  Ministry  and  Character  of  Joseph,"  1742,  8vo. 
9.  "  The  Witjiesses  of  the  Resurrection  of  Jesus  Christ 
re-examined,    and    their    Testimony   proved   consistent," 
1744,  8vo.     10.  "  The  Case  of  Subscription  to  explana- 
tory articles  of  faith,  &c.  calmly  considered,"  1745,  8vo. 
11.  "A  Letter  to  the  rev.  Mr.  John  Guyse,  occasioned  by 
his  two  sermons  on  Acts  ix.  20.  in  which  the  scripture  no- 
tion of  pleaching  Christ  is  stated  and  defended,  and  Mr. 
Guyse's  charges  against  his  brethren  ar<e  considered  and 
proved  groundless,"  1729,  8vo.      12.  "  A  second  Letter 
to  the  rev.  Mr.  John  Guyse,  in  which  Mr.  Guys^'s  latitude 
and  restrictive  ways  of  preaching  Christ  are  proved  to  be 
entirely  the  same;  the  notion  of  preaching  Christ  is  far- 
ther cleared  and  defended ;  the  charge  alledged  against 
him  of  defaming  his  brethren  is  maintained  and  supported ; 
and  his  solemn  arts  in  controversy  are  considered  and  ex- 
posed,"   1730,  8vo.     13.  ^'A  Letter  to  the  right  hon.  the 
Lord  Mayor ;  occasioned  oy  his  lordship's  noQiination  of 
five  persons,  disqualified  by  act  of  parliament,  as  fit  and 
proper  persons  to  serve  the  office  of  Sheriffs,  in  which  the 
nature  and  design  of  the  corporation  act  is  impartially  con- 
sidered and  stated,"   1738,    Svo.      14.  "An  Account  of 
the  Conferences  held  in  Nicholas-lane,  Feb,  JS,  17.34,  be- 

C  H  A  N  D  L  E  ft.  117 

tween  two  Romish  priests  and  some  protestant  divines  ; 
with  some  remarks  on  a  pamphlet  entitled  The  Confer- 
ences, &c.  truly  stated,"  173r»,  8vo.  15.  "  Cassiodori 
Senatoris  Complexiones  in  Epistolas,  Acta  Apostolorum, 
&  Apocalypsin,  e  vetustissimis  Canonicoriim  Veronensium 
membranis  nnper  enitaj.  Editio  altera  ad  Florentinam 
fideliter  expressa,  opera  &  cura  Samuelis  Chandleri," 
1722,  12mo.  16.  "A  short  and  plain  Catechism,  being, 
an  explanation  of  the  Creed,  Ten  Commandments,  and 
the  Lord's  Prayer,  by  way  of  question  and  answer,"  1742, 
12mo.  17.  **  Great  Britain's  Memorial  against  the  Pre- 
tender and  Popery ;  to  which  is  annexed,  the  method  of 
dragooning  the  French  protestants  after  the  revocation  of 
the  edict  of  Nantes,"  1745,  li2mo.  This  piece  was  thought 
so  seasonable  at  the  time  of  the  rebellion,  that  it  passed 
through  ten  editions.  18.  "Many  occasional  sermons." 
Dr.  Chandler  also  wrote  about  fifty  papers  in  the  weekly 
publication  called  "  The  Old  Whig,  or  Consistent  Pro- 
testant." In  1768,  4  vols,  of  his  sermons  were  published 
by  Dr.  Amory,  according  to  his  own  directions  in  his  last 
will ;  to  which  was  prefixed  a  neat  engraving  of  him,  from 
an  excellent  portrait  by  Mr.  Cbamberlin.  He  also  ex- 
pressed a  desire  to  have  some  of  his  principal  pieces  re- 
printed in  4  vols.  8vo  ;  proposals  were  accordingly  pub- 
lished for  that  purpose,  but  did  not  meet  with  sufficient 
encouragement.  But  in  1777,  another  work  of  our  author 
was  published,  in  1  vol.  4to,  "  A  Paraphrase  and  Notes 
on  the  Epistles  of  St.  Paul  to  the  Galatians  and  Ephesians, 
with  doctrinal  and  practical  Observations ;  together  with 
a  critical  and  practical  Commentary  on  the  two  Epistles  of 
St.  Paul  to  the  Thessalonians."  In  this  there  are  some 
valuable  criticisms,  but  all  are  not  entitled  to  that  praise. 
Dr.  Chandler  also  left  in  his  interleaved  Bible,  a  large 
number  of  critical  notes,  chiefly  in  Latin,  and  which  were 
intended  to  be  published  ;  but  the  design  has  not  yet  been 
executed,  and  the  four  gentlemen  to  whom  they  were  in- 
trusted, Dr,  Kippis,  Mr.  Fanfeer,  Dr.  Price,  and  Dr.  Sa- 
vage, are  all  dead,  nor  have  we  heard  in  what  manner  they 
disposed  of  the  copy. ' 

CHANDLER  (Richard),  D.D.  an  eminent  scholar  and 
antiquary,  was  born  in  1738,  and  educated  at  Magdalen- 
college,  Oxford,  of  which  he  was  some  time  fellow.     He 

1  Biog.  Brit— Nichols's  Bowyar. — ^Lelaad'fl  Deistical  Writers. 



took  his  degree  of  M.  A.  Oct  15,  1761,  that  of  B.  D.  April 
23,  1773,  and  in  December  of  the  same  year  that  of  D,D. 
Having  entered  into  holy  orders,  he  had  the  college  living 
of  Worldlyham,  in  Hampshire,  and  was  afterwards  rector 
of  Tilehurst,  in  Berkshire.  His  first  appearance  in  the 
republic  of  letters  was  as  editor  of  the  "  Oxford  Marbles,'* 
in  which  capacity  he  was  employed  by  the  university.  The 
**  Marmora  Oxoniensia"  were  accordingly  printed  at  the 
Clarendon  press,  in  a  magnificent  folio,,  in  1763,  with  an 
elegant  Latin  preface  by  the  editor,  and  a  very  copious 
index  by  his  friend  Mr.  Loveday.  Mr.  Chandler  also  cof- 
r^cted  the  mistakes  of  the  former  editors,  and  in  some  of 
the  inscriptions,  particularly  that  of  the  Parian  Chronicle, 
supplied  the  lacuna  by  many  ingenious  conjectures. 

His  next  publication  arose  from  his  connection  with  the 
Dilletanti,  a  society  so  called,  composed  originally  (in 
1734)  of  some  gentlemen  who  had  travelled  in  Italy,  and 
were  desirous  of  encouraging  at  home  a  taste  for  those  ob-^ 
jects  which  had  contributed  so  much  to  their  entertainment 
abroad.  On  a  report  of  the  state  of  this  society's  finances 
in  1764,  it  appeared  that  they  were  in  possession  of  a  con- 
siderable sum  above  what  their  current  services  required. 
Various  schemes  were  proposed  for  applying  part  of  this 
money  to  some  purpose  which  might  promote  taste,  and 
do  honour  to  the  society ;  ^.nd  after  some  consideration  it 
was  resolved,  that  persons  properly  qualified  should  be 
$ent,  with  sufficient  appointments,  to  certain  parts  of  the 
eas^,  to  collect  information  relative  to  the  former  state  of 
those  countries^  and  particularly  to  procure  exact  descrip- 
tions of  the  ruins  of  such  monuments  of  antiquity  as  are 
yet  to  be  seen  in  those  parts.  Three  persons  were  accor- 
dingly selected  for  this  undertaking  ;  Mr.  Chandler  was 
appointed  to  execute  the  classical  part  of  the  plan;  the 
province  of  architecture  was  assigned  to  Mr.  Revett ;  and 
the  choice  of  a  proper  person  for  taking  views  and  copying 
bas-reliefs,  fell  upon  Mr.  Pars,  a  young  painter  of  pro- 
mising talents. 

These  gentlemen  embarked  June  9,  1764,  on  board  a  ship 
bound  for  Constantinople  ;  and  were  landed  ^at  the  Darda- 
nelles on  the  25th  of  August.  Having  visited  the  Sigean 
promontory,  the  ruins  qf  Troas,  with  the  islands  of  Tenedos 
and  Scio,  they  arrived  at*  Smyrna  on  the  1 1th  of  September, 
and  from  that  city,  as  their  head-quarters,  they  made  seve- 
ral excursions.     In  August  1765,  they  arrive^  at  Athens; 


vhere  they  sUid  till  June  1766";  visiting  Marathon,  Eleasis, 
Salamisi  Megara,  and  other  places  in  the  neighbourhood. 
Leaving  Athens,  they  proceeded  by  the  little  island  of 
Catauria,  to  Trsezene,  Epidaurus,  Argos,  and  Corinth. 
Thence  they  visited  Delphi,  Patrae,  Elis,  and  Zante  ;  and 
OQ  the  31st  of  August  they  set  sail  for  Bristol,  and  arrived 
in  England  November  2,  following.  The  result  of  this 
tour  was  published  in  1769,  under  the  title  of  "  Ionian 
Antiquities,  published  with  permission  of  the  society  of 
Dilletanti.  By  R.  Chandler,  M.  A.  F.  S.  A.  N.  Revett, 
arcliitect,  and  W.  Pars,  painter.'*  Imp.  fol.  a  volume  which 
while  ic  did  honour  to  the  society,  amply  justified  the  ex- 
pectations formed  of  the  talents  employed. 

In  1774,  Mr.  (now  Dr.)  Chandler,  published  what  maybe 
considered  as  a  valuable  supplement  to  the  collections  of 
ancient  inscriptions  by  Oruter,  Muratori,  &c.  under  the 
title  of  ^^  Inscriptiones  antiquse,  plerasc^ue  nondum  edita;, 
in  Asia  Minore  et  Graecia,  fMrgesertim  Athenis  collectae," 
fol.  Clarendon  press.  The  year  following  he  g'*?»tified  a 
much  larger  proportion  of  the  public  by  his  "  Travels  in 
Asia  Minor  5  or  an  Account  of  a  Tour  made  at  the  expence 
of  the  Society  of  Dilletanti,"  4to,  a  work  of  considerable 
learning,  and  replete  with  curious  information.  This  was 
immediately  followed  by  his  "Travels  in  Greece,"  1776, 
4to  :  the  principal  part  of  this  volume  consists  of  a  descrip- 
tion of  Attica  and  its  celebrated  capital  Athens,  which  is 
highly  interesting,  although,  both  in  this  and  the  preceding 
volume  of  travels,  there  are  marks  of  carelessness  ^nd  haste 
which  frequently  obscure  the  author's  meaning. 

Id  1802,  he  published  "  The  History  of  Ilium  or  Troy: 
including  the  adjacent  Country^  and  the  opposite  Coast  of 
the  Chersonesus  of  Thrace.'' 

After  his  return  from  his  travels,  Dr^  Chandler,  if  we  are 
not  mistaken,  resided  chiefly  on  his  living  at  Tileburst,  where 
he  undertook,  at  the  instance  of  the  late  Mr.  Loveday  of  Ca- 
versham,  to  collect  materials  for  a  life  of  William  Waynflete, 
founder  of  Magdalen  college.  These  he  had  put  together  in 
a  state  fit  for  the  press  as  early  as  1791,  but  why  he  did  not 
then  publish  them  does  not  appear.  Before  his  death  he 
gave  the  MS.  to  the  late  Charles  Lambert,  esq.  F.  S.  A.  of 
the  Inner  Temple,  with  a  request  that  he  would  arrange 
the  notes  and  prepare  the  whole  for  publication  in  the  best 
and  speediest  manner  possible.  The  notes,  however,  ivere 
found  in  a  very  confused  state,  and  we  suspect  that,  if  th^ 
learned  author  had  himself  revised  the  work;  he  would 

120  C  H  A  N'D  L  E  R. 

have  discovered  other  imperfections.  It  itas,  hOwevei*^ 
published  in  an  elegant  volunae  in  1811,  8vo,  and  jnay  be, 
considered  as  a  very  valuable  addition  to  collegiate  history. 
Dr.  Chandler  died  at  Tilehurst-house,  Feb.  9,  1810,  leav- 
ing by  h^s  wife  Miss  Dorrien,  whom  he  piarried  in  1785,  a 
son  and  daughtfer..* 

a  learned  French  antiquary,  was  born  at  Paris,  Sept.  12, 
1588,  and  became  highly  distinguished  for  general  erudi- 
tion, and  especially  for  his  knowledge  of  civil  and  canon 
law,  history,  politics,  and  the  belles  lettres.  Nor  was  he 
less  admired  for  the  excellence  of  his  private  character. 
Louis  XIII.  made  him  intendant  of  the  fortifications  of  the 
gabelles,  or  excise  on  salt,  &c.  in  the  principality  of  Sedan, 
and  lastly  intendant  of  the  finances  of  the  duchies  of  Bar- 
and  Lorrain.  He  compiled,  from  original  records,  "  His- 
torical Memoirs  of  the  Houses  of  Lorrain  and  Bar  f  ^  the 
first  part  of  which  only  was  published  at  Paris,.  1642,  folio. 
He  also  published  other  works  on  detached  parts  of  French, 
history ;  and  after  his  death,  his  son  published  his  "  Trea- 
tise on  Fiefs,''  1662,  folio,  in  which  he  m^ntains  an  opi- 
nion, which  has  been  thought  to  be  erroneous,  viz.  that 
hereditary  fiefs  commenced  only  after  the  time  of  Hugh 
Capet.     He  died  at  Paris  in  1^358.* 

CHANTREAU  (Peter  Nicholas),  an  ingenious  French 
writer,  the  son  of  an  advocate,  was  born  at  Paris  in  1741, 
and  became  teacher  of  the  French  language-  in  a  military 
school  in  Spain,  where  he  published  a  French  grammar, 
entitled  "Arte  de  Hablar  bien  Frances,"  Madrid,  4to, 
which  went  through  six  editions.  On  his  return,  to  France 
he  was  appointed  pfolessor  of  history  in  the  central  school 
of  Gers,  and  afterwards  in  the  imperial  school  at  Fountain- 
bleau.     He  died  at  Auch,  Oct.  15,  1808.    His  works  were, 

1.  **  Dictionnaire  des  mots  et  usages  introduits  par  la  revo- 
lution,*' 8vo,  a  curious  medley  of  cant  phrases,  which  he 
published  under  the  name  of  M.  L'Epithete  of  Politicopolis. 

2.  "Voyage  dans  les  troisrOyaumesd'Angleterre, d'Ecosse, 
et  d'Irlande:"  this  journey  he  took  in  1788  and  1789,  and 
the  work  appeared  in  1792,  3  vols.  8vo.  3.  "  Lettres 
ecrites  de  Barcelonne  a  un  zelateur  de  la  libert6  qui  voyage 
en  Allemande,"  1792,  8vo.  4.  "Voyage  philosophique, 
politique,  et  litteraire,  fait  en  Russie  pendant  les  ann^es 

»  Gfnt.  Mag.  1810 Month.  Rev.  vols.  XUI.  LIT.  LIV.  and  LV.— Nichols's 

lowyer.  *  Morcri. — Diet.  Hl«t. 

C  H  A  N  T  ,R  E  A  U.  121 

1788  and  1789,  &c.''  2  vOi)s.  SrOj  replete  with  curious  and 
original  informaiioTi.  5.  >'  Essai  didactique  sur  la  forme 
que  doivent  avoir  les  livres  eiementaires  'faits  pour  lea 
ecotes  nationaies/'  1795,  8vo.  6.  "  Tables  chronolo- 
giqaes,*'  a  translation  of  Blair's  Chronology,  1797,  4to. 
7.  The  Index  to  Beaumarchais's  edition  of  Voltaire's  works^ 
which  forms  the  71st  and  72d  voluTne  of  that  edition.  S« 
''  Rudimens  de  Thistoire,"  a  work  of  very  considerable 
merit  9.  "  La  Science  de  Thistoire,*'  1803,  et  seqq.  4  vols. 
4to.  This  work  is  peculiarly  happy  in  the  plan,  and  judi- 
citus  and  accurate  in  its  execation.  10.  ^^  Histoire  de 
France  abreg^e  et  chronologique  depuis  les  Gaulois  et  les 
Francs  jusqu'en  1808,"  2  vols.  8vo.  * 

CHAPELAIN  (John),  a  celebrated  French  poet,  was* 
born  at  Paris  Dec.  4,  1595,  and  having  been  educated 
under  Frederic  Morel,  Nicholas  Bonrbon,  and  other  emi- 
nent masters,  became  tutor  to  the  children  of  the  marquis 
delaTronsse,  grand  marshal  of  France,  and  afterwards- 
steward  to  this  nobleman.  Puring  an  abode  of  seventeen 
years  in  this  family,  be  translated  "  Guzman  d'Alfarache," 
from  the  Spanish,  and  directed  his  particular  attention  to 
poetiy.  He  wrote  odes,  sonnets,  the  last  words  of  cardinal 
Richelieu,  and  other  pieces  of  poetry  ;  and  at  length  dis* 
tioguished  himself  by  bis  heroic  poem  called  ^'  La  Pucelle,'' 
Or  "  France  delivr6e."  Chapelain  was  thought  to  have 
succeeded  to  the  reputation  of  Malherbe,  and  after  his' 
death  was  reckoned  the  prince  of  the  French  poets.  Gras-' 
sendi,  who  was  his  frielid,  has  considered  him  in  this  light; 
and  says,  that  ^Hhe  French  muses  have  found  some  com- 
fort and  reparation  for  the  loss  they  have  sustained  by  the 
death  of  Malherbe,  in  the  person  of  Chagelain,  who  has 
now  taken  the  place  of  the  defunct,  and  is  become  the 
arbiter  of  the  French  language  and  poetry.^'  Sorbiete  has 
tiot  scrupled  to  say,  that  Chapelain  '^  reached  ^ven  Virgil 
himself  in  heroic  poetry ;''  and  adds,  that  *^  he  was  a  man  of' 
great  erudition  as  well  as  modesty."  He  possessed  this 
glorious  reputation  for  thirty  years ;  and,  perhaps,  might 
have  possessed  it  now,  if  he  had  suppressed  the  "  Pucelle,:'* 
but  the  publication  of  this  poem  id  1656,  ruined  his 
poetical  character,  in  spite  of  all  attempts  of  his  friends  to 
support  it.  He  had  employed  a  great  many  years  about  it; 
die  expectation  of  the  public,  was  raised  to  the  utmost; 
and,  as  is  usual  in  such  cases,  disappointed*     The  conse* 

1  Diet.  Hist. 

JS5J  e  H  A  P  E  L  A  I  N. 

quence  of  this  was,  that  he  was  afterwards  set  as  mach  too 
low  in  his  poetical  capacity  as  perhaps  before  be  was  too 

Cbapelain  died  at  Paris,  Feb.  22,  1674,  aged  seventy^ 
i>ine.  He  was  of  the  king's  counsellors ;  very  ricb,  and 
had  some  amiable  qualities,  but  was  covetous.  '^  Pelisson 
and  I,^'  says  Menage,  ^^  had  been  at  variance  a  long  time 
with  Chapelain  ;  but,  in  a  fit  of  humility,  he  called  upon 
me  and  insisted  that  we  should  go  and  offer  a  reconciliation 
to  him,  for  that  it  was  his  intention,  *^  as  much  as  possible^ 
to  live  in  peace  with  all  men."  We  went,  and  I  protest  I 
saw  the  very  same  billets  of  wood  in  the  chimney  which  I 
had  observed  there  twelve  years  before.  He  <  had  50,000 
crowns  in  ready  cash  by  him  ;  and  bis  supreme  delight  was 
to  have  his  strong  box  opened  and  the  bags  taken  out^ 
that  he  might  contemplate  his  treasure.  In  this  manner 
were  his  bags  about  him  when  he  died ;  which  gave  occa- 
sion to  a  certain  academician  to  say,  "  there  is  our  friend 
Chapelain  just  dead,  like  a  miller  among  his  bags."  He 
had  no  occasion  therefore  to  accept  of  cardinal  Richelieu's 
offer.  Being  at  the  height  of  his  reputation,  Richelieu, 
who  was  fond  of  being  thought  a  wit  lis  well  as  a  statesman, 
and  was  going  to  publish  something  which  he  would  have- 
pass  for  an  excellent  performance,  could  not  devise  a  bet* 
ter  expedient  than  prefixing  Chapelain's  name  to  it. 
"  Chapelain,"  says  he,  "  lend  me  your  name  on  this  oc- 
casion,^ and  I  will  lend  you  my  purse  on  any  other."  The 
learned  Huet  endeavoured  to  vindicate  bis  great  poem, 
bi^t  could  not  succeed  against  the  repeated  attacks  of 
Boileau,  Racine,  and  Fontaine.  Chapelain,  however,  was 
a  man  of  learning,  and  a  good  critic,  and  he  has  found  an 
able  defender  in  the  abb^  d' Olivet,  in  his  History  of  the 
French  Academy.  It  was  at  the  desire  of  Malberbe  and 
Vaugelas  that  Chapelain  wrote  the  famous  preface  to  the 
'^  Adone"  of  Marino;  audit  was  he  who  corrected  the 
very  first  poetical  composition  of  Racine,  his  *^  Ode  to  the 
Queen,"  who  introduced  Racine  to  Colbert,  and  procured 
him  a  pension,  for  which  Racine  repaid  him  by  joining 
the  wits  in  decrying  his  poem.^ 

CHAPELLE  (Armand  de  la),  minister  of  the  Walloon 
church  at  the  Hague,  died  in  that  city  in  1746.  He  was 
reputed  a  man  of  great  piety  and  learning,  and  deserves. 

1  Moreri. — Diet  Hist — Biographic  Gallica. 

G  H  A  P  E  L  L  5-  128 

jftotice  here  as  the  editor  of  the  "  Bibliothcqnc  Anglaise,'' 
a  species  of  Review,  which  he  carried  on  from  1716  to 
1727,  making  15  vols.  12mo,  and  of  the  **  Bihliotheque 
raisonn^  des  Ouvrages  des  Savans/'  from  July  1728  to 
June  1735,  14  vols.  In  these  he  bad  the  occasional  as- 
sistance of  other  literary  men,  and  they  contain  many  va-» 
luable  pieces  of  criticism.  He  also  translated  Ditton  on 
the  "  Resurrection,"  and  a  treatise  on  the  **  Necessity  of 
public  Worship,"  the  latter  in  favour  of  the  protestants  of 
Langaedoc.  * 

CHAPELLE  (Claude  Emanuel  Lullier),  a  celebrated 
French  poet,  called  Chapelle  from  the  place  of  his  nativity, 
a  village  between  Paris  and  St.  Denys,  was  born  in  1621. 
He  was  the  natural  son  of  Francis  Lullier,  a  man  of  con- 
siderable rank  and  fortune,  who  was  extremely  tender  of 
him,  and  gave  him  a  liberal  education.  He  had  the  cele-* 
brated  Gassendi  for  his  master  in  philosophy ;  but  he  dis- 
tinguished himself  chiefly  by  his  poetical  attempts.  There 
was  an  uncommon  ease  in  all  he  wrote ;  and  he  was  ex- 
cellent in  composing  with  double  rhymes.  We  are  obliged 
to  him  for  that  ingenious  work  in  verse  and  prose,  called 
"  Voyage  de  Bachaumont,"  which  he  wrote  in  conjunc- 
tion with  Bachaumont.  Many  of  the  most  shining  parts 
in  Moliere's  comedies  it  is  but  reasonable  to  ascribe  to 
him :  for  Moliere  consulted  him  upon  all  occasions,  and 
paid  the  highest  deference  to  his  taste  and  judgment.  He 
was  intimately  acquainted  with  all  the  wits  of  his  time,  and 
with  many  persons  of  quality,  who  used  to  seek  his  com- 
pany :  and  we  learn  from  one  of  his  own  letters  to  the 
marquis  of  Chilly,  that  he  had  no  small  share  in  the  favour 
of  the  king,  and  enjoyed,  probably  from  court,  an  annuity 
of  8000  livres.  He  is  said  to  have  been  a  very  pleasant, 
but  withal  a  very  voluptuous  man.  Among  other  stories 
in  the  Biographia  Gallica,  we  are  told  that  Boileau  met- 
him  one  day  ;  and  as  be  had  a  great  value  for  ChapAle, 
ventured  to  tell  him,  in  a  very  friendly  manner,  that  "  bis 
inordinate  love  of  the  bottle  would  certainly  hurt  him." 
Chapelle  seemed  very  seriously  affected ;  but  this  meeting 
happening  unluckily  by  a  tavern,  "  Come,"  says  he,  "  let 
us  turn  in  here,  and  I  promise  to  attend  with  patience  to 
all  that  you  shall  say."  Boileau  led  the  way,  in  hopes 
q{  coQverting  him>  but  both  preacher  and  hearer  became 

1  Diet.  Hist. 

124  C  H  A  P  £  L  L  E. 

so  intoxicated  that  they  were  obliged  to  be  sent  home  in 
separate  coaches.  Chapelle  died  in  1686,  and  his  poetical 
works  and  "  Voyage**  were  reprinted  with  additions  at  the 
Hague  in  1732,  and  again  in  17 5^,  2  vols.  12mo.^ 

CHAPELLE  (John  de  la),  the  descendant  of  a  noble 
family,  was  born  at  Bourges  in  1655,  and  came  to  Paris  in 
his  youth,  where  he  was  trained  up  to  business,  and  ob- 
tained the  place  of  receiver-general  of  the  finances  at 
Rochelle.  During  this  employment  he  found  leisure  to 
indulge  his  taste  for  polite  literature,  and  the  prince  of 
Conti  having  heard  of  his  merits  made  him  one  of  his  se- 
cretaries in  1687.  The  prince  also  sent  him  into  Swisser- 
land  on  political  business,  and  the  king  being  afterwards 
informed  of  his  talents,  employed  him  in  the  same  capa- 
city. La  Chapelle  disclosed  his  knowledge  of  the  politics 
of  Europe  in  a  work  printed  at  Paris  in  1703,  under  the 
disguise  of  Basil,  in  8  vols.  12mo,  entitled  "  Lettres  d'un 
Suisse  a  tin  Frangois,"  explaining  the  relativp  interest  of 
the  powers  at  war.  He  wrote  also  "  Memoires  historiques 
sur  la  Vie  d'Armand  de  Bourbon,  prince  de  Conti,"  1659, 
4to,  and,  if  we  are  not  mistaken,  translated  and  published 
in  English  in  1711,  8vo.  He  also  wrote  poetry,  and  some 
dramas,  in  which  last  he  was  an  unsuccessful  imitator  of 
Kacine.  In  1688  he  was  admitted  a  member  of  the  French 
academy.     He  died  at  Paris  in  1723.* 

CHAPMAN  (George),  a  dramatic  poet,  and  translator 
of  Homer,  was  born  in.  1557,  as  generally  supposed,  in 
Kent,  but  we  have  no  account  at  what  school  he  was  edu- 
cated :  he  was,  however,  sent  to  the  university  when  he 
was  about  seventeen  years  of  age,  and  spent  about  two 
years  at  Trinity  college,  Oxford,  where  he  paid  little  at- 
tention to  logic  or  philosophy,  but  was  eminently  distin- 
guished for  his  knowledge  in  the  Greek  and  Roman  clas- 
sics. About  the  year  1576  he  quitted  the  university,  and 
repaired  to  the  metropolis,  where  he  commenced  a  friend- 
ship with  Shakspeare,  Spenser,  Daniel,  Marlow,  and  other 
celebrated  wits.  In  15^5  he  published,  in  4to,  a  poent 
entitled  **  Ovid's  Banquet  of  Sauce,  a  coronet  for  his 
mistress  philosophy,  and  his  amorous  zodiac  f  to  which 
he  added,  a  translation  of  a  poem  into  English,  called 
**  The  amorbus  cdntention  of  Phillis  and  Flora,"  written  in 
Latin  by  a  friar  in  1400.     The  following  year  he  published 

*  Moreri. — ^Dict.  Hiit.— Bioyraphia  Gallica.  *  Moreri. — Diet.  Hist, 

CHAPMAN.  125 

i»  4io,  **  Tbe  Shield  of  Achilles,^  from  Homer ;  and  soon 
after,  in  the  same  yesvr^  a  translation  of  seven  books  of  the 
Iliad,  in.4to.  In  1600,  fifteen  books  were  printed  in  a 
thin  folio ;  and  lastly,  without  date,  an  entire  translation 
of  the  Ili^d,  in  folio,  under  the  follo'wing  title:  ^'The 
Iliads  of  Homer,  Prince  of  Poets.  Never  before  in  any 
language  truly  translated.  With  a  comment  upon  some 
of  his  chief  places:  done  according  to  the  Greek  by 
Qeorge  Chapman.  At  London,  printed  by  Nathaniel 

.  In  1598  he  produced  a  comedy  entitled  '^  The  Blind 
Beggar  of  Alexandria,  most  pleasantly  discoursing  his  va- . 
rious  humours,  in  disguised  shapes,  full  of  conceit  and 
pleasure,''  4to,  biit  hot  divided  either  into  acts  or  scenes, 
and  dedicated  to  the  earl  of  Nottingham,  lord  high  ad- 
miral. The  following  year  he  published  another  comedy 
in  4to,  called  ^*  Humorous  Day's  Mirth,"  which  was  acted 
by  the  earl  of  Nottingham's  servants.  He  is  said  to  have 
bjeen  much  countenanced  and  encouraged  by  sir  Thomas 
Walsingham,  who,  as  Wood  informs  us,  had  a  son  of  the 
same  name,  ^'  whom  Chapman  loved  from  his  birth." 
Henry,  prince  of  Wales,  and  Carr,  earl  of  Somerset,  also 
patronized  him;  but  the  former  dying,  and  tbe  lat^r  be* 
ii^g  disgraced,  Chapman's  hopes  of  preferment  oy  their 
means  were  frustrated.  His  interest  at  court  was  likewise 
probably  lessened  by  the  umbrage  taken  by  king  James  at 
some  reflections  cast. on  the  Scotch  nation-  in  a  comedy 
called  <^  Eastward  Hoe,"  written  by  Chapman,  in  con« 
junction  with  Ben  Jonson  and  John  Marston.  He  is  sup* 
posed,  however,  to  have  had  some  place  at  court,  either 
under  king  James,  or  his  queen  Anne. 

In  1 605  he  published  a  comedy  in  4to,  called  '^  All 
Fools,"  the  plot  of  which  is  founded  on  Terence's  Heauton«> 
titnorumenos,  and  which  was  performed  at  Black  Friars. 
Jacob  says  that  ^<  it  was  accounted  an  escellent  play  in 
those  days,  aiKi  was  acted  before  king  James."  The  foU 
lowing  year  be  produced  two  other  comedies ;  one  called 
*^  The  Gentleman  Usher,"  and  the  other  '^  Monsieur 
D'Olivc."  They  were  btfth  printed  in  quaito:  it  is  un- 
certain whether  the  first  was  ever  performed  ;  but  tbe  latter 
was  often  acted  with  success  at  Black  Friars.  In  1607  he* 
published  in  4to,  "  Bussy  d' Amboise,  a  Tragedy,"  which' 
was  often  exhibited  at  St.  Paul's  in  the  reign  of  James  I. 
and  after  tbe  Restoration  was  revived  with  success.    The 

126  CHAPMAN. 


sume  year  he  publidied  in  4to,  **  Caeaar  and  Pompey^  s 
Roman  Tragedy^  declaxing'  their  wars,  out  of  whose  events 
is  evicted  this  proposition,  Only  a  just  nian  is  a  free  nian.'' 
The  following  year  he  produced  *^  The  Conspiracy  and 
Tragedy  of  Charles,  duke  of  Biron,  marshal  of  France," 
4to,  performed  at  Black  Friars,  in  two  parts.  In  1611  he 
published  in  4to,  "  May-day,"  which  is  styled  a  witty 
comedy,  and. which  was  acted  at  Black  Friars  ;  and  in  1612 
another  comedy,  called  *f  The  Widow'^  Tears ;"  acted 
both  at  Black  and  White  Friars.  It  has  been  observed, 
that  ^^  some  parts  of  this  play  are  very  fine,  and  the  inci* 
dents  affecting  and  interesting:"  but  the  catastrophe  is 
thought  exceptionable. 

About  this  time  he  published  an  *^  Epicede,  or  Funeral 
S9ng  on  prince.  Henry  ;"  and  when  the  societies  of  Lin- 
coln's Inn  and  the  Middle  Temple,  in  1613,  had  resolved 
to  exhibit  a  splendid  masque  at  Whitehall,  in  honour  of 
the  nuptials  of  the  Palsgrave  and  the  princess  Elizabeth, 
Chapman  was  employed  for  the  poetry,  and  Inigo  Jones 
for  the  machinery.     The  same  year  he  published,  in  4to, 
a  tragedy  entitled   ^  Bussy  d'Amboise  his  Revenge,"  not 
acted  with  much  applause.     In  1714  he  published  in  4to^ 
'^  Andromeda  liberata;  or,  the  Nuptials  of  Perseus  and- 
Andromeda,''  dedicated,  in  a  poetical  epistle,  to  Robert,  - 
earl  of  Soolerset,  and  Frances,  his  countess.     The  same  - 
year  he  printed  his  version  of  the  "  Odyssey,"  which  he  - 
also  dedicated  to  the  earl  of  Somerset.    This  was  soon  fol-  - 
lowed  by  the  "  Batrachomuomachy,"  and  the  "  Hymns,'*" 
and  ^^  Epigrams."   In  1616  he  published  in  12mo,  a  trans* 
lation  of  *^  Musaeus,"  with  a  dedication  to  Inigo  Jones,  iiv  • 
which  he  is  addressed  as  the  most  skilful  and  ingenious 
architect  that  England  had  yet  seen.     Mr.  Warton  re- 
marks, that  *^  there  was  an  intimate  friendship  between  our  - 
author  and  this  celebrated  restorer  of  Grecian  palaces.** 
Chapman  also  published  a  paraphrastic   translation,    in 
ver^,  of  Petrarch's  "  Seven  Penitential  Psalms,"  with  "  A 
Hymn  to  Christ  upon  the  Cross;"  " The  Tragedy  of  Al- 
phonsus,  emperor  of  Germany ;"  "  Revenge  for  Honour,'* 
a  tragedy ;  and  some  attribute  to  him  the  *^  Two  Wise  ^ 
Men,"  a  comedy.     He  is  also  supposed  to  have  translated  - 
^'  Hesiod,"  but  it  does  not  appear  to  have  been  printed. 

He  died  in  1634,  at  the  age  of  seventy-seven,  and  was  • 
buried  on  the  south  side  of  St.  Giles's  church  in  the  Fields^  ^ 
His  friend  Inigo  Jones  planned  and  erected  a  monument 

CHAPMAN.  127 

lo  his  memory,  which  was  unfortunately  destroyed  with 
the  old  church.     He  appears  to  have  been  much  respected 
Id  his  own  time ;  and,  indeed,  the  man  who  communicated 
Homer  to  his  countrymen,  even  in  such  language  as  that 
of  Chapman,  might  justly  be  considered  as  their  benefac-« 
tor;  and  in >  estimating  the  merit  of  his  version,  candid 
allowance  ought  to  be  made  for  the  age  in  which  he  lived, 
and  the  then  unimproved  state  of  our  language.     Of  this 
translation   Mr.  Warton  says,   Chapman   ^'  is  sometimes 
paraphrastic  and  redundant,  but  more  frequently  retrenches 
or  impoverishes  what  he  could  not  feel  and  express.     In 
the  mean  time  be  labours  with  the  inconvenience  of  an' 
aukward,  inharmonious,  and  unheroic  measure^  imposed 
by  custom,  but  disgustful  to  modern  ears.     Yet  he  is  not 
always  without  strength  or  spirit.     He  has  enriched  our 
language  with  many  compound   epithets,    much  in  the 
manner  of  Homer,  such  as  the  stiver-footed  Thetis,  the 
silver-thomed  Juno,  the  triplet-feathered  helme,  the  high^ 
walled  Thebes,  thefair^fiaired  boy,  the  siher-Jiomng  floods,  . 
the  hugely-peopled  towns,  the  Grecians  navy^bound,    the 
strong-winged  lance,  and  many  more  which  might  be  col- 
lected.    Dryden  reports,   that  Waller  never  could  read 
Chapman^s  Homer  without  a  degree  of  transport.     Pope  is 
of  opinion  that  Chapman  covers  his  defects  ^  by  a  daring 
fiery  spirit,  that  animates  his  translation,  which  is  some- 
thing like  what  one  might  imagine  Homer  himself  to  have 
written  before  he  arrived  to  years  of  discretion.'     But  his 
fire  is  too  frequently  darkened  by  that  sort  of  fustiaii  which 
now  disfigured  the  face  of  our  tragedy."     Mr.  Warton's 
copy  once  belonged  to  Pope ;  in  which  he  has  noted  many 
of  Chapman's  absolute  interpolations,  extending  sometimes 
to  the  length  of  a  paragraph  of  twelve  lines.     A  diligent 
observer   will  easily  discern  that.  Pope  was  no  careless 
reader    of  his  rude  predecessor.     Pope  complains  that 
Chapman  took  advantage  of  an  unmeasureable  length  of 
line :  but  in  reality.  Pope's  lines  are  longer  than  Chap- 
nan's.     If  Chapman  affected  the  reputation  of  rendering 
line  for  line,  the  specious  expedient  of  chusing  a  pro- 
tracted .measure  which  concatenated  two  lines  together, 
UQdoiibtedly  favoured  his  usual  propensity  to  periphrasis. 
— As  a  dramatic  writer,  he  had  considerable  reputation 
among  his  contemporaries,  and  was  justly  esteemed  for  the 
escelteoce  of  his  moral  character.    Wood  says  that  he  was 

128  CHAPMAN. 

a  person  of  most  reverend  aspect,  religious  and  temperate, 
qualities  rarely  meeting  in  a  poet.''  ^ 

CHAPMAN  (George),  LL.  D.  a  learned  schoolmaster 
in  Scotland,  was  born  at  Alvab  in  the  county  of  Banff,  in 
August  1723,  and  educated  at  the  grammar-school  of  Banff, 
whence  in  1737  he  removed  to  King's  college,  Aberdeen, 
puring  the  academical  vacation,  which  lasts  from  April 
to  October,  he  engaged  as  a  private  tutor  ill  the  family  of 
a  gentleman,  by  whose  interest  he  was  appointed  master 
of  the  school  of  Alvah,  and  bein^  indulged  w;th  a  substi- 
tute, he  continued  his  academical  course  until  April  174!, 
when  he  took  the  degree  of  master  of  arts.  Feeling  now  a 
strong  propensity  to  tuition,  in  order  to  qualify  himself  for 
conducting  some  respectable  establishment  of  that  kind, 
and  in  a  situation  of  great  publicity,  he  became  assistant 
teacher  in  the  grammar-school  of  Dalkeith.  On  the  re- 
commendation of  his  friend  and  patron  Dr.  George  Stewart, 
professor  of  humanity  in  the  university  of  Edinburgh,  he 
was  in  February  1747  admitted  joint  master  of  the  gram- 
mar-school, of  Dumfries  with  Mr.  Robert  Trotter,  on  whose 
resignation  from  age  and  infirmity,  three  years  after,  Mr. 
Chapman  was  promoted  to  be  rector  or  head-master ;  and 
in  this  laborious  office  he  continued  with  increasing  reputa- 
tion and  success,  until  Martinmas  1774.  A  few  years  after 
he  had  formed  and  experienced  the  good  effects  of  the 
plan  of  education  which  he  adopted  in  this  seminary,  he 
committed  it  to  writing,  and  occasionally  submitted  it,  in 
die  various  stages  of  progression,  to  the  inspection  and  ob- 
servations of  his  particular  friends,  of  whose  animadversions 
he  availed  himself  by  subjecting  them  to  the  test  of  atten- 
tive experiment.  In  the  autumn  of  1774,  desirous  of  some 
relief  from  his  accumulated  labours,  the  consequence  of  his 
extensive  fame  as  a  teacher,  be  resigned  his  office  in  the 
achool,  and  confined  himself  to  the  instruction  pf  a  few 
pupils  who  boarded  in  his  house,  until  conceiving  that  this 
limited  kind  of  academy,  which  parents  were  often  solicit- 
ing him  to  enlarge,  might  affect  the  interest  of  his  succes- 
sor in  the  school,  he  removed,  in  ISOi,  to  Inchdrewer  near 
Banff,  a  farm  that  had  long  been  occupied  by  his  father, 
and  to  the  lease  of  which  he  had  succeeded  on  his  death. 

^  Bio;.  Brit. — Wartoa's  Hist,  of  Pbetry,  see  luclex.— Bifg.  Dram.^r^Cibb^iH 
Lives. — Ellis's  Specimens.— Malone's  Drydea^  vol.  III.  p.  5^.  IV.  p.  2b7. — 
Nichols's  Miscellany  Poems.  - 

CHAPMAN;  129 

On  this  he  erected  a  handsome  dwelIing-bouse>  capable 
of  accommodating:  a  considerable  number  of  boarders  for 
tuition,  an  employment  he  could  never  relinquish,  and  for 
which  few  men  were  better  qualified.  He  afterwards  re- 
ceived the  degree  of  LL.  D.  from  the  Marischal  college  of 
Aberdeen^  and  about  the  same  time  removed  to  Edinburgh 
to  superintend  a  printing-house  for  the  benefit  of  a  rela- 
tioa,  and  occasionally  gave  his  assistance  to  the  students  of 
the  university.  He  died  at  his  house  in  Rose-street,  Edin- 
burgh, Feb.  22,  1 806,  in  the  eighty-third  year  of  his  age, 
leaving  a  character,  as  a  schoolmaster  and  a  gentleman, 
which  will  not  soon  be  forgotten  by  his  numerous  pupils 
and  friends.  His  publications  were;  1.  ^^A  treatise  oa 
Education,"  1773,  8vo,  already  noticed,  and  which  added 
much  to  his  reputation.     It  is  now  in  the  fifth  edition. 

2.  <<  Hints  on  the  Education  of  the  Lower  Ranks  of  the 
People,  and  the  appointment  of  Parochial  Schoolmasters.*' 

3.  "  Advantages  of  a  Classical  Education,  &c."  4.  "  An 
abridgment  of  Mr.  Ruddiman^s  Rudiments  and  Latin 
Grammar."  5.  *^  East  India  Tracts  ;  viz.  Collegium  Ben- 
galense,  a  Latin  poem.  Translation  and  Dissertation." 
This  Latin  poem,  in  Sapphic  verse,  and  in  which  there  is 
a  considerable  portion  of  fancy,  with  correct  versification^ 
may  be  considered  as  a  very  uncommon  instance  of  vigouif 
of  mind  at  the  advanced  age  of  eighty-two.  A  new  edi- 
tion of  his  works,  for  the  benefit  of  his  family,  was  an-» 
nounced  soon  after  his  death,  in  a  ^^  Sketch  of  his  Life,** 
published  in  1808,  8vo,  and  was^to  have  been  sent  to  press 
as  soon  as  a  requisite  number  of  subscriptions  were  receiv- 
ed, but  we  are  sorry  to  find  that  this  undertaking  has  not 
been  so  liberally  patronized  as  might  have  been  expected..^; 

CHAPMAN  (John),  D.  D.  was  the  son  of  the  rev,  Wil- 
liam Chapman,  rector  of  Stratfield-sjly  in  Hampshire^ 
where  he  was  probably  born  in  1704.  He. was  educated  at 
King's  college,  Cambridge,  A.  B.  1727,  and  A.  M.  1731* 
His  first  promotion  was  the  rectory  of  Mersham  in  Kent^ 
and  of  Alderton,  with  the  chapel  of  Smeeth ;  to  which  he 
>as  appointed  in  1739  and  1744,  being  then  domestic 
chaplain  to  archbishop  Potter.  He  was  also  archdeacon 
of  Sudbury,  and  treasurer  of  Chichester,  two  options. 
Being  educated  at  Eton,  he  was  a  candidate  for  the  pro^ 
vostship  of  that  college,  and  lost  it  by  a  small  majority^ 

i  Sketch  as  above, 

V0L,iX.  K 

130  (5  S  A  P  M  A  T^; 

And  after  a  most  severe  contest  with  Dr.  George.  Among 
bis  papils  he  had  the  honour  to  class  the  first  lord  Cam- 
den, Ur,  Ashton,  Horace  Walpole,  Jacob  Bryant,  sir  W. 
Draper,  sir  George  Baker,  and  others  who  afterwards  at- 
tained to  considerable  distinction  in  literature.  His  first 
publication  was  entitled  "  The  Objections  of  a  late  anony- 
mious  writer  (Collins)  against  the  book  of  Daniel,  consi- 
dered," Cambridge,  1728,  8vo.  This  was  followed  by  his 
"  Remarks  on  Dr.  Middleton's  celebrated  Letter  to  Dr. 
Waterland,"  published  in  1731,  and  which  has  passed 
through  three  editions.  In  his  "  Eusebius,"  2  vols.  8vo, 
he  defended  Christianity  against  the  objections  of  Mor- 
gan, and  against  those  of  Tindal  in  his  "  Primitive  Anti- 
quity explained  and  vindicated."  The  first  volume  of 
Eusebius,  published  in  1739,  was  dedicated  to  archbishop 
Potter  ;  and  when  the  second  appeared,  in  1741,  Mr. 
Chapman  styled  himself  chaplain  to  his  grace.  In  the 
fame  year  he  was  made  archdeacon  of  Sudbury,  and  was 
honoured  ^itb  the  diploma  of  D.  D.  by  the  university  of 
Oxford.  He  is  at  this  time  said  to  have  published  the 
'*  History  of  the  ancient  Hebrews  vindicated,  by  Theo- 
phanes'Cantabrigiensis,"  8vo  ;  but  this  was  the  production 
0f  Dr.  Squire.  He  published  two  tracts  relating  to 
**  Phlegon,"  in  answer  to  Dr.  Sykes,  who  had  maintained 
that  the  eclipse  mentioned  by  thsit  writer  had  no  relation  to 
the  wonderful  darkness  that  happened  at  our  Saviour's  Cru- 
cifixion. In  1733  Dv.  Chapman  published  a  sermon 
preached  at  the  consecration  of  bishop  Mawson,  and  four 
other  single  sermons,  1739,  1743,  1748,  and  1752.  In  a 
dissertation  written  in  elegant  Latin,  and  addressed  to 
Mr.  (afterwards  Dr.)  Tunstall,  then  public  orator  of  the 
urtiversity  of  Cambridge,  and  published  with  bis  Latin 
€^pistle  to  Dr.  Middleton  concerning  the  genuineness  of 
some  of  Cicero's  epistles,  1741,  Dr.  Chapman  proved  that 
Cicero  published  two  Editions  of  his  Academics  ;  an  ori- 
ginal thought  that  bad  escaped  all  former  commentators, 
and  which  has  been  applauded  by  Dr.  Ross,  bishop  of  Exe- 
ter, in  his  edition  of  Cicero's  "  Epistolae  ad  famiiiares,'* 
1749.  In  1744  Mr.  Tunstall  published  "Observations  on 
the  present  Collection  of  Epistles  betvveen  Cicero  and  M. 
Brutus^  representing  several  evident  marks  of  foi^ery  in 
those  epistles,"  &c.  to  which  iivas  added  a  *^  Letter  from 
D^r.  Chapman,  on  the  ancient  numeral  characters  of  the 
Koman  legions."     Dr.  Middleton  had  asserted,  that  the 



Roman  getieraU,  when  they  had  occasion  to  raise  new 
legions  in  distant  parts  of  the  empire,  used  to  name  them 
according  to  the  order  in  which  they  themselves  had  raised 
them,  without  regard  to  any  other  legions  whatever.  This 
notion  Dr.  Chapman  controverts  and  confutes.  According 
to  Dr.  Middleton  there  might  have  been  two  thirtieth  le- 
gions in  the  empire.  This  Dr.  Chapman  denies  to  have 
been  customar}'  from  the  foundation  of  the  city  to  the  time 
when  Brutus  was  acting  against  Anthony,  but  affirms  no- 
thing of  the  practice  after  the  death  of  Brutus.  To  this 
Dr.  Middleton  made  no  reply.  In  1745  Dr.  Chapman  was 
employed  in  assisting  Dr.  Pearce,  afterwards  bishop  of 
Rochester,  in  his  edition  of  ^^  Cicero  de  Officiis*."  About 
this  time  Dr.  Chapman  introduced  Mr.  Tunstall  and  Mn 
Hall  to  archbishop  Potter,  the  one  as  his  librarian,  the 
other  as  his  chaplain,  and  therefore  bad  some  reason  to 
resent  their  taking  an  active  part  against  him  in  the  option 
cause,  though  they  both  afterwards  dropped  it.  Dr.  Chap* 
man's  aboVe-mentioned  attack  on  Dr.  Middleton,  which  be 
could  not  parry,  and  his  interposition  in  defence  of  his 
much-esteemed  friend  Dr.  Waterland,  provoked  Dr.  Mid- 
dleton to  retaliate  in  1746,  by  assailing  him  in  what  he 
thought  a  much  more  vulnerable  part,  in  his  Charge  to  the 
archdeaconry  of  Sudbury,  entitled  "  Popery  the  true  bane 
of  letters."  In  1747,  to  Mr.  Mounteney's  edition  of  some 
•elect  orations  of  Demosthenes,  Dr.  Chapman  prefixed  in 
Latin,  without  his  name,  observations  on  the  Commenta* 
ries  commonly  ascribed  to  Ulpian,  and  a  map  of  aneient 
Greece  adapted  to  Demosthenes.  Mr.  Mounteney  had 
been  schoolfellow  with  Dr.  Chapman  at  Eton,  and  was 
afterwards  a  baron  of  the  exchequer  in  Ireland.  If  arch- 
bishop Potter  had  lived  to  another  election,  Dr.  Chapman 
was  intended  for  prolocutor.  As  executor  and  surviving 
trustee  to  that  prelate,  his  conduct  in  that  trust,  particularly 
his  presenting  himself  to  the  precentorship  of  Lincoln,  void 

*  This  Dr.  Chapman  always  called 
''our  edition."  Its  excellence  was 
MBaUoDed  with  high  eBComiutn  by  a- 
cardinal  at  Rome  to  Mr.  Guthrie. 
Our  author's  aisistance  was  thus 
acknowledged  in  the  preface :  "  Ne 
qaid  rero  huic  editioni  deesset  quod 
^  me  parari  posset  a  doctis&imis 
quibusdam  viris,  amicis  meis,  im- 
petraTi,  ut  bos  libros  de  officiis  rele- 
garent,  et  mecum  sua  <]uisque  anno- 
taU  Gonunuaicarent.     Gratis  igituv 

tibi,  lector,  ill  is  referendss  sunt;  in 
primis  eruditissimo  Job.  Chapmanno, 
cujus  non  paucas  notas  &  utiles  fc 
doctas  meis  adjunxi,  ejus  nomine  ad 
finem  uniusicujusque  apposito.  Mulr 
turn  debet  illi  viro  respublica  literaria; 
qui  nonnuUa  alia  lectu  dignissima  jam 
in  lucem  protuUt,  plura  (ut  spero) 
prolaturus,  cum  omni  fere  doctrinsi 
generi  se  tradit,  incredibili  pene  Ak 
eadem  felici  diligentia.'' 

K  2 

132  CHAPMAN. 

by  the  death  of  Dr.  Trimnell  (one  of  his  grace's  options)^ 
was  brought  into  chancery  by  the  late  Dr.  Richardson^ 
when  lord  keeper  Henley  in  1760  made  a  decree  in  Dr. 
Chapman's  favour ;  but,  on  an  appeal  to  the  house  of  lords, 
the  decree  was  reverse'd,  and  Dr.  Richardson  ordered  to  be 
presented. .  When  Mr.  Yorke  had  finished  his  argument, 
in  which  he  was  very  severe  on  Dr.  Chapman,  Mr,  Pratt, 
afterwards  lord  Camden,  who  had  been  his  pupil,  and  Was 
then  his  counsel,  desired  him,  by  a  friend,  not  to  be  un- 
easy, for  that  the  next  day  he  ^'  would  wash  him  as  whit^ 
as  snow."  Thinking  his  case  partially  stated  by  Dr.  Burn, 
in  his  ^'  Ecclesiastical  Law,"  vol.  I.  (article  Bishops),  a» 
it  was  taken  from  the  briefs  of  his  adversaries,  he  expostu- 
lated with  him  on  the  subject  by  letter,  to  which  the  doctor 
candidly  replied,  "  that  he  by  no  means  thought  him  ci-imr- 
nal,  and  in  the  next  edition  of  bis  work  would  certainly 
add  his  own  representation."  On  this  affair,  however.  Dr. 
Hurd  passes  a  very  severe  sentence  in  his  correspondence 
with  Warburton  lately  published.  Dr.  Chapman  died  the 
J  4th  of  October,  1784,  in  the  80th  year  of  his  age.* 

CHAPMAN  (Thomas),  D.  D.  the  son  of  John  Chap- 
man, of  Billinghagn,  in  the  county  of  Durham,  was  born  at 
that  place  in  1717,  aud  educated  at  Richmond  school  in 
Yorkshire.  He  afterwards  entered  of  Christ  college, 
Cambridge,  where  he  took  his  degrees  of  A.  B.  1737,  A.M. 
174],  and  obtained  a  fellowship.  In  1746  he  was  chosen 
master  of  Magdalen  college,  and  had  the  degree  of  LL.  D. 
conferred  on  him  in  1748,  and  that  of  D.  D.  in  1749.  In 
1748  he  served  the  office  of  Tice- chancellor,  and  was  ap- 
pointed one  of  his  majesty's  chaplains.  In  1749,  he  was 
rector  of  Kirby-over-blbwer  in  Yorkshire,  in  1750  he  was 
presented  by  the  king  to  a  prebendal  stall  in  the  cathedral 
of  Durham;  and  in  1758^  was  appointed  official  to  the 
dean  and  chapter.  He  died  sCt  Cambridge,  June  9,  1760, 
in  his  forty-third  year,  and  was.  interred  iu  the  chapel  of 
Magdalen  college.  "  He  died,"  says  bishop  Hurd,  "  in  the 
flower  of  his  life  and  fortune ;  I  knew  him  formerly  very  well. 
He  was  in  bis  nature  a  vain  and  busy  man."  t)r.  Chap- 
man is  now  known  only  by  his  ^'  Essay  on  the  Roman  Se*- 
nate,"  1750,  in  which  he  coincides  with  Dr.  Middleton's 
opinion  on  the  same  subject.     They  were  both  animad- 

1  Bibl.  Topog.  Dritan. — Harwood's  AlunnDi  Etonenseii.— Nichols's  Bowyer.'-^ 
Lcland's  Deistical  Writers. 

C  H  A  P  O  N  E.  133 

verted  on  by  Mr.  Hooke^  the  Roman  historian^  in  his 
"Observations,  &c."  published  in  1758,  4to.  * 

CHAPONE  (Hester),  an  ingenious  English  lady,  was 
the  daughter  of  Thomas  Mulso,  esq.  of  Twy  well  in  North- 
amptonshire, and  was  born  Oct.  27,  1727.  At  a  very 
early  age  she  exhibited  proofs  of  a  lively  imagination  and 
superior  understanding.  -  It  is  said  that  at  nnie  years  of 
age  she  composed  a  romance,  entitled  "  The  Loves  of 
Amoret  and  Melissa,*'  which,  we. are  told,  exhibited  "fer- 
tility of  invention,  and  extraordinary  specimens  of  genius." 
Her  mother  was  a  beauty,  with  ail  the  vanity  that  unhap- 
pily attaches  to  beauty,  and  fearing  that  her  daughter's 
understanding  might  become  a  more  attractive  object  than 
the  personal  charms  on  which  she  valued*  herself,  she  took 
no  pleasure  in  the  progress  which  Hester  seemed  to  make, 
and  if  she  did  not  obstruct,  employed  at  least  no  extraor- 
dinary pains  in  promoting  her  education.  This  mother, 
however,  died  when  her  daughter  was  yet  young,  and  a 
circanistance  which  otherwise  might  have  been  of  serious 
consequence,  seemed  to  strengthen  the  inclination  miss 
Mulso  bad  shewn  to  cultivate  her  mind.  She  studied  the 
French  and  Italian  languages,  and  made  some  progress  in 
the  Latin.  She  read  the  best  authors,  especially  those 
who  treat  of  morals  and  philosophy.  To  these  she  added 
a  critical  perusal  of  the  Holy  Scriptures,  but  history,  we 
are  told,  made  no  part  of  her  studies  until  the  latter  part 
of  her  life.  Her  acquaintance  with  Riciiardson,  whose 
novels  were  the  favourites  of  her  sex,  introduced  her  to 
Mn  Chapone,  a  young  gentleman  then  practisuig  law  in 
the  Temple.  Their  attachment  was  mutual,  but  not  hasty, 
or  imprudent.  She  obtained  her  fatner's  consent,  and  a 
social  intimacy  continued  lor  a  considerable  period,  before 
it  ended  in  marriage.  In  the  mean  time,  miss  Mulso  be^ 
came  acquainted  with  the  celebrated  miss  Carter ;  a  cor- 
respondence took  place  between  them,  which  increased 
their  mutual  esteem,  and  a  friendship  was  thus  cemented, 
which  lasted  during  a  course  of  more  than  fifty  years. 

Miss  Mulso's  first  production  appears  to  have  been  the 
Ode  to  Peace,  and  that  addressed  to  miss  Carter  on  her 
intended  publication  of  the  ti'anslation  of  Epictetus.  About 
the  same  time  she  wrote  the  story  of  Fidelia,  which  misB 

*  Hutchiason's  Durham,  vol  II.  p.  182.  —  Hurd  and  Warburton's  Lelterf, 
•p.  ^?5,  226,  4to»  . 

1S4  C  H  A  P  O  N  E. 

Carter  and  her  other  friends  virho  had  read  it,  persuaded 
her  to  send  to  the  editor  of  the  "  Adventurer." 

In  1^760  she  was  married  to  Mr.  Chapone,  removed  to 
London,  and  for  some  time  lived  with  her  husband  in 
lodgings  in  Carey-street,  and  afterwards  in  A  run  del- street. 
She  enjoyed  every  degree  of  happiness  which  mutual  at- 
tachment could  confer,  but  it  was  of  short  duration.  In 
less  than  ten  months  after  they  were  married,  Mr.  Chapone 
was  seized  with  a  fever  which  terminated  his  life,  after 
about  a  week's  illness.  At  fir^t  Mrs.  Chapone  seemed  £o 
bear  this  calamity  with  fortitude,  but  it  preyed  on  her 
health,  and  for  some  time  her  life  was  despaired  of.  She 
recovered,  however,  gradually,  and  resigned  herself  to  a 
state  of  life  in  which  she  yet  found  many  friends  and  many 
consolations.  Most  of  her  time  was  passed  in  London,  or 
in  occasional  visits  to  her  friends,  among  whom  she  had  the 
happiness  to  number  many  distinguished  characters  of  both 
sexes,  lord  Ly ttelton,  Mrs.  Montague,  and  the  circle  who 
usually  visited  her  house.  In  1770  she  accompanied  Mrs. 
Montague  into  Scotland.  In  1773  she  published  her  "  Let- 
ters on  the  Improvement  of  the  Mind,"  originally  in- 
tended for  the  use  of  her  niece,  but  given  to  the  world  at 
the  request  of  Mrs.  Montague,  and  her  other  literary  friends. 
As  this  was  her  first  avowed  publication,  it  made  her  name 
more  generally  known,  and  increased  the  number  of  her 
admirers.  This  work  was  followed  by  a  "  Volume  of  Mis- 
cellanies,'^ including  some  pieces  formerly  published  with- 
out her  name. 

The  latter  years  of  her  life  were  embittered  by  the  loss 
of  the  greater  part  of  the  friends  of  her  youth  ;  and  after 
the  death  of  her  brother  in  1799,  as  London  had  no  more 
charms  for  her,  she  determined  to  settle  at  Winchester, 
where  her  favourite  niece  was  married  to  the  rev.  Ben. 
Jeffreys;  but  the  death  of  this  young  lady  in  child-bed, 
made  her  relinquish  the  design,  and  remain  in  her  cheerless 
lodgings  in  London.  So  many  privations  had  now  begun 
to  affect  her  mind,  and  her  sympathizing  friends  persuaded 
her  to  remove  to  Hadley,  where  she  died  Dec.  25,  1801, 
in  the  seventy- fourth  year  of  her  age.  In  1807,  her  whole 
works  were  published  in  2  vols.  12mo,  with  a  portion  of  her 
literary  correspondence,  and  an  interesting  memoir  of  her 
life,  to  which  we  are  indebted  for  the  above  sketch.  * 

1  Life  as  abOTCw-Biitlfb  Essayist!^  vol,  XXIII.    Preface  to  th«  Adrenturer, 
p.  33. 

C  H  A  P  P  E-  13^ 

CHAPPE  D'AUTEROCHE  (John),  an  eminent  French 
astronomer,  was  born  at  Mauriac,  a  town  in  Upper  Au- 
vergne,  on  the  23d  of  Ma}%  1728,  o(  John  Chappe,  lord 
of  the  barony  of  Auteroche,  and  Magdalen  de  la  Farge, 
daughter  of  Peter  de  la  Farge,  lord  of  la  Pierre.  From 
bis  birth  he  enjoyed  the  valuable  advantage  of  not  being 
under  the  necessity  of  struggling,  like  many  men  of  genius, 
with  adversity  and  penury.  Tlie  distinguished  rank  which 
his  parents  held  in  their  province,  added  to  their  wealth 
and  ppulence,  enabled  them  to  bestow  upon  their  son  an 
excellent  education,  the  foundation  of  which  was  laid  at 
Maui^iac,  where  he  began  bis  studies.  Having  made  con- 
siderable progress  here,  he  went  afterwards  to  finish  them 
at  the  college  de  Louis  le  Grand.  M.  Chappe,  from  his 
earliest  infancy,  shewed  a  surprising  turn  for  drawing  and 
the  mathematiqs.  Descartes  was  scarcely  eight  years  of 
9ge  when  be  was  styled  a  philosopher,  and  Chappe  at 
that  age  might  have  been  called  a  mathematician.  An 
irresistible  impulse,  and  singular  disposition,  as  if  innate, 
led  him  to  draw  plans  and  make  calculations ;  but  these 
pursuits,  quite  foreign  to  the  studies  in  which  he  was  then 
engaged,  occupied  no  part  of  that  time  which  was  allotted 
for  them.  He  applied  to  the  former  only  at  those  mo- 
ments which  the  regulations  of  the  college  suffered  him  to 
call  his  own. 

His  active  genius  discovered  to  him  in  the  silence  and 
soUtude  of  the  cloister  resources  which  he  had  little  ex-* 
pected.  During  his  course  of  philosophy,  he  formed  an 
acquaintance  with  a  carthusian,  named  Dom  Germain, 
from  whom  he  learned  the  elements  of  the  mathematics 
and  of  astronomy.  In  these  two  sciences  he  made  a-  rapid 
progress  ;  for  the  zeal  of  the  master  was  well  seconded  by 
the  diligence  of  the  scholar,  ^;ho  followed  his  literary  pur- 
suits with  the  same  ardour  and  enthusiasm  as  the  generality 
of  young  men  follow  dissipation  and  pleasure.  So  singular 
a  phenomenon  could  not  long  remain  unknown.  Fathev 
de  la  Tour,  then  principal  of  the  college,  being  struck 
with  young  Chappe,  mentioned  him  to  M.  Cassini,  and 
spoke  of  the  progress  he  had  made  tn  such  high  terms,  thai 
tbe  latter  became  very  desirous  to  see  some  of  his  works* 
After  causing  him  to  make  a  few  experiments  in  his  pre-* 
sence,  that  celebrated  academician  could  not  help  admir- 
ing his  happy  disposition ;  but  he  did  not  confine  himself 
tf>  praises  only.  Being  a  warm  patron  and  protec^tor  of  merits 

136  C  H  A  P  P  E. 

he  from  that  moment  resolved  to  cultivate  young  Chappe^s 
talents,  and  to  endeavour  to  render  them  useful  to  society. 
With  this  view  he  employed  him  in  taking  plans  of  several 
of  the  royal  buildings,  and  made  him  assist  in  delineating 
the  general  map  of  France. 

The  abb£  Chappe,  however,  made  himself  known  in  the 
astronomical  world  by  a  work  of  much  greater  importance. 
This  was  a  translation  of  the  works  of  Dr.  Halley  from  the 
English.  This  translation  appeared  in  1752  ;  and  the  ad- 
ditions made  by  the  translator,  and  the  new  inferences  he 
drew  from  the  labours  of  the  English  astronomer,  placed 
bim  almost  on  a  level  with  the  author.  The  abb6  Chappe 
had  now  given  too  striking  a  specimen  of  his  talents  not  to 
attract  the  notice  of  government.  The  king  having  ordered 
plans  of  several  places  in  the  district  at  Bitche  in  Lorraine 
to  be  taken,  and  the  forest  in  the  neighbourhood  of  the 
town  of  that  name  to  be  surveyed,  the  abbe  Chappe's 
merit  procured  him  the  superintendance  and  direction  of 
this  business ;  and  the  event  shewed,  that  the  ministry 
could  not  have  chosen  a  person  more  deserving  of  their 
confidence.  On  his  return  from  this  expedition  he  was 
elected  a  member  of  the  royal  academy  of  sciences ;  and 
on  the  17th  of  January  1759,  he  obtained  the  place  of 
assistant  astronomer,  vacant  by  the  promotion  of  M .  de  la 
Lande  to  that  of  associate. 

The  two  comets  which  appeared  in  1760  gave  the  abb6 
an  opportunity  of  shewing  that  he  was  not  unworthy  of  the 
honour  conferred  on  him ;  he  observed  them  both  with  the 
greatest  assiduity  and  attention,  and  the  result  of  bis  ob- 
servations was  published  in  the  memoirs  of  that  year,  with 
refiections  on  the  zodiacal  light,  and  an  aurora  borealis 
which  appeared  about  the  same  period.  As  the  transit  of 
Venus  over  the  sun's  disk,  which  Halley  announced  would 
happen  (?n  the  6th  of  June  176 1,, seemed  to  promise  great 
advantage  to  astronomy,  it  very  much  excited  the  curiosity 
of  the  learned  throughout  all  Europe.  It  was  necessslry, 
however,  in  order  to  derive  benefit  from  it,  that  it  should 
be  observed  in  some  very  remote  places ;  and  as  Tobolsk, 
the  capital  of  Siberia,  find  the  island  of  Roderigo  in  the 
East- Indies,  were  thought  to  be  the  properest,  the  diflSl- 
eulty  was  to  find  astronomers  bold  enough  to  transport 
themselves  thither.  But  what  will  not  the  love  of  science 
prompt  men  to  do  ?  M.  Pinge  offered  to  go  to  the  island 
gf  Roderigo^  and  Tohokk  remained  to  the  abb^  Cbapge^ 

C  H  A  P  P  E.  137 

irfio,  had  the  matter  been  left  to  himself,  would  have  made 
no  other  choice. 

The  abb^  set  out  for  the  place  of  his  destination  in  the 
month  of  November  1760.     After  encountering  a  variety 
of  almost  incredible  difficulties,,  he  arrived  at  Tobolsk, 
where  ignorance  and  superstition  prepared  new  danger  for 
him.     The  simple  Russians,  attentive  to  all  his  actions, 
beheld  his  preparations  with  the  utmost  terror ;  the  obser- 
vatory which  he  caused  to  be  erected,  and  the  instruments 
he  transported  thither,  increased   their  alarm;    and  the 
overflowing  of  the  river  Irtish,  which  inundated  part  of  the 
city,  a  natural  consequence  of  the  thaw  that  took  place, 
served  still  more  to  confirm  them  in  their  suspicions.     The 
governor  of  Tobolsk,  a  man  of  education,  to  whom  the 
world  is  indebted  for  a  correct  chart  of  the  Caspian,  was 
obliged  to  give  the  abb^  a  guard  for  his  protection.     The 
moment  so  long  wished  for,  and  purchased  by  such  fatigue 
and  peril,  being  at  length  arrived,  the  abb^,  on  the  5th  of 
June,  inade  every  necessary  preparation  for  observing  the 
transit;  but  the  pleasure  which  he  anticipated  from  the 
success  of  his  expedition  was  not  free  from  a  mixture  of 
pain,  for  the  sky,  during  the  night,  became  quite  overcast. 
This  was  a  new  source  of  uneasiness  to  the  abb^ ;  but 
luckily  for  science,  a  favourable  wind,  which  sprung  up  at 
sun-rise,  revived  his  hopes,  by  withdrawing  the  veil  that 
obscured  the  object  of  his  researches.     The  observation 
was  made  with  the  necessary  precision,  in  presence  of  M. 
Ismailof,  count  Poushkin,  and  the  archbishop  of  Tobolsk : 
and  the  academy  of  sciences  at  Paris,  as  well  as  that  of 
Petersburg^  received  the  particulars  of  this  event  «oon  after 
by  a  courier  whom  M.  Ismailof  immediately  dispatched* 
The  glory  of  this  observation  had  preceded  the  abb6,  and 
prepared  new  honours  for  htm  at  St  Petersburg.     The 
empress,  with  a  view  of  inducing  him  to  settle  there,  made 
bim  an  offer,  by  means  of  baron  de  Breteuil,  of  the  distin- 
guished place  which  had  been  occupied  by  M.  Delisle; 
But  choosing  rather  to  pass  his  days  at  home,  he  rejected 
the  offers  made  him.     On  his  arrival  in  France  he  began 
to  prepare  an  account  of  his  journey,  which  was  published 
in  1768,  in  3  vols.  4to,  elegantly  printed  and  adorned 
with  engravings.     Besides  the  account  of  the  particular 
object  of  his  journey,  the  philosopher  finds  in  it  the  history 
of  mankind  and  of  nature ;  and  the  statesman  the  political 
system  ancl  interest  of  nations.    The  great  labour  required 

ns  .  C  H  A  P  P  E, 

to  prepare  this  work  for  publicatipa  did  not  interrupt  this 
abba's  astronomical  pursuits. ,  He  enriched  the  memoiry 
of  the  academy  with  several  instructive  pieces;  and  that 
which  he  presented  in  1767  is  the  more  valuable^  as  it 
confirms  the  experiments  made  upon  electricity  at  To- 
bolsk^ and  demonstrates  the  identity  of  the  electric  fluid 
with  lightning. 

Another  transit  of  VeDUs,  which,  according  to  astrono- 
mical calculation,  was  to  happen  pn  the  3d  of  June  1769, 
afforded  the  abb6  Cbappe  a  new  opportunity  of  manifest- 
ing his  zeal  for  the  advancement  of  astronomy.  California 
was  pointed  out  as  the  properest  place  in  that  quarter  for 
observing  this  phaenomenon;  and  the  abb^,  who  had  tri-' 
umphed  over  the'  rigoui-s  of  the  north,  thought  be  could 
Inrave.  also  the  ardours  of  the  torrid  zone.  He  departed 
therefore  from  Paris  in  1768,  in  company  with  M.  PauH^ 
an  engineer,  and  M.  Noel,  a  draftsman,  whose  talents 
gave  reason  to  hope,  that  he  might  contribute  to  render 
the  expedition  interesting  in  more  respects  than  one.  He 
carried  with  him  also  a  watchmaker,  to  take  care  of  his 
instruments,  and  to  keep  them  in  proper  repair.  On  his 
arrival  at  Cadiz,  the.vessfel  belonging  to  the  Spanish  fiota, 
in  which  he  was  to  embark  for  Vera  Cruz,  not  being  ready 
in  time,  he  obtained  an  order  for  equipping  a  brigantin4&, 
which  carried  twelve  men.  The  fragility  of  this  vessel, 
which  would  have  alarmed  any  other  person,  appeared  to 
the  abbe  as  adding  to  the  merit  of  the  enterprise.  Judging 
of  its  velocity  by  its  lightness,  he  considered  it  as  better 
calculated  to  gratify  his  impatience;  and  in  this  he  was 
not  deceived :  for  he  arrived  safe  at  the  capital  of  New 
Spain,  where  he  met  with  no  delay.  The  marquis  de 
Croix,  governor  of  Mexico,  seconded  his  activity  so  well, 
that  he  reached  St.  Joseph  nineteen  days  before  the  tiixie 
caarbed  out  for  the  observation.  The  village  of  St.  Joseph, 
where  the  abb^  landed,  was  desolated  by  an  infectious 
joUsorder,  which  had  raged  for  some  time,  and  destroyed 
great  numbers  of  the  inhabitants.  In  vain  did  his  friends, 
from  a  tender  solicitude  for  his  preserv^^tion,  urge  him  to 
remove  from  the  infection,  not  to  expose  himself  impru^ 
dently,  and  to  take  his  station  at  some  distance  towards 
Cape  San  Lucar.  His  lively  and  ardent  zeal  for  the  pro« 
mo^n  of  science,  shut  his  ears  against  all  these  remonr 
fitrances;  and  the  only  danger  he  dreaded  was,  that  of 
losing  the  opportunity  of  accomplishing  the  object  of  hU 

C  H  A  P  P  E.  '  IM 

t^isfaes.  He  had  the  good  fortune,  however,  to  tniake  hit 
observation  in  the  completest  manner  on  the  3d  of  June  t 
but,  becoming  a  victim  to  his  resolution,  he  was  three 
days  after  attacked  by  the  distemper  whi€h  seemed  hitherti^ 
to  have  respected  him.  Surrounded  by  his  acquaintanceit 
either  sick  or  dying,  and  destitute  of  that  assistance  which 
he  had  given  them  as  long  as  health  remained,  the  abbA 
was  struggling  between  life  and  death,  when  by  his  own 
imprudence  he  destroyed  every  ray  of  hope,  and  hastened 
that  fatal  period  which  deprived  the  world  of  this  valuable 
member  of  society.  The  very  day  he  had  taken  physic  be 
insisted  upon  observing  an  eclipse  of  the  moon ;  but^ 
scarcely  had  he  finished  his  observation,  when  bis  disorder 
grew  considerably  worse,  and  the  remedies  administered 
not  being  able  to  check  its  progress,  he  died  on  the  1st  of 
August  1769,  in  the  42d  year  of  his  age. 

Had  it  not  been  for  the  care  of  a  very  respectable  French 
academician,  the  fruits  of  this  observation  would  have, 
been  entirely  lost  to  the  learned.  The  abb^  Chappe  haV'^ 
ing  at  bis  death  committed  his  papers  to  the  care  of  M« 
Pauli,  they  were  afterwards  arranged  and  published  by 
M.  Cassini,  the  son,  who  at  an  age  when  others  only  afford 
hopes  of  their  future  celebrity,  had  acquired  the  highest 
reputation  ;  and  if  any  thing  could  console  the  public  for 
the  loss  occasioned  by  the  abb6  being  prevented  from  put- 
ting the  last  band  to  his  work,  it  certainly  was  the  seeing 
it  appear  under  the  auspices  of  so  able  an  editor. 

The  evening  before  his  departure  from  Paris,  being  at 
supper  with  count  de  Merci,  the  Imperial  ambassador^ 
several  of  his  friends  represented  to  him,  that  he  ought  not 
to  undertake  such  a  voyage,  and  offered  to  lay  a  consider-*' 
able  wager  that  he  would  never  return.  "  Were  I  certain,*' 
replied  the  abb^,  "  that  I  should  die  the  next  morning 
after  I  had  made  my  observation,  I  would  not  hesitate 
amouient,  nor  be  in  the  least  deterred  from  embarking.'* 
An  heroic  sentiment,  which  paints  in  a  few  words  the  cha« 
racter  of  this  learned  man. 

The  published  works  of  M.  Chappe,  are,  1.  *^  The  As- 
tronomical Tables  of  Dr.  Halley ;  with  observations  and 
additions,"  1754,  8vo.  2.  *' Travels  into  tSiberia,"  i76Si, 
2  vols.  fol.  3.  "  Voyage  to  California  to  observe  the 
transit  of  Venus  over  the  Sun,  the  3d  of  June  1769,^ 
1772,  4to.  4.  He  had  a  considerable  number  of  papers 
iosented  in  th<?  Mem^rs  of  the  Academy,  for  the  years 

146  C  H  A  P  P  E  L. 

1760,  1761,  1764,  1765,  1766,  1767,  and  1768,  chiefly 
relating  to  astronomical  matters.  * 

CHAPPEL  (WiLUAM),  avery  learned  and  pious  divine, 
bishop  of  Cork,  Cloyne,  and  Ross,  in  Ireland,  was  de- 
scended, as  he  himself  tells  us,  from  parents  in  narrovir 
circumstances,  and  was  born  at  Lexington,  in  Notting- 
hamshire, I>ec.  10,  1512.  He  was  sent  to  a  grammar- 
school  at  Mansfield,  in  the  same  county ;  and  thence,  at 
the  age  of  seventeen,  removed  to  Christ's-coUege,  in  Cam- 
bridge ;  of  which,  after  having  taken  his  degrees  of  B.  and 
M.  A.  he  was  elected  fellow  in  1607.  He  became  a  very 
eminent  tutor,  and  was  also  remarkable  for  his  abilities  as 
ia  disputant,  concerning  which  the  following  anecdotes  are 
recorded.  In  1624  king  James  visited  the  university  of 
Cambridge,  lodged  in  Trinity-college,  arid  was  enter- 
tained with  a  philosophical  act,  and  other  academical  per- 
formances. At  these ,  exercises  Dr.  Roberts  of  Trinity - 
college  was  respondent  at  St.  Mary's,  where  Chappel  as 
opponent  pushed  him  so  hard,  that,  finding  himself  unable 
to  keep  up  the  dispute,  he  fainted.  Upon  this,  the  king, 
who  valued  himself  much  upon  his  skill  in  such  matters, 
undertook  to  maintain  the  question,  but  with  no  better 
success  than  the  doctor ;  for  Chappel  was  so  much  his  su- 
perior at  these  logical  weapons,  that  his  majesty  openly 
professed  his  joy  to  find  a  man  of  great  talents  so  good  a. 
subject.  Many  years  after  this,  sir  William  St.  Leger 
riding  to  Cork  with  the  popish  titular  dean  of  that  city, 
.Chappel,  then  dean  of  Cashel,  and  provost  of  Dublin,  ac* 
cidentally  overtook  them  ;  upon  which  sir  William,  who 
was  then  president  of  Munster,  proposed  that  the  two 
deans  should  dispute,  which,  though  Chappel  was  not 
forward  to  accept,  yet  he  did  not  decline.  But  the 
popish  dean,  with  great  dexterity  and  address,  extri- 
cated himself  from  this  difficulty,  saying,  ^'  Excuse  me, 
sir ;  I  don't  care  to  dispute  with  one  who  is  wont  to.  kill 
his  man." 

It  is  probable  that  he  would  have  spent  his  days  in  col- 
lege, if  he  had  not  received  an  unexpected  offer  from 
Laud,  then  bishop  of  London,  of  the  deanery  of  Cashel, 
in  Ireland ;  which  preferment,  though  he  was  much  dis- 
turbed at  Cambridge  by  the  calumnies  of  some  who  envied 
his  reputation,  he  was  yet  very  unwilling  to  accept,     For 

1  From  the  last  edit,  of  this  Dictionary. — ^Dict  Hist. 

C  H  A  P  P  E  L.  141 

being  a  man  of  a  quiet  easy  temper,  be  had  no  inclination 
to  stir,  nor  was  at  all  ambitious  of  dignities ;  but  he  de* 
termined  at  length  to  accept  the  offer,  went  over  to  Ire- 
land accordingly^  and  was  installed  August  20,  1633.  Soon 
after  he  was  made  provost  of  Trinity-college,  Dublin,  by 
Laud,  then  archbishop  of  Canterbury,  and  chancellor  of 
the  university  of  Dublin,  who,  desirous  of  giving  a  nev^ 
form  to  the  university,  looked  upon  Cbappel  as  the  fittest 
person  to  settle  the  establishment  that  was  proposed* 
Chappel  took  great  pains  to  decline  this  charge,  -the  bur-^ 
den  of  which  he  thought  too  heavy,  and  for  this  purpose 
returned  to  England  in  May  1634,  but  in  vain.  Upon 
this  he  went  down  to  Cambridge,  and  resigned  his  fellow- 
ship ;  which  to  him,  as  himself  says,  was  the  sweetest  of 
earthly  preferments.  He  also  visited  bis  native  country, 
and  taking  his  last  leave  of  his  ancient  and  pious  mother, 
he  returned  to  Ireland  in  August.  He  was  elected  provost 
of  Trinity-college,  and  had  the  care  of  it  immediately 
comaiitted  to  him ;  though  he  was  not  sworn  into  it  till 
June  5,  1637,  on  account  of  the  new  statutes  not  being 
sooner  settled  and  received.  The  exercises  of  the  univer- 
sity were  never  more  strictly  looked  to,  nor  the  discipline 
better  observed  than  in  his  time ;  only  the  lecture  for 
teaching  Irish  was,  after  his  admission,  wholly  waved. 
Yet,  that  be  might  mix  something  of  the  pleasant  with  the 
pro6table,  and  that  young  minds  might  not  be  oppressed 
with  too  much  severity,  he  instituted,  as  sir  James  Ware 
tells  us,  among  the  juniors,  a  Roman  commonwealth,  which 
continued  during  the  Christmas  vacation,  and  in  which 
they  had  their  dictators,  consuls,  censors,  and  other  of- 
ficers of  state  in  great  splendour.  And  this  single  cir- 
cumstance may  serve  to  give  us  a  true  idea  of  the  man, 
who  was  remarkable  for  uniting  in  his  disposition  two  very 
different  qualities,  sweetness  of  temper,  and  severity  of 

In  1638  his  patrons,  the  earl  of  Strafford,  and  the  arch- 
bishop of  Canterbury,  preferred  him  to  the  bishoprics  of 
Cork,  Cloyne,  and  Ross;  and  he  was  consecrated  at  St. 
Patrick's,  Dublin,  Nov.  11,  though  he  had  done  all  he 
could  to  avoid  this  honour.  By  the  king's  command  he 
continued  in  his  provostship  till  July  20,  1640  >  before 
which  time  he  had  endeavoured  to  obtain  a  small  bishopric 
in  England,  that  he  might  return  tovhis  native  country,  as 
he  tells  us,  and  die  in  peace.    But  his  endeavours  were 

U9  '        C  H  A  P  P  E  L. 

fruitlesis;  and  be  was  left  in  Ireland  to  feel  all  the  fury  of 
the  storni^  which  h^  bad  loiyg  foreseen.  He  was  attacked 
in  the  house  of  commons  with  great  bitterness  by  the  pn* 
jitati  party,  and  obliged  to  come  to  Dublin  from  Cork> 
and  to  put  in  sureties  for  his  appearance.  June  1641, 
Articles  of  impeachment  were  exhibited  against  bim  to  the 
Iiouse  of  peers,  consisting  of  fourteen,  though  the  substance 
€f  them  was  reduced  to  two  ;  the  first,  perjury,  on  a  sup-f^ 
posed  breach  of  his  oath  as  provost ;  the  second,  malice 
towards  the  Irish,  founded  on  discontinuing  the  Irish  lee* 
ture  during  the  time  of  his  being  provost.  The  prosecu* 
lion  was  urged  with  great  violence,  and,  as  is  supposed^ 
for  no  other  reason  but  because  he  had  enforced  uniformity 
«nd  strict  church  discipline  in  the  college.  This  divine's 
fate  was  somewhat  peculiar,  for  although  his  conduct  was 
consistent,  be  was  abused  at  Cambridge  for  being  a  pu<- 
ritan,  and[  in  Ireland  for  being  a  papist.  Yet  as  we  find  the 
name  o^  archbishop  Usher  among  his  opponents  in  Ireland^ 
there  seems  reason  to  think  that  there  was  some  foundation 
for  his  unpopularity,  independent  of  what  was  explicitly 
stated.  While,  however,  he  laboured  under  these  troubles, 
he  was  exposed  to  still  greater,  by  the  breaking  out  of  the 
rebellion  in  the  latter  end  of  that  year.  He  was  under  a 
kind  of  confinement  at  Dublin,  on  account  of  the  impeach* 
ment  which  was  still  depending ;  but  at  length  obtained 
leave  to  embark  for  England,  for  the  sake  of  returning 
thence  to  Cork,  which,  from  Dublin,  as  things  stood,  be 
could  not  safely  do.  He  embarked  Dec.  26,  164],  and 
the  next  day  landed  at  Milford-haven,  after  a  double 
escape,  as  himself  phrases  it,  from  the  Irish  wolves  and 
the  Irish  sea.  He  went  from  Milford-baren  to  Peqibroke, 
^nd  thence  to  Tenby,  where  information  was  made  of  him 
to  the  mayor,  who  committed  bim  to  gaol  Jan.  25.  After 
.  lying  there  seven  weeks,  he  was  set  at  liberty  by  the  in* 
terest  of  sir  Hugh  Owen,  a  member  of  parliament,  upon 
giving  bond  in  lOOO/.  for  his  appearance ;  and  March  16, 
set  out  for  Bristol.  Here  he  learnt  that  the  ship  bound 
from  Cork  to  England,  with  a  great  part  of  his  effects,  was 
lost  near  Mipehead ;  and  by  this,  among  other  things,  be 
lost  his  choice  collection  of  books.  After  such  a  series  of 
misfortunes,  and  the  civil  confusions  increasing,  he  with-* 
drew  to  his  native  soil,  where  be  spent  the  remainder  of 
bis  life  in  retirement  and  study;  and  died  at  Derby,  where 
he  had  some  time  resided,  upon  Whitsunday,  1649. 

C  H  A  P  P  E  L.  14S 

He  published  the  year  before  his  deaths  ^'  Methodus 
€oncionandi/'  that  is^  the  method  of  preaching,  which  for 
its  usefulness  was  also  translated  into  English.  His  ^^  Use 
of  Holy  Scripture,"  was  printed  afterwards  in  1653.  He 
left  behind  him  also  his  own  life,  written  by  himself  in 
Latin,  which  has  been«  twice  printed  ;  first  from  a  MS.  ia 
the  hands  of  sir  Philip  Sydenham,  hart,  by  Hearne,  and 
a  second  time  by  Peck,  from  a  MS,  still  preserved  in  Tri» 
Tiity-bail,  Cambridge,  for  the  author  left  two  copies  of  it. 
Mr.  Peck  adds,  by  way  of  note  upon  his  edition,  the  fol- 
lowing extract  of  a  letter  from  Mr.  Beaupr^  Bell :  "  'Tis 
certain  *  The  whole  Duty  of  Man'  was  written  by  one  who 
suffered  by  the  troubles  in  Ireland  ;  and  some  lines  in  this 
piece  give  great  grounds  to  conjecture  that  bishop  Chappel 
was  the  author.  March  3,  1734.'*  Thus  we  see  this 
prelate,  as  well  as  many  other  great  and  good  persons^ 
comes  in  for  part  of  the  credit  of  that  excellent  book ;  yet 
there  is  no  explicit  evidence  of  his  having  been  the  autfacnr 
of  it.  It  appears  indeed  to  have  been  written  before  the 
death  of  Charles  I.  although  it  was  not  published  till  1657^ 
and  the  manner  of  it  is  agreeable  enough  to  this  prelate's 
plain  and  easy  way  of  writing ;  but  then  there  can  be  no 
reason  given  why  his  name  should  be  suppressed  in  the 
tide^page,  when  a  posthumous  work  of  his  was  actually 
published  with  it  but  a  few  years  before.  ^ 

CHAPP£LOW  (Leonard),  an  eminent  oriental  scholar, 
•f  whom  we  regret  that  our  information  is  so  scanty,  wasi 
born  in  1683,  and  educated  at  St.  John's  college,  Cam» 
bridg^,  where  he  took  his  bachelor's  degree  in  1712,  his 
master's  in  1716,  and  that  of  B.  D.  in  1723.  To  his  other 
studies  he  united  an  uncommon  application  to  oriental 
languages,  in  which  such  was  bis  reputation,  that  he  wa» 
chosen  to  succeed  the  learned  Simon  Ockley  in  1720,  as 
Arabic  professor.  He  held  also  a  fellowship  in  his  college^ 
until  they  bestowed  on  him  the  livings  of  Great  and  Little 
Hormead,  in  Hertfordshire.  To  this  fellowship  he  was 
chosen  in  1717,  in  the  room  of  a  Mr.  Tomkinson,  one  of 
the  nonjuror-fellows  ejected  at  that  time  by  act  of  parlia- 
ment. The  celebrated  Mr.  Baker  was  another,  and  always 
afterwards  designated  himself  "  Socius  ejectus."  In  Fe- 
bruary 1754-5,  we  find  Mr.  Chappelow  a  candidate  for 
the  mastership  of  St.  John's  college,  but  he  failed,  although 


I  Bio||.  Brit— Peck's  Desiderata. 



after  a  very  severe  contest.  Mr.  Chappelow  constantly 
read  lectures  during  one  term  on  the  Oriental  languages^ 
ibr  which  he  had  a  peculiar  enthusiasm^  and  in  which  he 
was  critically  versed.  This  inclined  him  to  the  publication 
of  the  first  work  by  which  his  name  was  more  extensively 
known^  his  edition  of  Spencer  "  De  Legibus  Hebrseorunt  Ri« 
tualibus.'^  Spencer,  after  the  first  publication  of  this  capital 
work  in  1685,  had  continued  to  make  improvements  in  it, 
and  by  will  left  such  of  his  papers  and  writings  as  were 
perfect,  to  be  added  in  their  proper  places,  if  ever  there 
should  be  occasion  to  reprint  it ;  with  the  full  right  and 
property  of  them  to  his  executor,  bishop  (afterwards  arch- 
bishop) Tenison,  who  bequeathed  them  to  the  uni4^ersity  of 
Cambridge,  after  having  caused  them  to  be  prepared  for 
the  press,  with  fifty  pounds  towards  the  expences  of 
printing.  These  the  senate,  by  grace,  gave  leave  to -Mr. 
Chappelow  to  publish,  and  as  an  encouragement,  bestowed 
upon  him  the  archbishop^s  benefaction  likewise.  The  work 
was  accordingly  executed  in  1727,  2  vols.  fol.  by  a  sub- 
scription of  two  guineas  the  small,  and  three  guineas  the 
large  paper,  begun  in  1725.  Bene' t  college,  on  this  oc- 
casion, was  at  the  expence  of  prefixing  an  elegant  engra- 
ving of  the  author,  as  a  small  testimony  of  gratitude  to 
their  munificent  benefactor*  In  1^30,  he  published  "  Ele- 
menta  Linguae  Arabicae,"  chiefly  from  Erpenius. 

Mr.  Chappelow' s  next  publication,  at  a  considerable  dis- 
tance of  time,  was  "A  Commentary  on  the  book  of  .lob,  in 
which  is  inserted  the  Hebrew  text,  and  English  translation  ; 
with  a  paraphrase  from  the  third  verse  of  the  third  chapter^ 
where  it  is  supposed  the  metre  begins,  to  the  seventh  verse 
of  the  forty-second  chapter,  where  it  ends,"  1752,  2  vols* 
4to.  In  this  curious  work  Mr.  Chappelow  maintains  that  * 
an  Arabic  poem  wa$  written  by  Job  himself,  and  that  it 
was  modelled  by  a  Hebrew  at  a  later  period,  but  this  pe-* 
riod  he  does  not  take  upon  him  to  ascertain.  In  other  re-* 
spects  his  opinions,  as  to  the  intention  of  this  sublime  book, 
are  judicious.  In  1758  he  published  "  The  Traveller ;  an 
Arabic  poem,  entitled  Tograi,  written  by  Abu  Ismael  ; 
translated  into  Latin,  and  published  with  notes  in  1661, 
by  Dr.  Pocock,  and  now  rendered  into  English  in  the  same 
Iambic  measure  as  the  original ;  with  some  additional  notes 
to  illustrate  the  poem,^'  4to.  This,  although  ably  exe-* 
cuted,  is  rather  a  paraphrase  than  a  translation,  but  well 
expresses  the  sense  of  the  original.     In  1765  be  published 

C  H  A  P  P  E  L  O  W.  U5 

^^  Two  Sermons  concerning  the  State,  of  the  Soul  on  its  im-* 
niediate  separation  from  the  body  ;  written  by  bishop  Bull| 
together  with  some  extracts  relating  to  the  same  subject ; 
taken  from  writers  of  distinguished  note  and  character^ 
With  a  preface/*  Svo.  This  preface  is  all  that  belongs  to 
Mr.  Chappelow,  and  is  very  short  tie  coincides  with 
bishop  Builds  opinion,  that  the  final  state  of  man  is  deter- 
mined at  death,  and  he  supports  it  by  extracts  from  Til« 
]otson,  Whitby,  Lightfoot,  Stanhope^  Smalridge,  and 
Limborch.  His  last  publication  was  entitled  *^  Six  Assem-^ 
biies ;  or  Ingenious  Conversations  of  learned  men  among; 
the  Arabians,  &c.  formerly  published  by  the  celebrated 
Schultens,  in  Arabic  and  Latin,  with  large  notes  and  ob- 
servations, &c."  1767,  Svo.  This  amusing  collection  of 
prose  and  poetry  is  part  of  a  larger  work  written  in  Arabic 
by  Hariri  of  Barsa,  a  city  in  the  kingdom  of  Babylon,  and 
throws  considerable  light  upon  many  passages  of  Scripture. 
The  editor's  notes  are  very  valuable.  Mr.  Chappelow, 
after  holding  his  professorship  with  much  reputation  for 
nearly  half  a  century,  died  Jan.  14,  1768,  in  his  seventy- 
fifth  year,  leaving  a  widow,  who  died  July  177S^,  at  Cam- 
bridge.  * 

CHAPUZEAU  (Samuel),  a  protestant  writer,  born  at 
Geneva,   whose  family  were  originally  of  Poitiers,    was 
preceptor  to  William  III.  king  of  England ;  afterwards  go- 
vernor of  the  pages  to  George  duke  of  Brunswick  Lunen- 
burg, which  post  he  held  till  his  death,  August  31,  1701, 
at  Zell.     Three  days  before  his  death  he  wrote  a  sonnet,  in 
which  he  complains  of  being  old,  blind,  and  poor.     He 
collected  and  printed  ."  Tavernicr's  Voyages,'*   1675,  4to» 
Jurieu  having  written  against  what  is  there  said  of  the 
l)utch,  in  his  book  entitled  "  L'Esprit  de  M.  Arnauld,'* 
Chapuzeau  answered  him  in  1691,  by  a  work  called  ^*  De« 
'fense  du  Sieur  Samuel  Chapuzeau  contre  PEsprit  de  M» 
Arnauld."     He  wrote,  besides,    ^'  Eloge  de  la  Ville  de 
Lyons,"  4to.     *'  Une  Relation  de  Savoye ;   P  Europe  vi- 
vante,  ou  relation  nouvelle,  historique,  politique,  et  de  tons 
les  Etats,  tels  quUls  etoient  en   1666,"'  Paris,  1667,  4to. 
He  also  published  ^^  Traite  d6  la  maniere  de  Pr^cher,  suivi 
de  quatre   Sermons   prononc^es   a  Cassel.'*      Chapuzeau 
tried  every  kind  of  writing,  even  comedies,  the  greatest  part 

\  Cole's  MS  AtheHdB  in  Brit.  Mus.— Bidg.  Brit  art.  Spcneer.-^Month.  a'o<i 
Crk.  Reviews. — ^Nichols's  Bowjrer. 

Vol.  IX'  L 

146  C  H  A  P  U  Z  E  A  U. 

of  which  have  been  collected  under  the  title  of  '*  La  Mus^ 
enjouee,  on  le  Theatre  Comique."  In  1694  he  published 
the  plan  of  an  "  Historical,  Geographical,  and  Philological 
Dictionary,'*  on  which  he  employed  many  years,  but  it 
was  not  finished  at  his  death.  He  complains,  however, 
of  Moreri  having  availed  himself  of  .his  manuscripts,  but 
does  not  inform  us  where  he  found  them. ' 

CHARAS  (Moses),  a  skilful  apothecary,  borrfatUsez, 
in  Upper  Languedoc,  in  1618,  followed  his  profession  at 
Orange,  from  whence  he  went  and  settled  at  Paris.  Having 
obtained  a  considerable  share  of  reputation  by  his  treatise 
on  the  virtues  and  properties  of  treacle,  he  was  chosen 
to  deliver  a  course  of  chemistry  at  the  royal  garden  of 
plants  at  Paris,  in  which  he  acquitted  himself  with  general 
applause  during  nine  years.  His  "  Pharmacopoeia,"  1673, 
of  which  an  improved  edition  by  Monnier  was  published  ia 
1753,  2  vols.  4 to,  was  the  fruit  of  his  lectures  and  his  studies, 
and  has  been  translated  into  all  the  languages  of  Europe, 
and  even  into  the  Chinese,  for  the  accommodation  of  the 
emperor.  The  edicts  against  the  Calvinists  obliged  him 
to  quit  his  country  in  1 680.  He  went  over  to  England, 
from  thence  to  Holland,  and  afterwards  into  Spain  with  the 
ambassador,  who  brought  him  to  the  assistance  of  his  master 
Charles  II.  languishing  in  sickness  from  bis  birth.  Every 
good  Spaniard  was  at  that  time  convinced  that  the  vipers 
tor  twelve  leagues  round  Toledo  were  innoxious,  ever  since 
they  were  deprived  of  their  venom  by  the  fiat  of  a  famous 
archbishop.  The  French  doctor  endeavoured  to  combat 
this  error,  and  the  physicians  of  the  court,  envious  of  the 
merit  of  C haras,  failed  not  to  take  umbrage  at  this  im- 
piety ;  they  complained  of  him  to  the  inquisition,  from 
whence  he  was  not  dismissed  till  he  had  abjured  the  pro- 
testant  faith.  Charas  was  then  seventy-two  j'ears  old.  He 
returned  to  Paris,  and  was  admitted  a  member  of  the  royal 
academy,  and  there  he  continued  until  his  death,  Jan.  17, 
1698. « 

C HARDIN  (Sir  John),  a  celebrated  traveller,  the  son 
of  an  opulent  protestant  jeweller,  was  born  at  Paris  Nov. 
16,  1643.  For  some  time  it  is  probable  that  he  followed 
his  father's  profession  ;  but  he  was  only  twenty- two  years 
old  when,  in  1664  (not  1665,  as  Niceron  says),  he  went  to 
the  East  Indies.     There  be  remained  for  six  years,  pass- 

»  Moieii.— .L'ATOcat  «  Moreri.— Diet.  Hist— Haller  BibK  Med. 

C  H  A  R  D  I  N.  147 

ing  his  time  chiefly  in  Persia*     He  published  qo  regulat 
account  of  this  voyage,  which  he  modestly  says  he  con- 
ceived might  be  uninteresting,  but  confined  himself  to  a 
detail  of  certain  events  of  whieh  he  had  been  an  eye-.wit- 
ness.    This  was  contained  in  a  twelves  volume  printed  at 
Paris  in  I67I9  the  year  after  he,  returned,  under  the  title  of 
^'  Le  Couronnement  de  Soliman  II.  roi  de  Perse,  et  ce  qui 
s^est  pass6  de  plus  memorable  dans  les  deux  premieres  an- 
nj£es  de  son  regne/'     In  this  work  he  was  assisted  by  a 
Persian  nobleman,  Mirza  Sefi,  one  of  the  most  learned 
men  of  the  kingdom,  who  was  at  that  time  in  disgrace, 
aod  confined  to  his  palace  at  Ispahan,  where  Mr.  Chardin 
was  entertained  and  instructed  by  him  in  the  Persian  lan«' 
guage  and  history.     It  is  introduced  by  a  dedication  to  the 
Hog  which,  according  to  the  '^  Carpenteriana,"  was  writ- 
tea  by .  M.  Charpentier.    M.  Petis  de  la  Croix  criticised 
the  work  with  some  severity,  as  to  the  orthography,  and 
etymology  of  some  Peraiau  words,  and  Tavernier  objected 
to  the  title,  insisting  tjiat  Soliman  never  wore  the  crown  ; 
but  Chardin  found  an  able  defender  in  P.  Aoge  de  la 

After  Chardin's  return  to  Paris,  he  remained  there  only 
fifteen  months,  the  king  of  Persia  having  made  him  his 
agent  in  1666,  and  commissioned  him  to  purchase  several 
tnokets  of  .value.  Chardin  accordingly  left  Paris  Aug.|i7^ 
1671,  and  set  sail  in  l^ovember  from  Leghorn  in  a  vessel 
bound  for  Smyrna,  again  visited  Persia,  and  did  not  return 
to  Europe  until  1677.  He  now  determined  to  settle  ia 
England,  and  came  to  London  in  April  1681,  and  on  the 
24th  of  that  month  was  knighted  by  Charles  II.  The  jsame 
day  he  married  a  young  lady  of  Rouen,  the  daughter  of  a 
pFotestant  refugee  in  London.  Next  year  he  was  chosen 
a  fellow  of  the  royal  society.  After  this,  Charles  II.  seat 
him  to  Holland ;  and  in  1683,  we  find  him  there  aa  agent 
for  the  English  East  India  Company.  In  1686  he  publish- 
ed the  first  part  of  his  Voyages,  (the  other  not  appearing 
HDtil  1711),  under  the  title  of  ^^  Journal  du  Voyage  de 
Chardin  en  Perse,  et  aux  Indes  Orientales,  par  la«Mer 
Noire  et  par  la  Colchide,"  folio.  This  was  immediaitely 
translated  into  English  under  bis  inspection,  and  published. 
the  same  year.  The  dedication  to  James  11.  is  singular  for 
a  high  complimentary  strain,  arising  from  his  gratitude  to 
Charles  and  James  for  their  patronage  of  him,  and,  what 
he  was  more  unfortunate  in  attempting,  a  prophecy  of  the 


14S  C  H  A  R  D  I  N. 

duration  of  Jameses  reign.     After  this  he  carried  on  a  eon- 
siderable  trade  in  jewels,  but  continued  his  studies  of  the 
oriental  languages  and  antiquities.     The  continuation  of 
his  Travels  was  published  along  with  the  first  part  much 
enlarged  at  Amsterdam  in  3  vols.  4to,  and  10  vols.  Svo, 
with  plates  on  which  he  employed  the  skill  of  M.  Grelot, 
being  himself  no  draftsman.    There  was  also  a  new  edition 
at  Amsterdam  in  1735,  4  vols.  4to*.     He  died,  according 
to  Musgrave^s  ^*  Adversaria/'  on  Dec.  25,  and  not  Jan.  5, 
1713,  as  the  French  biographers  report,  and  tlie  register 
of  Chiswick  proves  that  he  was  buried  there  December  29.. 
There  is  no  memorial  of  him  at  Chiswick,  but  there  is  a 
monument  to  his  memory  in   Westminster  Abbey,  with 
only  this  inscription,  **  Sir  John  Chardin. — Nomen  sibi 
fecit  eundo."     He  lived  in  bis  latter  days  at  a  house  in 
Tumham-green,  which  at  his  death  was  sold  to  Thomas 
Lutwyche,  esq.     His  Travels  have   been  translated  into 
English,  or  at  least  large  extracts  in  Harris's  and  other 
collections  of  voyages,  and  into  Gerq^an,  and  Flemish ;  and 
as  they  contain  authentic  and  valuable  information  wkh 
regard  to  the  religion,  manners,  products,  and  commerce, 
&c.  of  the  countries  he  visited,  they  obtained  an  extensive 
circulation.     Among  other  curious  particulars,  he  records 
several  medical  facts ;  and  particularly  an  account  of  his 
o^n  case,  when  he  was  attacked  with  a  dangerous  fever  at 
Gombron,  and  cured  by  the  country  physicians,  who  em« 
ployed  the  repeated  affusion  of  cold  water.     This  fact  has 
suggested  an  useful  hint  to  modern  practitioners. 

In  the  preface  to  his  Voyages,  he  promised  other  works, 
as  **  A  Geography  of  Persia  ;'*  **  A  Compendious  History 
of  that  Empire,  taken  from  Persian  Authors;*'  and  *^  Ob« 
servations  on  Passages  of  the  Holy  Scripture,  explained  by 
the  manners  and  customs  of  the  East,"  but  the  two  former 
never  appeared,  and  the  latter  was  discovered  by  a  public 
advertisement  In  1770,  sir  John's  descendants  adver- 
tised a  reward  of  twenty  guineas  for  this  manuscript,  which 
they  call  <*  A  Commentary  or  Explanation  of  the  Old  Tes- 
tament, from  the  manners  and  customs  of  the  East,  written 
in  French  by  sir  J.  Chardin,"  and  which,  they  add,  about 
twenty  years  before,  i.  e.  1750,  was  seen  by  a  gentleman 

*  Two  years  ago  M.  L.  JLangles,  Us,  Paris.  1811;  bat  we  find  no  par* 

lu^eper  of  the  l^rencb  Imperial  library,  ticulars  of  Chardin's  life   which  we 

publiibed  a  new  edition  of  Chardin's  had  not  befora  oollectcd. 
Travels,  10  volt.  8to,  wiUi  a  folio  At- 

C  H  A  R  D  I  N.  1« 

in  the  possession  of  Dr.  Oldfield.  It  was  described  to  have 
been  a  thin  quarto  volume,  in  a  very  small  hand.  But 
when  Mr.  Harmer  compiled  his  "  Observations  on  divers 
passages  of  Scripture,  &c."  illustrated  by  books  of  travels^ 
he  recovered  this  treasure  by  means  of  sir  William  Mus- 
grave,  bart.  in  whose  possession  it  was,  not  a  single  quarto 
volume,  but  six  small  MS  volumes,  the  principal  part  of 
which  Mr.  Harmer  incorporated  in  his  valuable  work.  ^ 

CHARES,  an  ancient  statuary,  a  native  of  Lindus,  and 
disciple  of  Lysippus  in  the  seventh  century,  imovortalized 
himself  by  the  Colossus  of  the  Sun  at  Rhodes,  which  has 
been  reckoned  one  of  the  seven  wonders  of  the  world. 
This  statue  was  of  brass,  and  above  100  feet  high;  and 
was  placed  at  the  entrance  of  the  harbour  at  Rhodes,  with 
the  feet  upon  two  rocks,  in  such  a  manner,  that  ships  could 
pass  in  full  sail  betwixt  them.  Chares  employed  twelve 
years  upon  it$  and  aft'er  standitig  forty-six,  it  was  thrown 
down  by  an  earthquake.  Moavius,  a  caliph  of  the  Sara* 
cens,  who  invaded  Rhodes  in  the  year  ^67,  sold  it  to  a 
Jew  merchant,  who  is  said  to  have  loaded  900  camels  with 
the  materials  of  it. ' 

CHARITON,  of  Aphrodisium,  secretary  to  a  rhetorician 
flamed  Athenagoras,  lived  at  the  end  of  the  fourth  century^ 
if  these  are  not  fictitious  names,  which  there  is  great  rea« 
son  to  think.  A  Greek  romance,  in  his  style,  was  some 
years  ago  found,  entitled  ^'The  Loves  of  Chaereas  and 
Cailirho^,*'  an  edition  of  which  was  published  by  M.  d'Or- 
vilie,  professor  of  history  at  Amsterdam,  1750,  4to,  with  a 
Latin  translation  and  notes.  A  French  translation  appeared 
At  Paris,  1763,  2  vols.  8vo,  and  M.  Pallet  published  a  new 
one,  1775,  8vo.  Gesner,  Fabricius,  and  M.  Huet,  had 
spoken  of  this  romance  as  being  only  known  by  name.  It 
is  a  very  amusing  composition,  and  the  notes  of  D*OrvilIe 
contain  a  treasure  of  critical  learning.  They  were  adopted 
afterwards  by  Reiske  in  his  edition  of  Leipsic,  1783,  8va, 
and  the  novel  was  translated  into  English,  1763,  2  vols. 
]l2mo,  with  a  preface  giving  all  the  account  that  is  knowa 
of  the  author. ' 

*  Chattfepie.— Morerl— Sir  Wm.  MusgravB'f  Adrersaria  in  Brit  Mu8.-^ 
Lysons's  EnviroQii,  vol.  Il.«— Harmer^ Preface.— Haller  Bibl.  Botan.— ^$axU 
Onomaatieoo.  «^/ 

«  Diet.  Hist— PUn.  Nat.  Hist.     J 

*  Pniacei  as  abore.— f  adrio.  Bibl.  Grsec^—Saxii  Onomast.— Diet.  Histt 


Cfl  A  R  K  E. 

CHARKE  (Charlotte)  was  yopngest  daughter  of 
CoUey  Gibber  the  player,  and  afterwards  poet-laureat.  At 
eight  yeard  old  she  was  put  to  school,  but  had  an  ^ducatiop 
more  suitable  to  a  boy  than  a  girl ;  and  as  she  grew  up» 
followed  the  same  plan,  being  more  frequently  in  the  stable 
than  in  the  bed-chamber,  and  mistress  of  the  curry-comb^ 
though  ignorant  of  the  needle.  Her  very  amusements  all 
took  the  same  masculine  turn ;  shooting,  hunting,  riding 
races,  and  digging  in  a  garden,  being  ever  her  favourite 
exercises.  She  also  relates  an  act  of  her  prowess  when  a 
mere  child,  in  protecting  the  house  when  in  expectation  of 
an  attack  from  thieves,  by  the  firing  of  pistols  and  blunder* 
busses  out  at  the  windows.  All  her  actions  seem  to  have 
had  a  boyish  mischievousness  in  them,  and  she  sometimes 
appears  to  have  run  great  risque  of  ending  them  with  the 
most  fatal  consequences.  This  wildness,  however,  was  put 
Bome  check  to,  by  her  marriage, « when  very  young,  with 
Mr.  Richard  Cbarke,  an  eminent  performer  on  the  violin^; 
immediately  after  which  she  launched  into  the  billows  of 
a  stormy  world,  where  she  was^- through  the  remainder  of 
Iter  life,  buffeted  about  without  ever  once  reaching  n 
peaceful  harbour.  Her  husband's  insatiable  passion  for 
women  soon  gave  her  just  cause  of  uneasiness,  and  in  fi 
$hort  time  appears  to  have  occasioned  a,  separation. 

She  then  applied  to  the  stage,  apparently  from  inclina^- 
tion  as  well  as  necessity  ;  and  opened  with  the  little  part 
of  Mademoiselle  in  the  **  Provoked  Wife,"  in  which  she 
met  with  all  the  success  she  could  expect.  From  this  she 
rose  in  her  second  and  third  attempts  to  the  capital  cha- 
racters of  Alicia  in  "  Jane  Shore,"  and  Andromache  in  th<e 
**  Distressed  Mother ;"  in  which,  notwithstanding  the  re- 
inembrance  of  Mrs.  Porter  and  Mrs.  Oldfield,  she  met  with 
^eat  indulgence  from  the  audience ;  and  being  remarkable 

*  Br.  Blimey  says  he  was  a  danc- 
ing-masteir,  an  actor,  a  man  of  hn- 
Viour,  and  a  performtr  on  the  violin, 
with  a  strong  hand.  He  was  leader  of 
the  band  at  Drury-Iane  theatre.  As 
a  composer,  he  only  distinguished 
himself  by  being  supposed  the  first 
vho  produced  that  species  of  musical 
buffoonery  called  a  "  Medley  Over- 
ture," wholly  made  up  of  shreds  and 
patches  of  well-known  vulgar  tunes. 
Sut  we  believe  that  this  very  easy  spe- 
cies of  pleasantry  was  first  suggested 

by  Dr.  Pepusch,  in  the  overture  to  the 
Beggar's  Opera,  brought  on  the  stage 
in  1*738,  and  Charke's  medley  over- 
ture bears  date  1735.  There  is  a  slang 
hornpipe  under  Charke's  name,  which 
used  to  be  a  favourite  among  the  tars. 
We  believe  him  to  have  been  a  face- 
tious fellow,  gifted  with  a  ttfrn  for  low 
humpur,  of  which,  and  of  his .  tricks 
and  stories,  Dr.  Arne,  in  moments  of 
jocularity,  used  to  give  specimcos* 
Rce»*B  Cyolopaadia. 

C  H  A  B  K  E.  Ul 

for  reading  wdl,  was  sufTered  upon  sudden  emergencies  to 
read  characters  of  no  less  iaiixurtance  than  thoi>e  of  Cleo« 
patra  and  queen  Elizabeth.  She  was  after  this  ej)gaged  at 
a  good  salary  and  sufficient  supply  of  very  conslderaULe 
parts,  at  the  Uaymarket,  and  after  tiiat  at  Drury-lane.  She 
novf  seemed  well  settled,  and  likely  to  |;iave  made  no  in- 
glorious figure  in  ilieatrical  life ;  but  tiiat  ungovernable 
impetuosity  of  passions,  which  ran  through  all  her  actions, 
iDduced  her  to  quarrel  with  Fleetwood,  the  then  manager  ; 
whom  she  not  only  left  on  a  sudden  without  any  notice 
given,  but  even  vented  her  spleen  against  him  in  public, 
by  a  little  dramatic  farce,  called  "  The  Art  of  Manage- 
ment;"  and  though  Fleetwood  forgave  that  injury,  and 
restored  her  to  her  former  station,  yet  she  ack now i edges 
that  she  afterwards  very  ungratefully  left  him  a  second 
time,  without  any  blame  on  bis  part.  > 

Her  adventures  during  the  remainder  of  her  life  are  no- 
thing but  one  variegated  scene  of  distresses,  of  a  kind  tjo 
which  no  one  can  be  a  stranger,  who  has  either  seen  ^r 
read  the  accounts  of  those  most  wretched  of  all  human 
beings,  the  members  of  a  strolling  company  of  ^actors  :  we 
may  therefore  be  excused  the  entering  into  particulars.  In 
1755  she  came  to  London,  where  she  published  the  "  Nar- 
rative of  her  own  Life ;"  whether  the  profits  of  her  book 
enabled  her  to.  subsist  for  the  short  remainder  of  it,  with- 
out seeking  for  farther  adventures,  is  uncertain.  Death, 
however,  put  a  period  to  it,  and  thereby  to  one  continued 
course  of  misery,  April  6,   1760. " 

CHARLES  XII.  (king  of  Sweden)*,  was  born  June  27, 
1682  ;  and  set  off  in  the  style  and  with  the  spirit  of  Alex- 
ander the  Great.  His  preceptor  asking  him,  what  he 
thought  of  that  hero  ?  "  I  think,"  says  Charles,  ''  that  I 
should  choose  to  be  like  him.'*  Ay,  but,  says  the  tutor, 
he  only  lived  32  years :  "  Oh,  answered  the  prince,  that 
is  long  enough,  when  a  man  has  conquered  kingdoms.'' 
Impatient  to  reign,  he  caused  himself  to  be  declared  ^f 
age  at  1 5  :  and  at  his  coronation,  he  snatched  the  crown 
from  the  archbishop  of  Upsal,  and  put  it  upon  his  head 
biiQseify  with  ^n  air  of  grandeur  ivhich  struck  the  people.^ 

*  This  account  obtained  a  place  in  characteristics  and  anecdotes,  than  the 
the  liit  edition  of  this  Dictionary,  and  lives  of  crowntd  heads  in  general, 
«•  have  been  miwilUng  to  displace  mi  which  bdoog  to  history,  and  sdldom 
vticU  'tljiat  contains  more  personal      can  be  usefolly  separated  from  it« 

A  Biog.  Dram, 

150  CHARLES. 

Frederic  IV.  king  of  Denmark,  Augustas  king  of  Poland^ 
and  Peter  tzar  of  Muscovy,  taking  advantage  of  his  mi* 
'  nority,  entered  into  a  confederacy  against  this  youth. 
Charles,  aware  of  it,  though  scarce  1 8,  attacked  them  one 
after  another.  He  hastened  first  to  Denmark,  besieged 
Copenhagen,  forced  the  Danes  into  their  entrenchments,  and 
caused  a  declaration  to  be  made  to  king  Frederic,  that, 
**  if  he  did  not  justice  to  the  duke  of  Holstein,  his  brother- 
in-law,  against  whom  he  had  committed  hostilities,  he  must 
prepare  to  see  Copenhagen  destroyed,  and  his  kingdom 
laid  waste  by  fire  and  sword."  These  menaces  brought  on 
the  treaty  of  Frawendal;  in  which,  without  any  advan* 
tages  to  himself,  but  quite  content  with  humbling  his  ene- 
iny,  he  demanded  and  obtained  all  he  wished  for  his  ally. 

This  war  being  finished  in  less  than  six  weeks,  in  the 
course  of  the  year  1700,  he  marched  against  the  Russians, 
who  were  then  besieging  Narva  with  100,000  men.  He 
attacked  them  with  8000,  and  forced  them  into  their  en- 
trenchments. Thirty  thousand  were  slain  or  drowned, 
20,000  asked  for  quarter,  and  the  rest  were  taken  or  dis- 
persed. Charles  permitted  half  the  Russian  soldiers  to 
return- without  arms,  and  half  to  repass  the  river  with  their 
arms.  He  detained  none  but  the  commanders  in  chief,  to 
whom,  however,  he  returned  their  arms  and  their  money. 
Among  these  there  was  an  Asiatic  prince,  born  at  the  foot 
of  mount  Caucasus,  who  was  now  to  live  captive  amidst 
the  ice  of  Sweden;  "which,"  says  Charles,  "is just  the 
same  as  if  I  were  some  time  to  be  a  prisoner  among  the 
Crim-Tartars :"  words,  which  the  capriciousness  of  for- 
tune caused  afterwards  to  be  recollected,  when  this 
Swedish  hero  was  forced  to  seek  an  asylum  in  Turkey.  It 
is  to  be  noted,  that  Charles  had  only  1200  killed,  and  800 
wounded,  at  the  battle  of  Narva. 

The  conqueror  turned  himself  now,  to  be  revenged  upon 
the  king  of  Poland.  He  passed  the  river  Duna,  beat 
marshal  Stenau^  who  disputed  the  passage  with  him,  forced 
the  Saxons  into  their  ports,  and  gained  a  signal  victory 
over  them.  He  hastened  to  Courland,  which  surrendered 
to  him,  passed  into  Lithuania,  made  every  thing  bow  down 
before  him,  and  went  to  support  the  intrigues  of  the  cardi* 
pal  primate  of  Poland,  in  order  to  deprive  Augustus  of  the 
crown.  Being  master  of  Warsovia,  he  pursued  him,  and 
gained  the  battle  of  Clifsaw,  though  his  enemy  opposed 
iO  him  prodigies  of  valour.     He  again  f^U  in  with  the 


Saxon  afmy  commaDded  by  Stenau,  besieged  Thorn,  and 
caused  Stanislaus  to  be  elected  king  of  Poland.  The  ter<- 
for  of  bis  arms  carried  all  before  them :  the  Russians  were 
easily  dispersed ;  Augustus,  reduced  to  the  last  extremi- 
ties, sued  for  peace;  and  Charles,  dictating  the  condi- 
tions of  it,  obliged  him  to  renounce  his  kingdom^  and  ac« 
knowledge  Stanislaus* 

This  peace  was  concluded  in  1 706,  aiid  now  he  might 
and  ought  to  have  been  reconciled  with  the  tzar  Peter ; 
but  he  chose  to  turn  his  arms  against  him,  apparently  with 
«  design  to  dethrone  him,  as  be  had  dethroned  Augustus* 
Peter  was  aware  of  it,  and  said,  that  **  his  brother  Charles 
affected  to  be  Alexander,  but  would  be  greatly  disap- 
pointed if  he  expected  to  find  him  Darius.*'  Charles  left 
Saxony  in  the  autumn  of  1707,  with  an  army  of  43,000 
men  :  the  Russians  abandoned  Grodno  at  his  approach* 
He  drove  them  before  him,  passed  the  Boristhenes,  treated 
with  the  Cossacks^  and  came  to  encamp  upon  the  Dezena; 
and,  after  several  advantages,  was  marching  to.  Moscow 
through  the  deserts  of  the  Ukraine.  But  fortune  aban- 
doned him  at  Pultowa,  July  1709 ;  where  he  was  beaten  by" 
Peter,  wounded  in  the  leg,  had  all  his  army  either  destroy- 
ed or  taken  prisoners,  and  forced  to  save  himself  by  being 
carried  off  in  a  litter.  And,  thus  reduced  to  seek  an  asy* 
lum  among  the  Turks,'  he  gained  Otchakof,  and  retired  to 
Bender.  All  which  replaced  Augustus  on  the  throne  of 
Poland,  and  immortalized  Peter. 

The  grand  seignor  gave  Charles  a  handsome  reception^ 
and  appointed  him  a  guard  of  400  Tartars.  The  king  of 
Sweden's  view,  in  coming  to  Turkey,  was  to  excite  the 
Porte  against  the  tzar  Peter :  but,  not  succeeding  either 
by  menaces  or  intrigues^  he  grew  in  time  obstinate  and 
restive,  and  even  braved  the  grand  seignor,  although  *he 
was  his  prisoner.  The  Porte  wanted  much  to  get  rid  of 
their  guest,  and  at  length  was  compelled  to  offer  a  little 
violence.  Charles  entrenched  himself  in  his  house  at 
Bender,  and  defended  himself  against  an  army  with  40 
domestics^  and  would  not  surrender  ^till  his  house  was  on 
fire.  From  Bender  he  was  removed  to  Demotika,  where 
he  gprew  sulky,  and  was  resolved  to  lie  in  bed  all  the  time 
he  should  be  there :  apd  he  actually  did  lie  in  bed  10 
months,  feigning  to  be  sick. 

Meanwhile  his  misfortunes  increased  daily.     His  ene« 
taking  advantage  of  his  absence^  destroyed  his  jai^mjf 

15i  C  H  A  R  L  E  a 

and  took  from  him  not  only  bis  own  eonquests,  but  those  <rf 
his  predecessors.  At  length  be  left  Demotika ;  travelled 
post,  with  two  companions  only,  through  Franconia  and 
Mecklenbourg ;  and  arrived  on  the  lltfa  day  at  Stralsund, 
Nov.  22,  1714.  Beset  in  this  town^  he  saved  himself  in 
Sweden,  now  reduced  to  a  most  deplorable  condition*  But 
bis  misfortunes  had  not  cooled  his  ps^ssion  for  warring  :  h^ 
attacked  Norway  with  an  army  of  20,000  men  :  he  formed 
the  siege  of  Frederickshall  in  Dec«  1718,  where,  as  he  was 
visiting  the  works  of  his  engineers  by  star*ltght,  he  was 
struck  upon  the  head  with  a  ball,  find  killed  upon  the  spoii. 
His  death  happened  on  December  11. 

Thus  perished  Charles  and  all  his  projects  :  for  he  was 
meditating  designs  which  would  have  changed  the  face  of 
Europe.  The  tzar  was  uniting  with  him  to  re-establiah. 
Stanislaus,  and  dethrone  Augustus.  He  was  about  to  fur- 
fiish  shi^s  to  drive  the  house  of  Hanover  from  the  throne  of 
England,  and  replace  the  pretender  in  it;  and  land-forces 
at  the  $ame  time  to  attack  George  I.  in  bis  states  of  Han* 
over,  and  especially  in  Bremen  and  Verden,  which  he  bad 
taken  from  Charles.  ^^  Charles  XII."  says  Mootesquieu, 
^^  was  not  Alexander,  but  he  would  have  been  Alexaiider's 
best  soldier.'*  H^naut  observes,  ^^  that  Charles  in  his  pro- 
jects  had  no  relish  for  the  probable :  to  furnish  giyii  to  bim, 
success  must  lie  beyond  the  bounds  of  probability."  Doubt- 
less he  might  be  called  the  Quixote  of  the  north.  He  car- 
ried, as  his  historian  says,  all  the  virtues  of  the  hero  to  an 
excess,  which  made  them  as  dangerous  and  pernicious  as 
the  opposite  vices.  His  firmness,  was  obstinacy,  bis  libe- 
rality profusion,  bis  courage  rashness,  his  severity  cruelty : 
he  was  in  his  last  years  less  a  king  than  a  tyrant,  and  more 
a  soldier  than  an  hero.  The  projects  of  Alexander,  whom 
he  affected  to  imitate,  were  not  only  wise,  but  wisely  exe- 
cuted :  whereas  Charles,  knowing  nothing  but  arms,  never 
regulated  any  of  his  movements  by  policy,  according  to  the 
exigencies  of  the  conjuncture,  but  suifered  himself  to  be 
borne  along  by  a  brutal  courage,  which  often  led  him  into 
difficulties,  and  at  length  occasioned  his  death.  He  was 
a  singular  man,  rather  than  a  great  man. 

As  to  his  person,  he  was  tall  and  of  a  noble  mien,  had  a 
fine  open  forehead,  large  blue  eyes,  flaxen  hair,  fair  com- 
plexion, an  handsome  nose,  but  Tittle  beard,  and  a  laugh 
not  agreeable.  His  manners  were  harsh  and  austere,  not 
to  say  savage :  and,  as  to  religion^  he  was  indifferent  to- 


wards  all^  though  outwardly  a  Lutheran.  A  few  anecdotes 
will  illustrate  his  character.  No  dangers,  however  greats 
made  the  least  impression  upon  him.  When  a  horse  or 
two  were  killed  under  hioi  at  the  battle  of  Narva  in  1700, 
ke  Jeaped  nimbly  upon  fresh  ones,  saying,  "  These  people 
find  me  exercise."  One  d^y,  when  be  was  dictating  letters 
to  a  secretary^,  a  bomb  fell  through  the  roof  into  the  next 
room  of  the  house,  where  they  were  sitting.  The  secretary, 
terrified  lest  the  house  should  come  down  upon  them,  let 
his  pen  drop  out  of  his  hand :  ^^  What  is  the  matter,'*  sayg^ 
the  king  calmly.  The  secretary  could  only  reply,  "  Ah, 
sir,  the  bomb."  "  The  bomb  !"  says  the  king ;  ^'  what  has 
the  bomb  to  do  with  what  I  am  dictating  ?  Go  on.'* 

He  preserved  more  humanity  than  is  usually  foun4 
^mong  conquerors.  Once,  in  the  middle  of  an  action, 
fiading  a  young  Swedish  officer  wounded  and  unable  to 
inarch,  he  obliged  the  officer  to  take  his  horse,  aujd  eon«- 
tinued  to  command  his  infantry  on  foot.  The  princess 
Lubomirski,  who  was  very  much  in  the  interest  and  good 
graces  of  Augustus,  falling  by  accident  into  the  hands  of 
one  of  bis  officers,  he  ordered  her  to  be  set  at  liberty; 
saying,  "  that  he  did  not  make  war  with  women."  One 
day^  near  Leipsic,  a  peasant  threw  himself  at  his  feet,  with 
a  complaint  against  a  grenadier,  that  he  had  robbed  him 
of  certain  eatables  provided  for  himself  and  his  family^ 
"  Is  it  true,"  said  Charles  sternly,  "  that  you  have  robbed 
this  man  ?"  The  soldier  replied,  "  Sir,  I  have  not  done 
near  so  much  harm  to  this  man,  as  your  majesty  has  done 
to  his  master  :  for  you  have  taken  from  Augustus  a  king- 
dom, whereas  I  have  only  taken  from  this  poor  scoundrel  a 
dinner."  Charles  made  the  peasant  amends,  and  pardoned 
the  soldier  for  his  firmness :  "  however^  my  friend,"  says 
he  to  him,  ^^  you  will  do  well  to  recollect,  that,  if  I  took  a 
kingdom  from  Augustus,  I  did  not  take  it  for  myself." 

Though  Charles  lived  hardily  himself,  a  soldier  did  not 
fear  to  remonstrate  to  him  against  some  bread,  which  was 
very  black  and  mouldy,  and  which  yet  was  the  only  pro- 
vision the  troops  had.  Charles  called  for  a  piece  of  it,  and 
calmly  ate  it  up ;  saying,  ^'  that  it  was  indeed  not  good, 
but  that  it  might  be  eaten."  From  the  danger  he  was  in 
in  Poland,  when  he  beat  the  Saxon  troops  in  1702,  a 
comedy  was  exhibited  at  Marienburg,  where  the  combat 
was  represented  to  the  disadvantage  of  the  Swedes,  "  Oh," 
^ys  Charles^  hearing  of  it,  <*  I  am  far  from  envying  them 

156  C  H  A  R  L  E  T  O  N, 

in  this  pleasure.  Let  them  beat  ine  upon  the  theatres  as 
long  as  they  will,  provided  I  do  but  beat  them  in  the  field."' 
CHARLETON  (Walter),  a  very  learned  physician, 
and  voluminous  writer,  the  son  of  the  rev.  Walter  Charle- 
,  ton,  M.  A.  some  time  vicar  of  Uminster,  and  afterwards 
rector  of  Shepton  pallet,  in  the  county  of  Somerset^ 
was  born  at  Shepton  Mallet,  February  2,  1619,  and  was 
first  educated  by  his  father,  a  man  of  extensive  capacity, 
though  but  indifferently  furnished  with  the  goods  of  ^  for- 
tune. He  was  afterwards  sent  to  Oxford,  and  entered  of 
Magdalen  Hall  in  Lent  term  1635,  where  he  became  the 
pupil  of  the  famous  Dr.  John  Wilkins,  afterwards  bishop 
of  Chester,  under  whom  he  made  great  progress  in  logic 
and  philosophy,  and  was  noted  for  assiduous  application 
and  extensive  capacity,  which  encouraged  him  to  aim  at 
the  accomplishments^ of  an  universal  scholar.  But  as  hb 
circumstances  confined  him  to  some  particular  profession, 
he  made  choice  of  physic,  and  in  a  short  time  made  as 
great  a  progress  in  that  as  he  had  done  in  his  former  studies* 
On  the  breaking  out  of  the  civil  war,  which  brought  the 
king  to  Oxford,  Mr.  Charleton,  by  the  favour  of  the  king, 
had  the  degree  of  doctor  of  physic  conferred  upon  him  in 
February  1642,  and  was  soon  after  made  one  of  the  phy- 
sicians in  ordinary  to  his  majesty.  These  honours  made 
him  be  considered  as  a  rising  character,  and  exposed  him 
to  that  envy  and  resentment  which  he  could  never  entirely 
conquer.  Upon  the  declension  of  the  royal  cause,  he  came 
up  to  London,  was  admitted  of  the  college  of  physicians, 
acquired  considerable  practice,  and  lived  in  much  esteem 
with  the  ablest  and  most  learned  men  of  the  profession  ; 
such  as  sir  Francis  Prujean,  sir  George  Ent,  Dr.  William 
Harvey,  and  others.  In  the  space  of  ten  years  before  the 
Restoration,  be  wrote  and  published  several  very  ingenious 
and  learned  treatises,  as  well  on  physical  as  other  subjects, 
by  which  he  gained  great  reputation  abroad  as  well  as  at 
home;  and  though  they  are  now  leSk  regarded  than  per- 
haps they  deserve,  yet  they  were  then  received  with  al- 
most universal  approbation.  He  became,  as  Wood  tells 
us,  physician  in  ordinary  to  king  Charles  IL  while  in  exile, 
which  honour  i^e  retained  after  the  king's  return ;  and, 
upon  the  founding  of  the  royal  society,  was  chosen  one  of 
the  first  members.    Among  other  patrons  and  friends  were 

I  Modem  Univ.  Hist-^Life  by  Vqltaurei  fcc       ^  ^^ 

C  H  A  R  L  E  T  O  JJ.  151 

William  Cavendish,  duke  of  Newcastle,  whose  life  Dr. 
Charleton  translated  into  Latin  in  a  very  clear  and  elegant 
style,  and  the  celebrated  Hobbes,  but  this  intimacy,  with  / 
his  avowed  respect  for  the  Epicurean  philosophy,  drew 
some  suspicions  upon  him  in  regard  to  his  religion,  not« 
withstanding  the  pains  he  had  taken  to  distinguish  betweea 
the  religious  and  philosophical  opinions  of  Epicurus  in  his 
own  writings  against  infidelity.     Few  circumstances  seem  ^ 
to  have  drawn  niore  censure  on  him  than  his  venturing  to 
differ  in  opinion  from  the  celebrated  Inigo  Jones  respecting 
Stonehenge,  which  Jones  attributed  to  the  Romans,  and 
asserted  to  be  a  temple  dedicated  by  them  to  the  god  Coe- 
lus,  or  Coelum ;  Dr.  Charleton  referred  this  antiquity  to 
later  and  more  barbarous  times,  and  transmitted  Jones's  * 
bookf  which  was  not  published  till  after  its  author's  death, 
to  Olaus  Wormius,  who  wrote  him  several  letters,  tending 
to  fortify  him  in  his  own  sentiment,  by  proving  that  this 
work  ought  rather  to  be  attributed  to  his  countrymen  the 
Danes.     With   this  assistance  Dr.  Charleton  drew  up  a 
treatise,  offering  many  strong  arguments  to  shew,  that  this 
could  not  be  a  Roman  temple,  and  several  plausible  rea- 
sons why  it  ought  rather  to  be  considered  as  a  Danish  mo* 
nument ;  but  his  book,  though  learned,  and  enriched  with 
a  great  variety  of  curious  observations,  was  but  indifferently 
received,  and  but  coldly  defended  by  his  friends.     Jones's 
son-in-law  answered  it  with  intemperate  warmth,  and  many 
liberties  were  taken  by  others  with   Dr.  Charleton's  cha- 
racter, although  sir  William  Dugdale  and  some  other  emi« 
Dent  antiquaries  owned  themselves  to  be  of  our  author's 
opinion;  but  it  is   now  supposed  that  both  are   wrong* 
Notwithstanding  this  clamour,  Dr.  Charleton's  fame  was 
advanced   by   his  anatomical   prelections  in    the  college 
theatre,  in  the  spring  of  1683,  and  his  satisfactory  defence 
of  the  immortal  Harvey's  claim  to  the  discovery  of  the 
circulation  of  the  blood,  against  the  pretence  that  was  set 
up  in  favour  of  father  Paul.     In  1689  he  was  chosen  pre- 
sident of  the  college  of  physicians,  in  which  ofHce  he  con- 
tinued to  the  year  1691.     A  little  after  this,  his  circum- 
stances becoming  narrow,  he  found  it  necessary  to  seek  a 
retreat  in  the  island  of  Jersey  ;  but  the  causes  of  this  are  not 
explained,  nor  have  we  been  able  to  discover  how  long  he 
continued  in  Jersey,  or  whether  he  returned  afterwards  to 
London.     All  that  is  known  with  certainty  is,  that  he  died 
in  the  latter  end  of  1707,  and  in  the  eighty-eighth  yejir 

15S  G  H  A  R  L  E  TON. 

of  his  age.     He  appears  from  his  writings  to  have  been  a 
man  of  extensive  learning,  a  lover  of  the  constitution   in 
church  and  state,  and  so  much  a  lover  of  his  country  as  to^ 
refuse  a  professor's  chair  in  the  university  of  Padua.     In 
his  junior  years  he  dedicated  much  of  his  time  to  the  study 
of  philosophy  and  polite  literature,  was  as  well  read  in 
the  Greek  and  Roman  authors  as  any  man  of  his  time,  and 
he  was  taught  very  early  by  his  excellent  tutor,  bishop 
Wilkins,  to  digesthis  knowledge  so  as  to  comnaand  it  readily 
when  occasion  required.      In  every  branch   of  his   own 
profession  he  has  left  testimonies  of  his  diligence  and  his 
capacity ;  and  whoever  considers  the  plainness  and  per- 
spicuity of  his  language,  the  pains  he  has  taken  to  collect 
and  produce  the  opinions  of  the  old  physicians,  in  order 
to  compare  them  with  the  moderns,  the  just  remarks  with 
which  these  collections  and  comparisons  are  attended,  the 
succinctness  with   which   all  this  is   dispatched,    and  the 
great  accuracy  of  that  method   in  which  his  books  are 
written,  will  readily  agree  that  he  was  equal  to  most  of  his 
contemporaries.  As  an  antiquary,  he  had  taken  much  pains 
in  perusing  our  ancient  historians,  and  in  observing  their 
excellencies  as  well  as  their  defects.     But,  above  all,  he 
was  studious  of  connecting  the  sciences  with  each  other, 
and  thereby  rendering   them  severally  more  perfect;    in 
which,  if  he  did  not  absolutely  succeed  himself,  he  had  at 
least  the  satisfaction  of  opening  the  way  to  others,  of  show- 
ing the   true   road   to  perfection,   and   pointing  out  the 
tneans  of  applying  and  making  those  discoveries  useful, 
which  have  followed  in  succeeding  times.     There  i3  also 
good  reason  to  believe,  that  though  we  have  few  or  none 
of  his  writings  extant  that  were  composed  during  the  last 
twenty  years  of  his  life,  yet  he  was  not  idle  during  that 
space,  but  committed  many  things  to  paper,  as  rfiaterials 
at  least  for  other  works  that  he  designed.     There  is  now  a 
large  collection  of  his  MS  papers  and  letters  on  subjects  of 
philosophy  and   natural   history  in  the  British  Museum. 
(Ayscough's  Catalogue.)  His  printed  works  are,  1 .  "  Spiritus 
Gorgonicus  vi  suS,  saxipar^  exutus,  sive  de  causis,  signis, 
et  sanatione  Lithiaseos,"  Leyden,  1650,  8vo.     This  book 
is  usually  called  De  Lithiasi  Diatriba.     2.  "  The  darkness 
of  Atheism  discovered  by  the  light  of  nature,  a  physico- 
theological  treatise,"  London,  1651,  4to.     3.  "TheEphe- 
sian  and  Cimmerian  Matrons,  two  remarkable  examples  of 
the  power  of  Love  and  Wit,"  Loudon,  1653  and  1658, 8vo. 

C  H  A  R  L  E  T  O  N.  159 

4,  *'  Physiologia  Epicuro-Gassendo-Cbarletoniana :  or  a 
fabric  of  natural  science  erected  upon  the  most  ancient 
hypothesis  of  atoms,"  London,  1654,  in  foi.  5.  "  The  Im- 
mortality of  the  human  Soul  demonstrated  by  reasons  na* 
tural,"  London,  1657,  4to.  6.  "  Oeconomia  Animalis  no- 
vis  Aiiatomicorura  inventis,  indeque  desumptis  moderno- 
ram  Medicorum  Hypothesibus  Physicis  superstructa  et 
mechanice  explicata,'*  London,  1658,  12mo;  Amsterdam, 
i659f  12mo;  Leyden,  1678,  I2mo;  Hague,  1681,  12mo. 
It  is  likewise  added  to  the  last  edition  of  "  Gulielmi  Cole 
desecretione  animali  cogitata.*'  7.  *' Natural  history  of 
nutrition,  life,  and  vohintary  motion,  containing  all  the 
new  discoveries  of  anatomists,"  &c.  London,  1658,  4to, 
8.  "  Exercitationes  Physico-Anatomicse  de  OeconomiS,  Ani- 
mali," London,  1659,  8vo ;  printed  afterwards  several 
times  abroad.  9.  "  Exercitationes  Pathologicae,  in  quibus 
morborum  pene  omnium  natura,  generatio,  et  causae  ex 
novis  Anatomicorum  inventis  sedulo  inquiruntur,"  London, 
1660,  and  1661,  4to.  10.  **  Character  of  his  most  sacred 
Majesty  Charles  II.  King  of  Great  Britain,  France,  and 
Ireland,"  London,  1660,  one  sheet,  4to.  1 1 .  "  Disquisi- 
tiones  duae  Anatomico-Physicse  ;  altera  Anatome  pueri  de 
calo  tacti,  altera  de  Proprietatibus  Cerebri  humani,"  Lon- 
don, 1664,  8vo.  12.  **  Chorea  Gigantum,  or  the  most 
famous  antiquity  of  Great  Britain,  vulgarly  called  Stone- 
henge,  standing  on  Salisbury  Plain,  restored  to  the  Danes," 
London,  1663,  4to.  13.  "  Onomasticon  Zoicon,  plero- 
rumque  animalium  difFerentias  et  nortina  propria  pluribus 
linguis  exponens.  Cui  accedunt  Mantissa  Anatomice,  et 
quaedam  de  variis  Fossilium  generibus,"  London,  1668  and 
1671,  4to;  Oxon.  1677,  foi.  14.  «  Two  Philosophical 
Discourses  ;  the  first  concerning  the  different  wits  of  men  ; 
the  second  concerning  the  mystery  of  Vintners,  or  a  dis- 
course of  the  various  sicknesses  of  wines,  and  their  re- 
spective remedies  at  this  day  commonly  used,  &c.  Lon- 
don, 1668,  1675,  1692,  8vo.  15.  "  De  Scorbuto  Liber 
singuiaris.  Cui  accessit  Epiphonema  in  Medicastros," 
London,  1671,  8vo;  Leyden,  1672,  12mo.  16.  "Natural 
History  of  the  Passions,"  London,  1674,  8vo.  17.  "En- 
quiries into  Humane  Nature,  in  six  Anatomy-prelections  in 
the  new  theatre  of  the  royal  college  of  physicians  in  Lon- 
don," London,  1680,  4to.  18."  Oratio  Anniversaria  ha- 
bita  inTheatro  inciyti  Collegii  Medicorum  Londinensis  5to 
August!  1680,  in  commemorationem  Beneficiorum  a  Doc- 

160  C  H  A  R  L  6  T  O  M/ 

tore  Haryey  aliisque  prsstitorum/'  Londaif,  1680,  4M^ 
19.  "  The  harmony  of  natural  and  positive  i)ivine  Laws,** 
London,  1682,  8vo.  20.  **  Three  Anatomic  Lectures  con* 
ceming,  l.The  motion  of  the  blood  through  the  veins  and 
arteries.  2.  The  organic  structure  of  the  heart  3.  The 
efficient  cause  of  the  hearths  pulsation,  liead  in  the  1 9tb, 
20th,  and  21st  day  of  March  1682^  in  the  anatomic  theatre 
of  his  majesty's  royal  college  of  Physicians  in  London,'* 
London^  1683,  4to.  21.  *'  luquisitio  Pbysica  de  causis 
Catameniorum,  et  Uteri  Rheumatismo,  in  quo  probatur 
sanguinem  in  animali  fermentescere  nunquam,*'  London, 
1685,  8vo.  22.  *^  Qulielmi  Ducis  Novicastrensis  vita," 
London,  1668,  fol.  This  is  a  translation  from  the  English 
original  written  by  Margaret,  the  second  wife  of  William 
duke  of  Newcastle.  23.  "  A  Ternary  of  Paradoxes,  of  the 
magnetic  cure  of  wounds,  nativity  of  tartar  in  wine,  and 
image  of  God  in  man,"  London,  1650,  4to..  24.  **  The 
errors  of  physicians  concerning  Defluxions  called  Delira- 
menta  Catarrhi,''  London,  1650,  4to,  both  translations  froia 
Van  Helmont.  25.  "  Epicurus  his  Morals,'*  London,  1655, 
4to.  This  work  of  his  is  divided  into  thirty-one  chapters, 
and  in  these  he  fully  treats  all  the  principles  of  the  Epi* 
curean  philosophy,  digested  under  their  proper  heads ; 
tending  to  prove,  that^  considering  the  state  of  the  hea- 
then world,  the  morals  of  Epicurus  were  as  good  as  any,  as 
in  a  former  work  he  had  shewn  that  his  philosophic  opi- 
nions were  the  best  of  any,  or  at  least  capable  of  being 
explained  in  such  a  manner  as  that  they  might  become  so 
in  the  hands  of  a  modern  philosopher.  This  work  was 
trapslated  into  several  modern  languages.  26.  ^<  The  Life 
of  Marcellus,"  translated  from  Plutarch,  and  printed  in  the 
second  volume  of  ^  Plutarch's  Lives  translated  from  the 
Greek  by  several  hands,"  London,  1684,  8vo.  * 

CHARLEVAL  (Charles,  or  as  in  the  Diet  Hist  John 
Lewis  Faucon  de  Ris,  lord  of),  was  born  in  1613,  with  a 
very  delicate  body,  and  a  mind  of  the  same  quality.  He 
was  passionately  fond  of  polite  literature,  and  gained  the 
love  of  all  that  cultivated  it.  His  conversation  was  mingled 
with  the  gentleness  and  ingenuity  that  are  apparent  in 
his  writings.  Scarron,  who  was  ludicrous  even  in  his 
praises,  speaking  of  the  delicacy  of  his  genius  and  taste, 
said,  ^^  that  the  muses  had  fed  him  upon  blanc-mange  and 

»  Biog.  Brit— Ath,  Ox,  ▼ol.  11. 


chicken  broth.^*  His  benevolence  was  active  and  muni-* 
ficeat.  Having  learnt  that  M.  and  madame  Dacier  ware 
about  to  leave  Paris,  in  order  to  live  more  at  their  ease  in 
the  country,  he  offered  them  ten  thousand  francs  in  gold^ 
and  insisted  on  their  acceptance  of  it.  Notwithstanding 
the  feebleness  of  his  constitution,  by  strictly  adhering  to 
the  regimen  prescribed  him  by  the  faculty,  he  spun  out 
his  life  to  the  age  of  eighty.  The  frequent  use  of  rhubarb 
heated  him  so  much^  that  it  brought  on  a  fever,  which  the 
physicians  thought  of  curing  by  copious  bleeding,  and  one 
of  them  said  to  the  rest :  *'  There,  the  fever  is  now  going 
off."  "  I  tell  you,'*  replied  Thevenot,  the  king's  librarian^ 
who  hap(>ened  to  be  present,  ^^  it  is  the  patient  that  is 
going  off;"  and  Charleval  died  in  an  hour  or  two  after, 
in  1B93.  His  poetical  pieces  fell  into  the  hands  of  the 
president  de  Ris,  his  nephew,  who  never  would  consent  to 
publish  them.  A  small  collection,  however,  was  printed  in 
1759,  12mo;  but  they  have  scarcely  supported  their  ori- 
ginal reputation,  although  in  France  several  of  his  epi- 
grams are  yet  frequently  quoted  in  all  companies.  The 
conversation  of  the  marechai  d'Horquincourt  and  father 
Canaye,  printed  in  the  works  of  St.  Evremond,  a  piece 
full  of  originality  and  humour,  is  the  composition  of  Char- 
leval, excepting  the  little  dissertation  6n  Jansenism  and 
Molinism,  which  St.- Evremond  subjoined. to  it;  but  it  falls 
&r  short  of  the  ingenuity  of  the  rest  of  the  work,  y 

CHARLEVOIX  (Peter  Francis  Xavier  de),  a  learned 
and  industrious  French  Jesuit,  was  born  at  St.  Quintin  in 
1684,  and  died  m  1761,  aged  78.  His  fame  rests  chiefly 
on  the  histories  of  his  travels,  which  were  extensive,  ^nd 
his  accounts,  although  diffuse,  are  in  general  reckoned 
very  good  authority.  They  consist  of:  l.  "  Histoire  et 
description  g^u^rale  du  Japon,^^  1738,  2  vols.  4to;  and 
1754,  6  vols.  12avo.  2.  "  Histoire  de  I'lsle  de  St.  Domi- 
nique,'* 1720,  2  vols.  4to.  3.  "  Histoire  g6n6rale  de  la 
Nouvelle  France,"  1744,  3  vols.  4to,  and  6  vols,  12mo. 
4.  ^^  Histoire  g^n^rale  du  Paraguay,"  1756,  6  vols.  12mo> 
and  3  vols.  4to.  From  these  were  translated  into  English, 
the  ''Journal  of  a  Voyage  to  North  America,"  1760,  2 
vols,  8vo,  abridged  afterwards  under  the  title  of  '^  Letters 
to  the  duchess  of  Lesdiguieres,  giving  an  account  of  & 
Toy^ge  to  Canada/'  &.c.  1763,  Svo;  and  ''  The  History  of 

^  aior?ri.— IMiQt.  Hift*  - 

Vol.  IX-  M 


Paraguay,"  1769,  2  vols.  8vo.  Charlevoix  also  published  in 
1724,  "  Vie  de  Mere  Marie  de  rincarnation,"  12mo;  and 
he  was  for  tweuty-four  years  employed  on  the  ^^  Journal 
de  Trevouxy"  which  he  enriched  with  many  valuable  arti«- 
cles.  * 

CHARLIER,  John.     See  GERSON. 

CHARLTON,  Walter.     See  CHARLETON. 

CHARNOCK  (John),  esq.  F.  S.  A.  an  ingenious  but 
unfortunate  writer,  was  born  Nov.  28,  1756,  the  only  son 
of  John  Cbarnock,  esq.  a  native  of  the  island  of  Barbadoes, 
and  formerly  an  advocate  of  eminence  at  the  English  bar^ 
by  Frances,  daughter  of  Thomas  Boothby,  of  Chingford 
in  Essex,  esq.  About  1767  he  was  placed  at  the  rev. 
Reynell  Cotton's  school  at  Winchester,  and  went  from 
thence  to  the  college,  where,  in  the  station  of  a  commoner^ 
he  was  under  the  immediate  care  of  the  celebrated  Dn 
Joseph  Warton,  the  head  master,  in  whose  house  h% 
boarded,  and  became  the  peculiar  favourite  of  that  eminent 
tutor.  Having  attained  to  the  seniority  of  the  school,  and 
gained  the  prize  medal  annually  given  for  elocution,  he 
removed  from  Winchester  to  Oxford,  and  was,  in  1774^ 
entered  a  gentleman-commoner  of  Merton  college.  Here 
he  soon  discovered  his  passion  for  literary  composition,  in 
a  multiplicity  of  fugitive  pieces  on  various  subjects,  which 
appeared  in  the  periodical  papers ;  many  of  them,  how« 
ever,  were  not  of  a  kind  likely  to  confer  permanent  repu«« 
tation,  being  invectives  against  the  American  war,  written 
in  a  vehement  spirit  of  opposition,  under  the^signatures  of 
Casca,  Squib,  or  Justice. 

He  left  the  university  to  return  to  a  domestic  life  totally 
nnsuited  to  the  activity  both  of  body  and  mind  for  whicti 
be  was  remarkable,  but  which,  amidst  some  family  differ-^ 
ences,  be  contrived  to  employ  on  the  study  of  naval  and 
military  tactics ;  and  with  no  other  asstsitance  than  that  of 
bis  mathematical  knowledge,  aided  by  a  few  books,  be 
made  a  very  considerable  proficieiicy.  The  noble  coUeo*^ 
tion  of  drawings  which  he  left,  executed  during  thai  short 
period  solely  by  his  own  hand,  would  alone  furnish  an  am<^ 
pie  proof  of  his  knowledge  of  these  subjects,  and  of  tb^ 
indefatigable  2eal  with  which  he  pursued  them.  He  novir 
became  anxious  to  put  into  practice  wh&t  he  bad  learnt^ 
and  earnestly  pressed  for  permission  to  embrace  the  navat 

1  Diet.  Hftt 

G  H  A  R  N  0  G  K.  168 

€t  military  profession;  He  was  at  this  titne  sole  heir  to 't 
Fery  considerable  fortune,  and  the  darling  of  his  parents^ 
bat  derived  none  of  the  advantages  which  usually  folloiilr 
these  circaoistances*  His  request  being  denied,  be  entered 
a  volunteer  into  the  naval  service,  and  very  soon  attained 
that  proficiency  of  which'  his  publications  on  the  subject 
will  be  lasiing  monuments.  A  sense  of  duty  afterwards 
withdrew  htm  again  into  private  life ;  but  his  mind  had  re^ 
ceived  a  wound  iil  the  disappointment|  and  other  circum<^ 
stances,  which,  his  biographer  says,  it  would  be  indelicate 
to  particularize,  contributed  to  keep  it  open.  By  the  un« 
kindness  of  those  to  whom  he  had  most  reason  to  lool: 
up,  and  partly  by  his  own  imprudence,  he  was  obliged 
to  have  recourse  to  his  pen  for  support,  and  although  he 
employed  it  with  talent  and  industry,  it  did  not  yield  faim 
the  due  recompence  of  bis  labours,  nor  the  necessary  sup«- 
pUes  for  his  own  maintenance  and  that  of  a  beloved  wife. 
Hence  he  became  etnbarrassed  in  his  circumstances,  and 
the  sourc^es  ftt>m  which  he  had  the  fairest  right  to  expect 
relief  being  unaccountably  closed  against  him,  he  wa^  suf^ 
fered  to  linger  out  the  remainder  of  life  in  the  prison  of 
the  King's- Bench,  in  which  he  died  May  16,  1807.  His 
funeral  desierves  to  be  recorded.  It  was  not  that  of  an 
insolvent  debtor.  To  the  surprise  of  all  who  knew  his  tne*- 
lancholy  history,  be  was  interred  with  great  ceremony  and 
expence  at  Lea,  near  Blackheath,  in  the  same  grave  whicfa^ 
within  two  years  after,  received  his  father  and  mother. 

His  works,  besides  many  smaller  pieces^  were,  I .  *^  The 
Rights  of  a  Free  People,*^  1792,  8vo,  an  irony  on  the  de^- 
Biocracy  of  that  period.  2.  ^' Biograpfaia  Navalis/'  1794, 
&c.  6  Tols.  8vo.  3*  '<  A  Letter  on  Finance  and  on  Na- 
tional Defence^**  1798.  4.  "  A  History  of  Marine  Archi«- 
tecture,"  3  vols.  4to.  5.  ^  A  Life  of  Lord  Nelson,'?  1800. 
His  ^*  Biographia  Navalis"  is  a  truly  valuable  work,  and 
supplies  those  deficiencies  in  the  previous  liaval  biographies 
of  Cfunpbell  and  Berkenhout,  over  whom  Mr.  Chamock 
had  the  superior  advantage  of  professional  knowledge. 
After  bis  death  was  printed,  "  Loyalty ;  or  Invasion  de*- 
feated,''   1810,  an  historical  tragedy.  ^ 

CHARNOGK  (Stephen),  son  of  Richard  Charnock  aa 
attonieyy  descended  froin  an  andent  family  of  that  name 
ixk  Laocasbirei  was  bom  in  LonSon  in  1628,  and  educated 

*  Ceatura  Literaria,  vol.  V.*<»BMg.  Onirn 

M  2 

164  C  H  A  R  N  O  C  K. 

£rst  in  Emanuel  college  in  Cambridge,  from  whence  he 
removed  to  New  college,  Oxford,  in  1649,  and  obtained  a 
fellowship  by  the  parliamentarian  interest.  AJfterwards  he 
went  into  Ireland,  where  he  preached,  and  was  much  ^A* 
mired  by  the  presbyterians  and  independents.  Upon  the 
restoration  of  king  Charles  II.  he  refused  to  conform,  but 
returned  into  England,  and  lived  mostly  in  London,  where 
adhering  to  the  principles  of  the  nonconformists,  he 
preached  in  private  meetings,  and  had  the  reputation  of  a 
man  of  good  parts,  learning,  and  elocution.  He  died  in 
July  27,  1680.  He  printed  only  a  single  sermon  in  his 
life-time,  which  is  in  the  <'  Morning  Exercise  ;*'  but  after 
his  death,  two  folio  volumes  from  his  manuscripts  were 
published  in  1683,  and  still  bear  a  high  price.  Wood  says 
that  diose  who  differed  from  him  in  opinion,  admired  his 
extensive  learning,  into  which  he  was  first  initiated  at 
Emanuel  college,  Cambridge,  by  his  tutor,  Dr.  Sancroft^ 
afterwards  archbishop  of  Canterbury*  ^ 

CHARPENTIER  (Francis),  dean  of  the  French  acade- 
my, was  born  at  Paris,  Feb.  1620.  His  early  discovery  of 
great  acuteness  made  his  friends  design  him  for  the  bar : 
but  his  taste  led  him  to  prefer  the  repose  and  stillness  of 
the  closet,  and  he  became  more  delighted  with  languages 
and  antiquity,  than  with  the  study  of  the  law.  He  was 
made  a  member  of  the  French  academy  in  1651,  and  had 
the  advantage  of  the  best  conversation  for  his  improvement. 
When  Colbert  became  minister  of  state,  he  projected  the 
setting  up  a  French  East-India  compatiy ;  and  to  recom- 
mend the  design  more  effectually,  he  thought  it  proper 
diat  a  discourse  should  be  published  upon  this  subject. 
Accordingly  he  ordered  Charpentier  to  draw  one  up,  and 
was  so  pleased  with  his  performance,  published  in  1664^ 
that  he  kept  him  in  his  family,  with  a  design  to  place  him 
in  another  academy  which  was  then  founding,  and  which 
was  afterwards  known  by  the  name  of  **  Inscriptions  and 
Medals.'*  The  learned  languages,  in  which  Charpentier 
was  a  considerable  master,  his  great  knowledge  of  anti- 
quity, and  his  exact  and  critical  judgment,  made  him 
very  serviceable  in  carrying  on  the  business  of  this  new- 
academy  ;  and  it  is  agreed  on  all  hands,  that  no  person  of 
that  learned  society  contributed  more  thati  himself  towards 
that  noble  series  of  medals,  which  were  struck  of  the  mosl 

1  Ath.  Ox;  ToL  II,— Calamy.— Fuiera!  Senaon  by  Johnion. 

C  H  A  R  P  E.N  TIER.  165 

Gonfiiderable  events  that  happened  in  the  reign  of  Lewis 
XIV.  but  his  adulation  of  the  king  exceeded  that  of  all 
bis  contemporaries. 

He  died  April  22,  1702,  aged  82.  His  harangues  and 
discourses,  delivered  before  the  academy,  or  when  he  was 
chosen  to  make  a  speech  to  the  king,  are  extant  in  the 
collections  of  the  academy.  As  to  the  character  of  his 
works,  it  may  be  said  in  general,  that  wit  and  learning 
are  every  where  visible;  but  although  we  meet  with  some 
high  flights  of  eloquence,  and  masterly  strokes  of  compo- 
sition, bis  taste  has  not  been  thought  equal  to  his  learning. 
]9is  principal  works  are,  ^^  La  Vie  de  Socrate,*'  1650,  l2mo. 
A  translation  of  the  "  Cyropajdia,"  1659,  12mo.  *'  Dis- 
^ours  touchant  PEtablissement  d'une  Compagnie  Frangoise 
pour  le  Como^erce  des  Indes  Orientales,''  4to.  *^  De  I'ex* 
cellence  de  la  Langue  Fran^oise,*'  1683,  2  vols.  12ma 
*^  Carpentariana,"  12mo,  &c.  in  which  there  are  some 
amusing  anecdotes,  but  they  are  not  esteemed  the  best  of 
the  Ana.  ^ 

CH  AKRON  (Peter),  was  bom  at  Paris  in  1 541.  Though 
Iiis  parents  were  in  narrow  circumstances,  yet  discovering 
their  son's  capacity,  they  were  particularly  attentive  to  bis 
education.  After  making  a  considerable  proficiency  in 
grammar-learning,  he  applied  to  logic,  metaphysics,  moral 
and  natural  philosophy,  and  afterwards  studied  civil  and 
common  law  at  the  universities  of  Orleans  and  Bourges, 
and  commenced  doctor  in  that  faculty.  Upon  his  return 
to  Paris,  he  was  admitted  an  advocate  in  the  court  of  par- 
liament. He  always  declared  the  bar  to  be  the  best  and 
most  improving  school  in  the  world ;  and  accordingly  at* 
tended  at  all  the  public  hearings  for  five  or  six  y^ars  :  but 
foreseeing  that  preferment  in  this  way,  if  ever  attained  at 
adl,  was  like  to  come  very  slow,  as  he  had  neither  private 
interest,  nor  relations  among  the  solicitors  and  proctors  of 
the  court,  he  gave  over  that  employment,  and  closely  ap- 
plied to  the  study  of  divinity.  By  his  superior  pulpit 
eloquence,  he  soon  came  into  high  reputation  with  the 
greatest  and  most  learned  men  of  his  time,  insomuch  that 
the  bishops  seemed  to  strive  which  of  them  should  get  him 
into  his  diocese;  making  him  an  offer  of  being  theological 
c^.non  or  divinity  lecturer  in  their  churches,  and  of  other 
digaities  and  benefices^  besides  giving  him  noble  presents^ 

*  Moreri.— G«ii.  Dlct,*«»Dict  Hift, 

166  C  H  A  R  R  O  N. 

He  was  successirely  th^ologal  of  Bazas,  Aqcs,  Letfaour#^' 
Agen,  Cahors,  and  Condom^  canon  and  schoolmaster  in 
the  church  of  Bourdeaux,  and  chanter  in  the  charch  .of 
Condom.  Queen  Margaret,  duchess  of  Bulois,  enter- 
tained him  for  her  preacher  in  ordinary;  and  the  king, 
though  at  that  time  a  protestant,  frequently  did  him  the 
bonour  to  be  one  of  his  audience.  He  was  also  retained 
by  the  cardinal  d^Armagnac,  the  pope's  legate  at  Avignon, 
who  had  a  great  value  for  him  ;  yet  amidst  all  these  pro-* 
motions,  he  never  took  any  degree  or  title  in  divinity,  but 
satisfied  himself  with  deserving  and  being  capable  of  the 
highest.  After  about  eighteen  years  absence  from  Paris^ 
be  resolved  to  end  his  days  there;  and  being  a  lover  of 
retirement,  vowed  to  become  a  Carthusian.  On  his  arrival 
at  Paris,  he  communicated  his  intention  to  the  prior  of  the 
order,  bat  was  rejected,  notwithstanding  his  most  pressing 
entsreaties.  They  told  him  that  he  could  not  be  received 
on  account  of  bis  age,  then  about  forty-eight,  and  that  the 
order  required  all  the  vigour  of  youth  to  support  its  auste- 
rities. He  next  addressed  himself  to  the  Celestines  at 
Paris,  but  with  the  same  success,  and  for  the  same  reasons  v 
io  this  embarrassment,  he  was  assured  by  three  learned 
casuists,  that  as  he  was  no  ways  accessary  tb  the  non-per- 
formance of  his  vow,  it  was  no  longer  binding ;  and  that 
he  might,  with  a  very  safe  conscience,  continue  in  the 
"world  as  a  secular.  He  preached,  however,  a  course  of 
Lent  sermons  at  Angers  in  1589.  Going  afterwards  to 
Bourdeaux,  he  contracted  a  very  intimate  friendship  with 
Michael  de  Montagne,  author  of  the  well  known  Essays^ 
from  whom  he  received  all  possible  testimonies  of  regard  ; 
for,  among  other  things,  Montagne  ordered  by  his  last 
will,  that  in  case  he  should  leave  no  issue-male  of  his  own, 
M.  Charron  should,  after  his  decease,  be  entitled  to  bear 
the  coat  of  arms  plain,  as  they  belonged  to  his  noble 
family,  iand  Charron,  in  return,  made  Montague's  brother- 
in-law  his  residuary  legatee.  He  staid  at  Bourdeaux  from 
1589  to  1593;  and  in  that  interval  composed  his  book, 
entitled,  <*  Les  Trois  Veritas,"  which  he  published  in 
1594.  These  three  truths  are  the  following  :  1 .  That  there 
is  a  God  and  a  true  religion  :  2.  That  of  all  religions  the 
Christian  is  the  only  true  one  :  3.  That  of  all  the  Christian 
communions  the  Roman  catholic  is  the  only  true  church. 
This  work  procured  him  the  acquaintance  of  M.  de  Sulpice, 
bisbop  and  count  of  Cahors,  who  sent  for  him  and  offered 

C  H  A  R  R  O  Ni  16T 

bun  the  places  of  his  vicar-general  and  canon  theological 
i;i  his  church,  which  he  accepted.     He  was  deputed  to 
the  geueral  assembly  of  the  clergy  in  1595,  and  was  chosea 
first  secretary  to  the  assembly.     In  1599  he  returned  to 
Cahorar;  and  in  that  and  the  following  year  composed  eight 
discourses  upon  the  sagrament  of  the  Lord's  supper ;  and 
others  upon  the  knowledge  and  providence  of  God,  the 
redemption  of  the  worlds  the  communion  of  saints,  and 
hkewise   his  "  books  of  Wisdom."     Whilst   he  was  thus 
employed,  the  bishop  of  Condom,  to  draw  him  into  his 
diocese,  presented  him  with  the  chaptership  in  his  church; 
and  the  theologal  chair  falling  vacant  about  the  same  time, 
made  him  an  offer  of  that  too,  which  Charron  acceptedi 
and  resolved  to  settle  there*     In  1601  he  printed  at  Bour- 
deaux  his  books  ^^^  of  Wisdom,"  which  gave  him  a  great 
reputation,    and    made    his    character  generally   known* 
October  1 603,  he  made  a  journey  to  Paris,  to  thank  the 
bishop  of  Boulogne ;  who,  in  order  to  have  him  near  him- 
self, had  offered  him  the  place  of  theologal  canon.     This 
he  was  disposed  to  accept  of;  but  the  moisture  and  cold- 
nests  of  the  air  at  Boulogne,  and  its  nearness  to  the  sea, 
not  only  made  it,  be  said  to  a  friend,  a  melancholy  and 
unpleasant  place,  but  very  unwholesome  too  ;  adding,  that 
the  sun  was  his  visible  god,  as  God  was  his  invisible  sun* 
At  Parii^  he  began  a  new  edition  of  bis  books  ^^  of  Wisdom,*' 
of  which  he  lived  to  see  but  three  or  four  sheets  printed, 
dying  Nov.  16,  1603,  of  an  apoplexy.     The  impression  of 
the  new  edition  of  his  book  <<  of  Wisdom,"  with  alterations 
by  the  author,  occasioned  by  the  offence  taken  at  some 
passages  in  the  former,  was  completed  in   1604,  by  the 
care  of  a  friend ;  but  as  the  Bourdeaux  edition  contained 
some  things  that  were  either  suppressed  or  softened  in  the 
subsequent  one,,  it  was  much  sought  after  by  the  curious. 
Hence  the  booksellers  of  several  cities  reprinted  the  book 
after  that  edition ;  and  this  induced  a  Paris  bookseller  to 
print  an  edition,  to  which  he  subjoined  all  the  passages  of 
the  first  edition  which  had  been  struck  out  or  corrected, 
and  all  those  which  the  president  Jeannin,  who  was  em- 
ployed  by  the  chancellor  to  examine  the  book,   judged 
necessary  to  be  changed.     This  edition  appeared  in  1707. 
There  have  been  two  translations  of  it  into  Engliish,  the 
last  by    George   Stanhope,  D.  D.  printed   in    1697.    Dr. 
;Stanhope  says,  that  M.  Charron  "  was  a  person  that  feared 
God,  led  a  pious  and  good  life,  was  charitably  disposed, 

16S  C  H  A  R  R  O  N. 

a  person  of  wisdom  and  conduct,  serious  and  considerate; 
a  great  philosopher,  an  eloquent  orator,  a  famous  and 
powerful  preacher",  richly  furnished  and  adorned  with  the 
most  excellent  virtues  and  graces  both  moral  and  divine  ; 
such  as  made  him  very  remarkable  and  singular,,  and  de« 
servedly  gave  him  the  character  of  a  good  man  and  a  good 
Christian  ;  such  as  preserve  a  great  honour  and  esteem  for 
his  memory  among  persons  of  worth  and  virtue,  and  will 
continue  to  do  so  as  long  as  the  world  shall  last."  From 
this  high  praise  considerable  deductions  may  surely  be 
made.  Cbarron^s  fame  has  scarcely  outlived  his  century.; 
bis  book  on  *^  Wisdom"  certainly  abounds  in  ingenious, 
and  original  observations  on  moral  topics,  but  gives  a 
gloomy  picture  of  human  nature  and  society.  Neither  is 
it  free  from  sentiments  very  hostile  to  revealed  religion^ 
but  so  artfully  disguised  as  to  impose  on  so  orthodoic  a  di-* 
vine  as  dean  Stanhope. ' 

CHARTIER  (Alain),  a  native  of  Bayeux,  one  of  the 
first  French  writers  who  aspired  to  elegance,  flourished 
about  1430.  He  was  secretary  to  tbe  kings  Charles  VI. 
and  VI I.  and  employed  in  several  embassies.  His  compo* 
sitions  in  prose  excelled  those  that  were  poetical,  and  he 
spoke  as  well  as  he  wrote,  so  that  he  was  esteemed  the  fa^ 
tber  of  French  eloquence.  The  following  curious  anec- 
dote relating  to  him  is  recorded :  Margaret  of  Scotland, 
first  wife  to  the  dauphin,  afterwards  Lewis  XI.  as  she 
passed  through  the  Louvre,  observed  Alain  asleep,  and 
went  and  kissed  him.  When  her  attendants  expressed 
their  surprize  that  she  should  thus  distinguish  a  man  re<» 
markable  for  his  ugliness,  she  replied,  *^  I  do  not  kiss  the 
man,  but  the  mouth  that  has  uttered  so  many  charming 
things.''  His  works  were  published  by  the  elder  Du 
Chesne,  in  1617,  4to;  the  first  part  consisting  of  bis 
works  in  prose,  viz.  the  "  Curial;"  a  "  Treatise  on  Hope  ;*' 
the  *^  Luadrilogus  Invectif,''  against  Edward  HI. ;  and 
others,  partly  spurious ;  and  the  second  part  containing 
bis  poems,  which  are  for  the  most  part  obscure  and  te* 
dious.  Alain  Chartier  died  at  Avignon  in  1449.  We  find 
much  difference  in  the  bic^^phers  of  Chartier,  some  as* 
cribing  to  him  the  "  Chroniques  de  St.  Denys,"  Paris,  149S, 
3  vols.  fol.  and  others  to  his  brother  John ;  and  the  ^^  History 
of  Oharles  VIL"  likewise  attributed  to  him,,  is  given  by  Du 

J  Gen.  Diet.— Morerii— Brucker.— >Dtct  Hist 

C  H  A  R  T  I  E  R.  169 

Chesne  to  Berri,  first  herald  to  Charles  VIL  and  by  Moreri 
toGiiles  de  Bouvier.  * 

CHARTIER  (Rene'),  a  native  of  Vendome,  studied  me- 
dicine at  Paris,  where  he  took  his  doctor's  degree  in  1 608, 
and  was  afterwards  professor  of  surgery,  and  physician  to 
the  king.  He  is  principally  known  as  the  editor  of  a  very 
splendid  edition  of  the  works  of  Hippocrates  and  Galen, 
on  which  he  expended  all  his  fortune.  It  was  printed  in 
13  vols.  foL  usually  bound  in  nine,  the  dates  of  which  ap« 
pear  to  be  from  163£r  to  1649,  and  that  of  the  supple- 
mentary volumes  about  1672.  We  have  no  account  of 
bis  death,  but  he  appears  to  have  died  before  1639.' 

CHASLE8  (Gregory  de),  who  was  born  August  17, 
1659,  at  Paris,  studied  at  the  college  de  la  Marche,  and 
there  became  acquainted  with  M.  de  Seigneley,  who  pro- 
cured him  an  employment  in  the  marine.  The  greatest 
part  of  his  life  passed  in  voyages  to  the  Levant,  Canada, 
and  the  East  Indies.  In  Canada  he  was  taken  prisoner 
by  the  English ;  he  was  also  a  prisoner  in  Turkey.  Charles 
was  gay,  sprightly,  and  loved  good  cheer,  but  yet  satiri- 
cal, particularly  against  the  monks,  and  the  constitution. 
He  was  banished  from  Paris  to  Chartres,  for  some  of  these 
liberties^  where  be  was  living  in  a  sordid  manner,  in  1719 
or  1720.  He  wrote  "  Les  Illustres  Francoises,**  3  vols. 
12mo,  containing  seven  histories,  to  which  two  others  are 
added  in  the  edition  of  Utrecht,  1737,  4  vols. '12mo,  and 
of  Paris,  4  vols. ;  but  these  two  are  much  inferior  to  the 
rest.  **  Journal  d'un  Voyage  fait  aux  Indes  Orientales  sur 
Tescadre  de  M.  du  Quesne  en  1690  et  1691,**  Rouen, 
1721,  3  vols.  12mo;  and  a  sixth  volume  of  Don  Qui Kote. 
Though  Chasles  was  an  advocate,'  the  *^  Diet,  de  Justice, 
Police,  et  Finances,"  written  by  Francis  James  Chasles, 
172ii,  3  vols.  fol.  must  not  be  ascribed  to  him.' 

CHA8SENEUZ  (Bartholomew),  was  born  at  Issy- 
TEvgque,  in  Burgundy,  1480.  He  held  the  office  of  king*s 
advocate  at  Antun  till  1522,  when  Francis  I.  appointed  him 
counsellor  to  the  parliament  of  Paris,  then  president  of 
that  of  Provence.  Chasseneuz  was  in  the  latter  office 
when  that  court  gave  sentence  against  the  inhabitants  of 
Cabrieres  and  Merindol.  .  He  prevented  the  execution  of 
it  during  his  life,  and  died  1542,  leaving  several  works: 

*  Gen.  Diet.— Moreri. — Diet.  Hist 

•  Moreri.— Halier  Bibl.  Med.— Saxii  Onoowit.  »  Diet  Hitt 

170  C  H  A  S  S  E  N  E  U  Z. 

lUQong  th^  rest,  n  *^  Cpoameotaiy  on  the  Cufttpm  of  Eur* 
gundy/'  of  which  there  were  five  editions  in  his  life-time» 
and  above  fiffceea'since.  The  last  edition  is  by  the  pre- 
sident Boubier,  1717,  4to,  new  modelled  in  that  which  he 
has  since  published  in  2  vols.  fol.  ^ 

CHASTELAIN  (Claude),  canon  of  the  cathedral 
church  of  Paris,  his  native  place,  where  he  was  born  iii 
16^9,  possessed  a  very  superior  degree  of  knowledge  in 
the  liturgies,  rites,  and  ceremonies  of  the  church  ;>  and  had 
fpr  that  purpose  travelled  over  Italy,  France,  and  Ger- 
Qaany  ;  studying  every  where  the  particular  customs  of 
each  separate  church.  He  died  1712,  aged  seventy-three^ 
leaving  a  <*  Universal  Martyrology,"  Paris,  1709,  4tQ,  and 
the  '^  Life  of  St  Chaumont,''  1697,  12mo.  He  also  pub^ 
lished  the  ^^  Hagiographical  Dictionary,"  which  was  in-» 
serted  by  Menage  in  his  etymologies  of  the  French  tongue^ 
with  great  praise  of  the  author,  as  one  whose  merit  was 
not  duly  estimated  by  the  age  he  lived  in.* 

CHASTELAIN  (George,  or  Castellanus),  a  Flemish 
gentleman,  who  was  educated  at  the  court  of  the  dukes  of 
Burgundy,  and  esteemed  as  one  of  those  by  whom  thtt 
French  language  was  at  that  time  best  understood.  John 
Molinet  was  his  pupil.  He  died  1475,  leaving  in  French 
verse,  an  account  of  all  the  extraordinary  things  .which 
happened  in  his  time,  1531,  4to  ;  and  at  the  end  of  the 
Legend  of  lairfeu,  1723,  8vo^  *'  Le  Chevalier  d^lib6r«» 
ou  la  Mort  du  Due  de  Bourgogne  devant  Nanci,''  1489, 
4to.  Sqme  attribute  this  work  to  Oliver  de  la  Marche. 
"  Hist,  du  Chevalier  Jaques  de  Lalain,"  Antwerp,  1634, 
4to;  "  Les  Epitaphes  d' Hector  et  d'Achille,"  1525,  8vo.* 

CHASTELET  (Gabriel  Emilia  de  Breteuil,  Mar- 
chioness), descended  of  a  very  apcieht  family  of  Picardy, 
was  born  December  1 7,  1706.  Among  the  women  of.  her 
nation  who  have  rendered  themselves  illustrious,  she  is 
certainly  entitled  to  the  first  rank.  Before  her,  many  of 
them  had  acquired  reputation  by  agreeable  romances^ 
and  by  poetical  pieces,  in  which  there  appeared  the  graces 
of  wit,  and  the  charms  of  sentiment.  Several  ako,  by 
applying  themselves  to  the  study  of  languages,  by  making 
their  beauties. to  pass  into  their  own,  and  by  enriching 
their  versions  with  valuable  commentaries,  had  deserved 

'  Diet.  Hist.— Moreri. — Niceron.  *  'Moreri. — Diet.  Hist 

3  L*Avocat.-*Dict.  Hist. — Moreri  in  Cbatelain. 

C  H.A  S  T  E  L  E  T.  171 

Weil  of  the  republic  of  letters.  By  composing  W6rks  on 
subjects  wbiob  unfold  themselves  only  to  men  of  rare  ge- 
BUiSy  Mhb  has  classed  herself,  in  the  opinion  of  her  country'-^ 
men,  with  the  greatest  philosophers,  and  may  be  said  to 
bare  rivalled  Leibnitz  and  Newton.  From  her  early  youth 
ihe  read  the  be^t  authors,  without  the  medium  of  a  |rans-> 
Ration:  Tasso,  Milton,  and  Virgil  were  alike  familiar  to 
her ;  aad  her  ear  was  particularly  sensible  to  the  melody 
of  verse.  She  was  endowed  with  great  eloquence,  but  not 
of  that  sort  which  consists  only  in  displaying  wit  or  ac-* 
quirements  ;  precision  was  the  character  of  ber's.  She 
would  rather  have  written  with  the  solidity  of  Pascal  than 
with  the  charmaof  S^vigne.  She  loved  abstract^  sciences, 
9tudied  mathematics  deeply,  and  published  an  explana-< 
tion  of  the  philosophy  of  Leibnitz,  under  the  title  of  '<  In-» 
stitutions  de  Physique,"  in  8vo,  addrei^sed  to  her  sqn^ 
the  preliminary  discourse  to  which  is  said  to  be  a  model  of 
reason  and  eloquence.  Afterwards  she  published  a  treatise 
on  ^*  The  Nature  of  Fire."  To  know  common  geometry , 
did  not  satisfy  her«  She  was  so  well  skilled  in  the  philo-* 
sopby  of  Newton,  that  she  translated  his  works,  and  en^ 
ricbed  tbem  by  a  commentary,  in  4  vols.  4to ;  its  title  itf 
**  Principes  Mathematiques  de  la  Philosophe  Naturelle*'* 
This  work,  which  cgst  her  infinite  labour,  is  supposed  to 
have  hastened  her  death,  which  took  place  in  1749.  With 
sill  her  talents  and  personal  qualifications,  however,  it  is  ge«< 
DM^Uy  admitted  that  she  had  no  pretensions  to  chastity.* 

CHASTELLUX  (Francis  John,  Marquis  de),  a  marshal 
in  the  French  army,  and  a  member  of  the  French  academy, 
and  of  many  other  literary  societies,  was  born  in  1734,  of 
a  distinguished  family.  His  military  talents  raised  him  to 
the  rank  of  brigadier-general,  and  he  is  said  to'have  served 
in  that  capacity  with  great  reputation  in  America.  Of  his 
military,  however,  we  know  less  than  of  his  literary  ca- 
reer, which  he  pursued  amidst  all  his  public  employments. 
He  bad  early  in  life  a  strong  passion  for  poetry  and  piusic* 
Many  of  bils  comedies,  written  for  private  theatres,  and 
heard  with  transport,  might  have  been  equally  successful 
on  the  public  stages,  bad  he  had  courage  sufficient  to  make 
the  experiment.  He  was  an  officer  in  the  French  guards 
ifi  1765,  when  he  published  his  ingenious  **  Eissay  oti  the 
I^nion  of  Poetry  and  Music.'*     This  essay  was  th^  conse- 

1  Diet  Hist. 


quence  of  a  voyage  into  Italy,  where  be, seems  to  have 
adopted  an  exclusive  taste  for  the  dramatic  music  of  that 
country,  as  Rousseau  had  done  before.  He  even  adopts 
some  of  Rousseau^s  ideas  upon  music ;  but  in  general  he 
tliinks  for  himself,  both  deeply  and.originally.  By  his  re- 
flections on  the  musical  drama,  he  not  only  offended  the 
musicians  of  France,  but  the  lyric  poets  of  every  country ; 
not  scrupling  to  assert  that  in  an  opera,  music,  which  ought 
to  be  the  principal  consideration,  had  been  too  long  a  slave 
to  syllables ;  for  since  the  cultivation  of  the  melo-drama, 
it  was  found  thajt  music  had  its  own  language,  its  tropes, 
'metaphors,  colouring,  movements,  passions,  and  expres-« 
sion  of  sentiment.  This  little  tract,  for  it  was  but. a 
pamphlet  of  90  or  100  pages,  12mo,  gave  birth  to  along 
controversy  in  France,  in  which,  the  author  was  supported 
by  the  abb^  Arnaud,  M.  D'Alembert,  the  abb^  Morellet, 
and  M.  Marmontel.  His  chief  antagonist  was  the  author 
of  a  "  Treatise  on  the  Melo- Drama,"  who,  loving  poetry 
better  than  music,  wished  to  reduce  the  opera  to  a  mere 
recitative  or  musical  declamation.  During  the  subsequent 
feuds  between  the  Gluckists  and  Piccinists,  the  opponents 
of  the  marquis  de  Chastellux  enlisted  with  the  former,  and 
his  friends  with  the  latter  of  these  sects. 

The  next  work  which  the  marquis  wrote,  was  his  essay 
^^  De  la  felicity  publique,"  published  at  Amsterdam,  with- 
out his  name,  which  was  given  to  the  English  public  in  a 
translation  entitled  "  An  Essay  on  Public  Happiness,  in;- 
vestigating  the  state  of  human  nature,  under  each  of  its  par- 
ticular appearances,  through  the  several  periods  of  history 
to  the  present  times,"  London,  2  vols.  8vo.  While  the 
marquis  was  engaged  on  this  work  he  frequently  shifted 
his  abode,  and  was  also  obliged  to  attend  his  regiment  (that 
of  Guienne)  during  four  months  of  the  year :  at  these  times 
be  could  only  have  recourse  to  such  books  as  were  at  hand^ 
many  of  which  were  translations,  and  but  a  small  number 
originals  ;  yet,  notwithstanding  these  disadvantages,  h^ 
has  brought  together  a  great  variety  of  historical  informa-* 
tion,  accompanied  with  many  useful,  and  some  fanciful 
observations.  Viewing  the  then  placid  state  of  socie^  in 
his  own  and  neighbouring  countries,  he  was  deceived  bjr 
his  love  of  peace  and  happiness,  into  a  kind  of  precUotioii 
that  wars  would  be  no  more  so  frequent,  or  produce  such 
great  calamities,  as  they  had  in  ages  past !   The  traosla- 

C  H  A  S  T.E  L  L  U  X.  175 

ttoD,  we  have  heard,  was  by  J.  Kent,  esq.  a  country  gen- 

We  have  already  noticed  that  the  marquis  served  in 
America,  under  Rochambeau,  during  the  war  with  Great 
Britain.  This  produced  his  **  Voyage  dans  I'Amerique,'* 
wliich  was  immediately  translated  into  English,  under  the 
title  **  Travels  in  North- America,  in  the  years  1780,  1781, 
1782,**  1787,  2  vols.  8vo.  In  this  work,  which  is  rather 
to  be  read  as  amusing  than  relied  on  as  authentic,  there  is 
much  of  that  enthusiasm  for  theoretic  liberty  and  happiness 
which  pervades  the  marquis's  former  work  ;  but  his  want 
of  impartiality  did  not  escape  even  his  own  countrymen. 
Brissot  de  Warville  wrote  an  "  Examen  Critique'*  of  the 
travels,  in  which  he  convicted  the  writer  of  great  partiality, 
as  well  as  of  unjust  representations  of  events  ;  and  the 
same  charges  were  brought  against  him  by  an  anonymous 
writer  in  our  own  country,  who,  after  the  appearance  of 
the  translation,  pubUshed  ^*  Remarks  on  the  Travels,  &c.^ 
1787,  8vo.  The  only  other  publication  of  the  marquis's 
pen,  was  **  Notice  sur  la  vie  et  les  ecrits  d'Helvetius,'* 
printed  with  his  poem  ^^  Du  Bonheur."  We  give  this  on 
the  authority  of  the  Diet.  Hist,  but  it  has  been  attributed 
to  Duclos,  to  Saurin,  and  to  the  baron  Holbach.  The 
marquis  de  Chastellux  died  suddenly  at  Paris,  Oct  24^ 
1788. * 

CHATEL  (Peter  du),  in  Latin  Castellanus,  a  very 
learned  French  prelate,  is  said  by  some  to  have  been  of 
obscure  birth,  but  his  biographer  Galland  makes^  him  of 
an  ancient  family,  and  the  son  of  a  brave  knight.  Yet  this 
is  doubtful,  if  what  he. said  to  king  Francis  I.  be  more  than 
a  witticism.  The  king  once  asked  him  if  he  was  a  gentle- 
man ;  to  which  Chatel  answered  *^  that  there  were  three 
in  the  ark,  but  he  did  not  really  know  from  which  of  them 
he  descended."  He  was,  however,  bom  at  Arc,  in  Bur* 
gundy,  and  in  the  eleventh  year  of  his  age,  before  which 
his  parents  died,  he  was  sent  to  Dijon,  for  education, 
where  he  made  an  astonishing  progress,  and  before  he  had 
been  there  six  years,  w^s  appointed  a  teacher,  in  which 
capacity  he  soon  distinguished  himself;  and  on  one  occa*- 
tion  made  a  public  display  of  more  than  grammatical 
talents.     His  master,  Peter  Turreau,  was  accused  of  being 

'  ^  Diet.  Hiftt. — Bifay  on  Pbblie  Happiness^  notes  to'  vol.  I«*^Biirae7's  M«» 
ao9k9  of  Metas tasio>  toI.  U.  p.  3S9. 

174  C  H  A  T  E  Ia 

an  astrologer,  and  Cfaatel  pleaded  his  cause  so  i^bly  tbit 
he  was  acquitted.  He  afterwards  travelled,  in  order  4o 
cultivate  the  acquaintance  of  the  learned  men  of  his  time, 
and  particularly  of  Erasmus,  whom  he  met  at  Basil,  and 
who  conceived  such  a  high  opinion  of  his  learning,  as  to 
recommend  him  to  Frobenius,  to  be  corrector  of  the  Greek 
and  Latin  authors,  printed  at  his  celebrated  press.  While 
here  he  had  also  an  opportunity  of  correcting  some  of 
^rasmus^s  works ;  but  they  left  Basil  together,  when  the 
popish  religion  was  established  there.  Erasmus  retired  to 
Fribourg,  and  Chatel  returned  to  France,  where  be  ac^ 
cepted  the  offer  made  him  by  some  persons  of  distinction^ 
to  be  tutor  to  certain  young  men  who  were  to  study  law  at 
Bourges,  under  the  celebrated  Alciat.  As  they  were  not 
yet  prepared  to  depart,  he  read  public  lectures  on  the 
Greek  text  of  St.  Paul's  epistle  to  the  Romans ;  and  un* 
fortunately  for  his  reputation,  was  entrapped  into  an  in* 
trigue  with  a  young  woman,  a  circumstance  on  which 
Bayle  expatiates  with  his  usual  delight  in  what  is  indeli^ 
cate*  Chatei's  scholars,  however,  being  at  length  ready^ 
he  accompanied  them  to  Bourges,  and  studied  law,  filling 
pp  his  leisure  hours  with  topics  of  polite  literature.  Hii 
diligence  was  unremitting,  as  he  slept  scarcely  three  hours 
in  the  night,  and  the  moment  he  waked  ran  with  eagerness 
to  his  books.  This  method  of  study  he  preserved,  even  afw 
terwards,  when  appointed  reader  to  the  king. 

Having  an  inclination  to  visit  Italy,  the  bishop  of 
Auxerre,  who  was  going  there  in  a  diplomatic  charactei^ 
took  him  with  him,  but  at  Rome  he  found  little  enjoyment 
except  in  contemplating  the  remains  of  antiquity.  Thd 
corruption  of  morals  at  the  court  of  Rome  appeared  se 
atrocious  in  his  eyes,  that  for  many  years  afterwards  he 
^ould  not  speak  on  the  subject  without  indignation,  and 
appears  indeed  to  have  conceived  as  bad  an  opinion  of  thd 
court  of  Rome  as  any  of  the  reformers,  and  expressed 
himself  with  as  much  severity.  From  Rome  he  went  to 
Venice,  and  was  induced  to  accept  the  office  of  teaching 
polite  literature  in  the  island  of  Cyprus,  with  a  pension  ei 
two  hundred  crowns,  and  there  he  read  lectures  for  two 
years  with  great  success.  He  afterwards  went  into  Eg}^t^ 
Jerusalem,  and  Constantinople,  and  on  his  retarn  hoaie^ 
the  French  ambassador  at  the  Porte  gave  him  letters  of 
strong  recosnxiendation  to  Francis  I.  who  appointed  hi^ 
his  reader,  and  entertained  him  with  the  utmost  famili&dty.' 

C  H  A  T  E  L.  175 


Chatel  avaited  himself  of  this  favour  to  procure  advantages 
to  learning  and  learned  men  ;  but  although  his  sentiments 
were  so  lar  liberal  as  to  admit  that  the  church  wanted  re- 
forming, be  supported  the  catholic  religion,  and  even  as- 
sisted the  inquisitors  and  informers.  He  was  also  averse 
to  capital  punishments  for  heresy,  and  involved  himself  in 
danger  by  pleading  for  some  pretended  heretics,  who,  it 
was  reported,  were  to  be  put  to  death.  He  likewise  ap* 
peased  the  king's  wrath  againat  the  Waldenses  before  the 
slaughter  of  Cabrioles  and  Merindol,  and  once  delivered 
Doiet  out  of  prison.  His  zeal  for  maintaining  the  rights 
'Of  the  Gallican  church  against  the  pretensions  of  the  court 
^Rome,  rendered  him  odious  there,  and  the  doctors  of 
the  Sorbonne  were  not  less  displeased  with  him  for  the 
protection  he  granted  in  1545,  to  Robert  Stephens,  the 
celebrated  printer.  These  were  favourable  symptoms  of 
liberality,  at  least,  if  not  of  an  inclination  to  befriend  th^ 
cause  of  the  reformation,  and  soften  the  rigours  of  perse^^ 
cution.  But  Chatel  wanted  firmness,  and  withdrawing  his 
protection  from  Stephens,  the  latter  was  forced  to  retire 
into  another  country.  Chatel  was  perhaps  influenced  by 
tile  favours  heaped  upon  him  by  Francis  T.  who  made  hint 
bishop  of  Tulle  in  1539,  and  afterwards  bishop  of  Magon. 
He  is  said  never  to  have  appeared  to  more  advantage  as  a 
divine  and  a  man  of  eloquence  than  when  he  prepared 
Francis  I:  for  death,  and  delivered  his  funeral  orationi 
Yet  in  this  oration,  by  hinting  that  the  soul  of  Francis  had 
immediately  gone  to  heaven,  he  alarmed  the  doctors  of  the 
Sorbonne,  who  complained  that  he  was  heretic  enou^rh  to 
oppose  the  doctrine  of  purgatory.  A  more  valid  objec<- 
tion,  perhaps,  m4ght  have  been  his  high  praise  of  Fran<^ 
Cli  I.  whose  character  was  not  that  of  perfect  purity. 

Henry  II.  tiie  successor  of  Francis,  finding  that  Chatel 
intended  to  leave  the  court,  by  way  of  detaining  him,  be« 
stowed  on  him  the  important  office  of  grand  almoner,  and 
translated  him  to  the  bishopric  of  Orleans,  in  which  he  is 
said  to  have  introduced  some  salutary  reformation  among 
Ibe  ignorant  and  vicious  priests.  Here  he  frequently 
preached,  and  very  wonderful  accounts  are  given  of  the 
effects  of  his  eloquence  upon  the  mo^t  hardened  impe- 
niteiAtft.  On  one  of  these  occasions  he  was  seized  with  a 
fit  of  the  palsy,  which  proved  fatal  Feb.  3,  1 552,  and 
WhicfaP%ome  protestant  writers  considered  as  a  judgment  on 
him  for  maintaining  a  conduct  contrary  to  the  convictions 

176  C  H  A  T  E  L. 


of  his  own  mind.  Hq  was  undoubtedly  a  man  inclined 
mocieratiun,  but  appears  to  have  been  ambitious,  and  to« 
much  ensnared  by  a  court  life. '  His  learning  waa  Tery  ex- 
tensive ;  but  we  have  only  in  print  a  Latin  letter  from 
Francis  I.  to  Charles  V,  ascribed  to  him,  and  his  funeral 
oration  on  Francis  I.  both  printed  in  his  life  by  Galland^ 
published  by  Baluze,  Paris,  1674,  8vo.  There  was,  how- 
ever, an  edition  of  the  oration  printed  in  1547,  under  the 
title  ^'  Le  trepas,  obseques,  et  enterrement  de  Frangois  I. 
avec  les  deux  sermons  funebres,^*  &c.  4to.  ^  ,  - 

CH ATELET  (Paul  Hay,  lord  of),  a  gratleman  de^ 
scended  f'rom  an*  ancient  family  in  Bretany,  one  of  the 
members  of  the  French  academy,  advocate-general  to  the 
parliament  of  Rennes,  afterwards  master  of  the  requests^ 
and  counseller'of  state,  was  born  in  1593.  The  court 
entrusted  him  with  several  important  commissions;  but, 
upon  his  refusing  to  be  among  the  judges  at  the  trial  of  the 
inarechal  de  Marillac,  he  was  sent  to  prison,  but  set  at 
liberty  some  time  after.  It  is  said,  that,  being  one  day 
with  M.  de  8t.  Preuil,  who  was  soliciting  the  due  de  Mont** 
morenci's  pardon,  the  king  said  to  him,  '^  I  believe  M.  du 
Chatelet  would  willingly  part  with  an  arm  to  save  M.  de 
Montmorenci.'*  To  which  he  repUed,  ^\  I  would,  sire,  that 
I  could  lose  them  both,  for  they  can  do  you  no  service^ 
and  save  one«  who  has  gained  many  battles  for  you,^  and 
would  gain  many  more.'^  After  his  release  from  prison 
above  noticed,  he  went  to  the  king's  chapel;  but  that 
prince  affecting  to  look  another  way  that  he  might  noli 
meet  the  eyes  of  a  person  to  whom  he  had  lately  done 
^uch  a  flagrant  injury,  Du  Chatelet  whispered  one  of  the 
noblemen,  ^^  Be  so  good,  my  lord,  as  to  tell  the  king,  that 
I  freely  forgive  him,  and  beg  the  honour  of  one  look.*^ 
This  made  the  king  smile,  and  Du  Chatelet  was  forgiven. 
It  was  after  the  same  release,  that,  when  the  cardinal  de 
Richelieu  (most  of  whose  state  papers  were  the  products  of 
bis  pen)  made  some  excuses  for  his  detention,  he  an* 
8\yered,  <^  I  make  a  great  difference  betwixt  any  ill  your 
eminency  does  of  yourself,  and  any  whic1iyt)u  permit  tor 
be  done ;  nor  diall  you  find  me  the  less  devoted  to  your 
service.^'  Du  Chatelet  died  April  6,  1 636,  leaving  several 
works  in  prose  and  verse,  the  principal  of  which  are,  1^ 

1  Oen.  Diet— >Moreri. — ^Dict  Hist,-- Jortin's  Erasmui.— CfeTier   Vfx&U  ^ 
WtkwtnxXk  de  Paris* 

",Hial;p^pei<te  Bertraad  d^QMes^bin,  cgpn^t^tbjc^Je  Franpe," 
/1.66jS, « fol.  a^id  lj6;93,  4to.  .2,  "  Obseryatipns  sur  }^  yie^^et 
kccuida^nia^Dn  du  mareschal  de  Marillacy?^  Paris^  l^P, 
4l;o,  3.  ".Plq^iejitSt  de  pi^es  pour  servjr  a.l*Hi8tpire/' 
J635,  fpl,  and.  some  satires  aii^d  poeoTs  which jire  npt  in 
^uck  ^$jua)atioo.  ^ 

CHAT^TERTON  (Thomas),   an  English  poet  o(si^^ 

.ffllar,^eniu»^nd  character,  jyas  born  Nov.  ,20,  1752.    l|is 

^j;her,  \aras.,p|^mjajly  a  writing  usher  to  a  school  in  Bjristpl, 

afterwards  , a  siqigipg  man  in   the  cathedral,    and.las^fy, 

m^  the  fr^e-school  in  Pylcrstreet  in  the  same  city. 

,Q(S  died  aJbputitbree  months  before,  this  son  was  born.     It 

.  n  aot.quite  piymportaut  to  add  that  our  po^t  was  descended 

.fkqo)  a. IpngJine'of  ancestors  who  held  the  office  qi sexton 

of,St.  JVJafy  R^dclifFe;  since  it  was  in  the  muniment,  room 

of  this  church  that  the  materials  were  found  from  Wibi^h  be 

cpjQSjTupted  tiiat.  system  of  imposture  which  has  rendered 

l^s  jaam^  i^Olebrat^d,  and  bis  history  interesting.     At^.^ye 

yeara.ipf,4ge.  be  was  ^ent  to  the  school  in  Pyle-str^et,  then 

superintended  by  a  Mr.. Love;  but  here  he  improved io 

little, that  his  mother  took  him  bacL     While  under  b^r 

care  bis,  cbildisb  attention  is  said  to  have  been  engaged  by 

'  the.  illuminated  capitals  of  an  old  musical  maqusci'ipt  \n 

/French, ,  which  circumstance  encouraged  her  to  initiate.bini 

in  thp  alphabet,  and  she  afterwards  taught  him  to  read 

•  from  an  old  bla^k-ietter  Testament  or  Bible.  That  a  per-' 
;son  of  ber  rank  jn  Ufe  ^should  be  able  to  read  the  Mack* 
letter  is  ^qmewha^  extraordinary,  but  the  fact  rests,  upc^n 
her.j^utbQrity,  and  b«LS  bfeen  considered  as  an  introduction 
ta that, fondness  for  anti^Mities for  wbichhe  wa^ afterwards 

His  next  remoyal  was  to  Colston's  charity  school, .  at  the  - 
rage  of  eight  ^'(^aors,  where  he  lyas  taught  reading,  writing, 
and  afitl^pe.Uo,,  at  :tbe  daily  rate  of  nine  hours  in  summer,' 
,a^d.sey^nih\ winter.     Such  at  least  wa»  the  prescribied* 
.diacipUpejof^he  school^  although  it  was  far.  more,  than  a 
boy  of  his  capacity  tequired.     One  of  bis  masters,  Phillips, . 
,  wium,be4}as  celebrated  in  an  elegy,  was  a  frequent  writer 
of  yei:ses  in, the  Q^iagazines,  and  was  the  means jof  ^^c^tiiig 
^degree  o^^pp^tical emulation  among  bis  scholars,., but  to  = 

•  tl^is  ChattertQU  appeared  for.  soipe  time  quite  indifferent, 
.Abo^t  bis  tenth  year  be  began  to  read  from  inclination} 

»  Marcri.—Dict.  Hirt.  ' 

Vol.  IX  N 

17S  C  tt  A  T  T  E  R  T  O  N. 

sometimes  hiring  his  books  from  a  circulating  library,  arid 
sometimes  borrowing  them  from  hiis  friends;  and  before 
he  was  twelve,  had  gone  through  about  seventy  volumes, 
principally  history  and  divinity.  Before  this  time  also  he 
had  Composed  some  verses,  particularly  those  entitled 
"  Apostate  Will ;"  which,  although  they  bear  no  compa- 
tisph  with  what  he  afterwards  produced,  discover  at  that 
early  age  a  disposition  to  personal  satire,  anda  conscious- 
ness of  superior  sense.  It  would  be  more  remarkable,  were 
it  true,  that  while  at  this  school  he  is  said  to  have  shown 
to  his  master  Phillips,  one  of  those  manuscripts  which  he 
pretended  had  been  found  in  a  chest  in  Redcliffe  church, 
put  as  neither  Phillips  or  another  person  to  whom  this 
treasure  was  exhibited,  could  read  it,  the  commencement 
of  his  Rowleian  impostures  must  be  postponed  to  a  future 

At  school  be  had  gathered  some  knowledge  of  music, 
drawing,  and  arithmetic,  and  with  this  stock  he  was  bound 
apprentice  July  1767,  to  Mr.  John  Lambert,  an  attorney 
at  Bristol,  for  seven  j^ears.  His  apprenticeship  appears 
to  have  been  of  the  lower  order,  and  his  situation  more 
resembling  that  of  a  servant  than  a  pupil.  His  chief  em- 
ployment was  to  copy  precedents,  which  frequently  did 
uot  require  more  than  two  hours  in  a  day.  The  rest  of  his 
time  was  probably  filled  up  by  the  desultory  course  of  read- 
ing which  he  had  begun  at  school,  and  which  terminated 
'chiefly  in  the  study  of  the  old  English  phraseblogy,  he- 
raldry, and  miscellaneous  antiquities :  of  the  two  last  he 
acquired,  hot  a  profound  knowledge,  but  enough  to  en- 
able him  to  create  fictions  capable  of  deceiving  those  who 
had  less.  His  general  conduct  during  his  appretiticeship 
was  decent  and  regular.  On  one  occasion  only  Mr.  Lain- 
bert  thought  him  deserving  of  correction  for  writing  an 
abusive  letter  in  a  feigned  hand  to  his  old  school-mastelr. 
So  soon  did  this  young  man  learh  the  arts  of  deceit,  which 
he  was  now  preparing  to  practise  upon  a  more  extensile 

In  the  beginning  of  October  1768,  the  completion  of 
the  new  bridge  at  Bristol  suggested  to  him  a  fit  oppor- 
tunity for  playing  off  the  first  of  his  public  deceptions. 
This  was  an  account  of  the  ceremonies  on  opening  the  old 
'  bridge,  said  to  be  taken  from  an  ancient  manuscript,  a 
copy  of  which  he  sent  to  Farley's  Bristol  Journal,  in  a  short 
letter  signed  Dunhelmtits  Bristoliensis.     Such  a^nemoii^  at 

C  H  A  T  T,E  H.T  0  N.  179 

so  critical  a  timei  naturally  excited  attention^  and  Fitrley, 
who  was  called  upon  to  give  up  the  author,  after  much 
iuquiry,  discovered  that  Chatterton  had  sent  it.  Chatter- 
ton  was  consequently  interrogated,  probably  without  much 
.  ceremony,  where  he  had  obtained  it.  And  here  his  un-/ 
happy  disposition  shewed  itself  in  a  manner  highly  affect- 
ing in  one  so  young,  for  he  had  not  yet  reached  his  six- 
teenth year,  and  according  to  all  that  can  be  gathered,  had 
not  been  corrupted  either  by  precept  or  example.  "  To 
.the  threats,"  we  are  told,  "of  those  who  treated  him 
(agreeably  to  his  appearance)  as  a  child,  he  returned  no- 
thing but  haughtiness,  and  a  refusal  to  give  any  account. 
By  milder  usage  he  was  somewhat  softened,  and  appeared 
inclined  to  give  all  the  information  in  his  power." 

The  effect,  however,  of  this  mild  usage  was,  that  instead 
of  all  or  any  part  of  the  information  in  his  power,  he  tried 
two  different  falsehoods  :  the  first,  "  that  he  was  employed 
to  transcribe  the  contents  of  certain  ancient  manuscripts 
^y  ^  gentleman,  who  had  also  engaged  him  to  furnish 
complimentary  verses  inscribed  to  a  lady  with  whom  that 
gentleman  was  in  love."  But  as  this  story  was  to  rest  on 
proofs  which  he  c^guld  not  produce,  he  next  asserted,  "  that 
he  had  received  the  paper  in  question,  together  with  many 
other  manuscripts,  from  his  father,  who  had  found  them 
in  a  large  chest  in  the  upper  room  over  the  chajpel,  on  the 
north  side  of  Redcliffe  church.V 

As  this  last  story  is  the  foundation  of  the  whole  contro- 
versy respecting  Chattertpn,  it  will  be  necessary  to  give 
the  circumstances  as  related  in  his  life  written  for  the 
Biographia  Britannica,  and  prefixed  to  the  recent  edition 
of  his  works. 

"  Over  the  north  porch  of  St.  Mary  Redcliffe  church, 
which  was  founded,  or  at  least  rebuilt,  by  Mr.  W.  Canynge 
(an  emioent  merchant  of  Bristol,  in  the  fifteenth  century, 
and  in  the  reign  of  Edward  the  Fourth),  there  is  a  kind  of 
muniment  room,  in  which  were  deposited  six  or  seven 
chests,  one  of  which  in  particular  was  called  Mr.  Canynge's 
ctfre:  this  chest,  it  is  said,  was  secured  by  six  keys,  two 
of  which  were  entrusted  to  the  minister  and  procurator  of 
the  church,  two  to  the  mayor,  and  one  to  each  of  the 
church-wardens.  In  process  of  time,  however,  the  six 
keys  appear  to  have  been  lost :  and  about  the  year  1727,  a 
notion  prevailed  that  some  title  deeds,  and  other 'writings 
«f  value,  were  contained  in  Mr.  Canynge's  cofre.     In  con* 

I«0  C  k  'a  T  T  "E  K  T  6  U, 

sequence  of  this  opinion  an  order  of  Vestry  Was  made,  that 
the  chest  should  be  opened  under  the  inspection  of  an 
attorney ;  and  that  those  writings  which  appeared  of  con- 
sequence should  be  removed  to  the  south  porch  of  the 
church.    The  locks  were  therefore  forced,  and  not  only 
the  principal  chest,  biit  the  others,  which  were  also  sup- 
posed to  contain  writings,  were  all  broken   open.     The 
deeds  imn:iediately  relating  to  the  church  were  removed, 
and  the  other  manuscripts  were  left  exposed  as  of  no  value. 
Considerable  depredations  had,  from  time  to  time,  been 
committed  upon  them  by  different  persons  :  but  the  mast 
insatiate  of. these  plunderers  was  the  father  of  Chatterton. 
His  uncle  being  sexton  of  St.  Mary  Redcliffe  gave  him 
free  access  to  the  church.     He  carried  off,  from  time  to 
time,  parcels  of  the  parchments,  and  one  tihie  alone,  with 
the  assistance  of  his  boys,  is  known  to  have  filled  a  large 
basket  with  them.     They  were  deposited  in  a  cupboard  in 
the  school  and  employed  for  different  purposes,  such  ds  the 
covering  of  copy-books,  &c. :  in  particular,  Mr.  Gibbs,  the. 
minister  of  the  parish,   having  presented .  the  boys  with* 
twenty  Bibles,  Mr.  Chatterton,  in  order  to  preserve  these 
books  from  being  damaged,  covered  them  with  some  of 
the  parchments.     At  his  death,  the  widow  being  under  a 
.  necessity  of  removing,  carried  the  remainder  of  them  to 
her  own  habitation.     Of  the  discovery  of  their  value  by  the 
younger  Chatterton,    the  account  of  Mr.  Smith,  a  very 
intimate   acquaintanoe,    which  he  gave  to  Dr.  Glynn  of 
Cambridge,  is  too  interesting  to  be  omitted.    Whenyou6g 
Chatterton  was  first  articled  to  Mr.  Lambert,  he  used  fre- 
quently to  come  home  to  his  mother,  by  way  of  a  short 
visit.     There  one  day  his  eye  was  caught  by  one  of  these 
jparchments,  which  had  been  converted  into  a  thread-paper. 
He  found  not  only  the  writing  to  be  very  old,  the  charac- 
ters very  different  from  common  characters,  but  that  the 
subject  therein  treated  was  different  from  cotnmon  subjects. 
Being  naturally  of  an  inquisitive  and  cufious  turn,  he  vi'ks 
,  very  much  struck  with  their  appearance,  and,  as  might  be 
.  expected,  began  to  question  his  mother  what  those  thread- 
.  papers  were,,  how  she  got  them,  and  whence  they  Catae. 
.  Upon  further  inquiry,  he  was  led  to  a  full  discovery  of  all 
.  the  parchments  which  remained;  the  bulk  of  them  con- 
\sisted  of  poetical  and  other  compositions,  by  Mr.  Canynge, 
^,ahd  a  particular  friend, of  his,  Thomas  RoWiey,   whom 
Chattvrtbn  at  first  called  a  monk,  and  sli^erWards  a  seci^lar 

pfiest  of  the  fifteenth,  qentury.    Sucbj,  at  Ieast|  appears  to 
^^  the  account  wt^jch  Cbatterton  thought  proper  to  give^ 
and  which  be  wish^4  tp  bp  believed/    It  is,  indeed,  coQ« 
filmed  by  the,  t^si^n^op]^  of  bis  motlier  apd  sister/    Mrs^ 
Chattertou  informed  a  fripnd,  of  the  dean  of  Exeter  (Dr. 
Milles),  that  on  her  removal  from  Pyle-street,  she  emptied 
thfi.  cupboard,  of  its  contents^  partly  into  a  large  long  deaj 
bpj^,  ^pTfi^  be|r  husband  used-  to  keep  his  clothes,  and 
Djir^tly  iDtQ.  1^  square  oak  box  of  a  smaller  size ;  carrying 
bothi  with  their  contents  to  her  lodgings^  where,  according 
to  b^r  account,  thpy  continued  neglected,  and  u;uUsturbea 
tiii  her  son  first  discovered  their  value ;  who  having  ex- 
aliened  their  contents^  told  his  mother  ^  t;hat  be  had  found 
a  tri^ure,  and  was  so  glad  nothing  could  be  like  it.'   That 
he  then  removed  all  these  parchments  out  of  theJarge  long 
d^  bpx;  iq  which  l^is  father  used  to  keep  bis  clothes,  into 
ti^.e  square  oak  box:  that  he  was  perpetually  ransacking 
ftyery  C9n^er  of  the  bouse  for  more  parchments ;  and  frdnof , 
:(iqpie  tq  time,  carried  away  those  he  bad  already  found  by 
jgoci^^a,  fulJ.    That  one  day  happening   to  see   Clarke's 
!^if^ry  of  the  Bible  covered  with  one  of  those  parchment^^ 
ke  swo];e  a  great  oath,  and  stripping  the  book,  put  th^ 
cover  into  his  pocket,  and  carried  it  away;  at  the  same 
time  stripping  a  common  little  ?ible,  but  finding  no  wri* 
ling  upon  the  cover,  replaced  it  again  very  leisurely.  Upon 
Jii^og  informed  pf  the  manner  in  which  his  father  had  prb- 
9ured  the  parchments,  he  went  himself  to  the  place,  and 
pl^ljLed  up  four  noore/' 

Such  IS  th^  story  of  the  discovery  of  the  poems  attri- 
buibed  to  Rowley,  ivhiph  Cbatterton  evidently  made  up 
^oifi  the  credulity  pf  his  mother  and  other  friends,  who 
cfiiujd  not  read  the  pstrcbi^nents  on  which  he  affected  to  set 
S9,  hig]^  ^  value,  and  v^bic^  he  afterwards  endeavoured  to 
ffadfnc  pf  public  importance  "by  producing  these  wonderful 
|retasu;'e$  of  Canynge's  cofre.  In  his  attempt  already  re- 
|ate4s  respecting  the  old  bridge,  he  had  not  been  eminently 
,§|]cc^s^ful,  owing  (o  his  prevarication.  He  now  imparted 
sgi^e  pf  these  manuscripts  to  George  Catcot,  a'pewterer  of 
Bci^^l,  ^ho  had  beaH  of  the:  discovery,  and  desired  to  be 
aDtvp4ucg4  ^  Cbatterton.  The  latter  very  readily  gave 
him  ibfi  *f  Bristow  Tragedy,'*  Rowley's  epitaph  on  Ca- 
nyng^^a  ii^o^oir,  and  some  smaller  pieces.  '  These  Patent 
fOp[\f(iunic;^ted  to  I^r.  Barret,  a  surgeon,  who  was  writing 
*  PifW  pf  J549tp^,  ,and  would  naturally  be  glad' to  add  tp 

•  A* 

182  C  H  A  T  T  E  R  T  O  N. 

its  honours  that  of  having  produced  such  a  poet  as  Rowley* 
In  his  conversations  with  Barret  and  Catcot,  he  appears  ta 
have  been  driven  to  many  prevarications,  sometimes  own- 
ing that  be  bad  destroyed  several  of  these  valuable  mftnu- 
dcriptSy  and  at  other  tinies  asserting  that  he  was  in  posses- 
sion of  others  which  he  could  not  produce.  These  contra- 
dictions must  baVe  entirely  destroyed  his  evidence  in  any 
other  case,  in  the  opinion  of  thinking  and  impartial  judges ; 
but  the  historian  of  Bristol  could  not  forego  the  hopes  of 
enriching  his  book  by  originals  of  so  great  importance;  and 
having  obtained  from  Ch»tterton  several  fragments,  some 
of  considerable  length,  actually  introduced  them  as  au- 
thentic, in  his  history,  long  after  the  controversy  ceased, 
which  had  convinced  the  learned  world  that  he  had  been 
egregiously  duped. 

In  return  for  these  contributions;  Barret  and  Catcot 
supplied  Chatterton  occasionally  with  money,  and  intro- 
duced him  into  company.  At  his  request,  too,  Mr.  Barret 
lent  our  poet  some  medical  authors,  and  gave  him  a  fewr 
instructions  in  surgery,  but  still  his  favourite  studies  were 
heraldry  and  English  antiquities,  which  he  pursued  with  as 
much  success  as  could  be  expected  from  one  who  knew  jio 
language  but  his  own.  Camden's  Britannia  appears  to 
have  been  a  favourite  book ;  and  he  copied  the  glossaries 
of  Chaucer  and  bthers  with  indefatigable  perseverance,' 
storing  his  memory  with  antiquated  words.  Even  Bailey's 
dictionary  has  been  proved  to  have  afforded  him  many  of 
those  words  which  the  advocates  for  Rowley  thought  could 
be  known  only  to  a  writer  of  his  pretended  age. 

During  all  these  various  pursuits,  he  employed  hts  pen 
in  essays,  in  prose  and  verse,  chiefly  of  the  satirical  kind. 
He  appears  to  have  read  the  party  pamphlets  of  the  day, 
and  imbibed  much  of  their  abusive  spirit;     In   1769,  we 
find  him  a  very  considerable  contributor  to  the  Town  and 
Country  Magazine,   which  began  about  that  time-     His 
ambition  seems  to  have  been  to  rise  to  eminence,  entirely 
by  the  efforts  of  his  genius,  either  in  his  own  character,  or 
that  of  some  of  the  heroes  of  the  Redcliffe  chest,  in  which 
he  was  perpetually  discovering  a  most  convenient  variety 
of  treasure,  with  which  to  reward  his  admirers  and  secure 
their  patronage.     Mr.  Burgum,  another  pewterer,  main- 
tains the  authenticity  of  Rowley's  poems.     Chatterton  re- 
wards him  with  a  pedigree  from  the  time  of  William  the 
Conqueror,  allying  him  to  some  of  the  most  ancient  fami- 

C  H  A  T  T  E  R  T  O  N.  183 

lies  io  the  kingdom,  and  presents  bim  with  the  ^'  Romaunt 
of  the  Cnyghte/'  a  poem,  written  by  John  de  Bergbam, 
one  of  bis  own  ancestors,  about  four  hundred  and  fifty 
years  before.  In  order  to  obtain  the  good  opinion  of  bis 
relation  Mr.  Stephens  of  Salisbury,  he  informs  him  that  he 
is  descended  from  Fitzstephen,  grandson  of  the  venerable 
Od,  earl  of  Blois,  and  lord  of  Holderness,  who  flourished 
about  the  year  1095. — ^In  this  manner  Cbatterton  contrived 
to  impose  on  men  who  had  no  means  of  appreciating  the 
value  of  wl^the  communicated,  and  were  willing  to  believe 
what,  in  one  respect  or  other,  they  wished  to  be  true. 

But  the  most  remarkable  of  his  pretended  discoveries 
t^ued  in  an  application  to  one  who  was  not  so  easily  to  be 
deceived.  This  was  the  celebrated  Horace  Walpole,' the 
late  lord  Orford,  who  had  not  long  before  completed  his 
f'  Anecdoties  of  Painters."  In  March  1769,  Cbatterton^ 
with  his  usual  attention  to  the  wants  or  prejudices  of  the 
persons  on  whom  he  wished  to  impose,  sent  Mr.  Walpole 
a  letter,  offering  to  furnish  him  with  accounts  of  a  series  of 
great  painters  who  had  flourished  at  Bristol,  and  remitted 
also  a  small  specimen  of  poems  of  the  same  remote  aera. 
Mr.  Walpole,  although  he  could  not,  as  he  informs  us,  very 
readily  swallow  "a  series  of  great  painters  at  Bristol," 
appears  to  have  been  in  some  measure  pleased  with  the 
<;iffer,  and  discovered  beauties  in  the  verses  sent.  He  there- 
fore returned  a  polite  and  thankful  letter,  desiring  farther 
information,  from  this  letter  Chatterton  appears  to  have 
thought,  he  had  made  a  conquest,  and  therefore,  in  his 
answer,  came  to  the  direct  purpose  of  his  application.  He 
informed  his  correspondent  that  he  was  the  son  of  a  poor 
widow,  who  supported  him  with  great  difficulty;  that  he 
was  an  apprentice  to  an  attorney,  but  had  a  taste  for  more 
elegant  studies ;  he  affirnied  that  great  treasures  of  ancient 
poetry  had  been  discovered  at  Bristol,  and  were,  in  the 
hands  of  a  person  who  had  lent  him  the  specimen  already 
transmitted,  as  well  as  a  pastoral  ("  Elinoure  and  Juga'*) 
which  accompanied  this  second  letter.  He  hinted  also  a 
wish  that  Mr.  Walpole  would  assist  him  in  emerging  from 
so  dull  a  prpfession,  by  procuring  some  place,  in  which  he 
might  pursue  the  natural  bias  of  his  genius.  Mr.  Walpole 
immediately  submitted  the  poems  to  Gray  and  Mason,  who 
at  first  sight  pronounced  them  forgeries,  on  which  he  re- 
turned Chatterton  an  answer,  advising  him  to  apply  to  the 
duties  of  his  profession^  as  more  certain  means  of  attaining 

tU  G  H  A  T  t  E  A  T  d  N.' 

^e  iddepehdence  dnd-  leisure  of  Which'  he  Was  desirous. 
This  produced  a  peevish  letter  from-  Chatterton^  desiiing' 
tbemannscriptsfback^  as  they  were  the  property  of  another, 
afid  after  soine  d<elay,  owing  to  Mr.  Walpole^s  taking*  ar  trip 
^  Paris,  the  poems'  were  returned  in  a  blaiik  cover.  Thfe^ 
affroifiit,  as  Cl^tterton  considered  it,  be  never  forgfetVe,  atid 
At'this  no  maii  need  wonder,  who  reflects  howdiffietik  it 
itin^  ey^r  be  for  air  impostor  to  forgive  those  who  hare 
Attempted  tb  detect  him. 

'  Thfe  only  remarkable  cohscqtience  of  this  correspondence* 
was  the  cettsure  Mr.  Walpole  incurred  fVom-  the  admirers 
6f  Ch{itterton>  who,  upon  no  other  authority  than  the  cir« 
evimslasnces' now  related,  persisted- in  accusing  him*  of  bar^ 
b&rous'  neglect  of  an  extraordinary  genius  who  solicited 
hiiff  protection,  and  finally  of  being  the  cause  of  his  shock-' 
ktg  end.  Mr.  Walpole,  when  he  found  this  calumny  trans-* 
mitted  from  hand  to  hand,  and  probably  believed  by  those 
i^ho  did  not  take  the  trouble  to  inquire  into  the  facts,  drew 
up  a  candid  narrative  of  the  whole  correspondence,  which 
Was  broken  off  nearly  two  years  before  Chattertoti  died^ 
during  which  two  years  the  latter  had  resided,  with  every 
encouragement,  in  London ;  and^  according  to  his  owtt 
account,  was  within  the  prospect  of  eas^and  independence, 
without  the  aid  of  Mr.  Walpolc*s  patronage.  Of  all  thi* 
Mr.  Walpole's  accusers  could  not  be  ignorant,  if  they  knew 
dny  thing  of  Chatterton*s  history.  They  must  have  knownr 
that  Chatterton  did  not  apply  to  Walpole,  as  a' poet,  but 
merely  as  a  young  man  who  was  transmitting  the  property 
of  another,  and  who  had  no  claims  of  his  ow n^  bat  that  he 
was  tired  of  a  dull  profession,  and  wished  for  a  plafce  irr 
^hich  he  might  indulge  his  taste  in  what  was  more  Kvely. 
A  patron  must  have  had  many  places  in  his  gift  and  feW 
applicants,  if  he  could  spare  one  to  a  person  who  professed 
i)o  other  merit  than  an  inclination  to  exchange  labour  for 
ease.  Yet  Walpole  has  been  held  forth  to  public  indigna- 
tion as  the  cause  of  Chatterton's  death. 

About  this  time  (1769)  we  are  told  that  Chatterton  be- 
came an  infidel ;  but  whether  this  was  in  consequence  of 
any  course  of  reading  into  which  he  had  fallen,  or  that  he 
found  it  convenient  to  get  rid  of  the  obligations  which  stood 
in  the  way  of  his  past  or  future  schemes,  H  is  not  very  ma* 
terial  to  inquire.  Yet  although  one  of  his  advocates,  thefore- 
itaost  to  accuse  Mr.  Walpole  of  neglecting  him,  asserts  that 
"  ^i«  nrofHgacy  was  at  ieast  as  cotxspicuous  as  bis  abilities/* 


C  H  A  TT  E  lUrO'N;  i8S 

it  does  not  appear  tbat  he  was  nitiiie'pr#ftgete  in  the  in^ 
dulgence  of  the  grosser  paiisiotiiS)  than  other  yottilg' meiv 
who  venture  on  the  gaietifes*  of  life  at  afi  early  age.-  White 
at  Bristol  he  had  not  mixed  with  improper  company ;  fakr^ 
few  associates  of  the  female  sex  were  penson$>of  charaetier.' 
In  London  the  case  might  have  been  otherwbe  ;  but' of  thila? 
I  we  have  no  direct  proof ;  and  he  practised  at  teast  one  cute 
wbich  is  no  mconsid^fabte  presenri^tive,  he'  was  r^morit- 
ably  temperate  in  his  diet.  In  his  wr]tin^5  ind^ed^  w^' 
find  some  passages  that  are  merer  licentious  than  could- 
have  been  expected  frdm  a  young  man  u nhaekneyed' in  the- 
ways  of  vice,  but  not  more  so  than  might  be  eicpeeted  in 
one  who  was  premature  in  every  things  and  had  exhausted 
the  stock  of  human  folly  at  an  age  when  it  i»  usually  found 
unbroken*  All  his  deceptiom,  his  prevaricationsj  his  poli*. 
ticU  tergiversation,  &c.  were  such  as  we  should  have  looked* 
f(»  in  men  of  an  advanced  age^  hardened  by  evil  a9socia^- 
tions,  and  soured  by  disappointed  pride  or  avarice;  One 
effect  of  his  infidelity,  we  are  told,  was  to  render  the  idtea 
of  suicide  familiar.  This  he  had  cherished  before  he  left 
Bristol,  and  when  he  could  not  fliirly  complain  of  the 
world's  neglect^  as  he  bad  preferred  no  higher  pretensions 
than  those  of  a  man  who  has  by  accident  discovered  a 
treasure  which  he  knows  not  how  to  make  current.  Be- 
sides rfepeatedly  intimating  to  Mr.  Lambert's  servants  that 
he  intended  to  put  an  end  to  his  life,  he  left  a  paper  in 
sight  of  some  of  the  family,  specifying  the  day  on  which 
he  meant  to  carry  this  purpose  into  execution.  The  rea- 
son assigned  for  this  appointment  was  the  refusal  of  a  gen- 
tleman whom  he  had  occasionally  compinnented  in  his 
poems,  to  supply  him  with  money.  It  has  since  been  sup- 
posed to  be  merely  an  artifice  to  get  rid  of  his  apprentice- 
ship ;  and  this  certainly  was  the  consequence^  as  Mr.  Lam- 
bert did  not  choose  that  his  house  should  be  honoured  by 
such  an  act  of  heroism.  He  had  now  served  this  gentte- 
man  about  two  years  and  ten  months,  during  which  be 
learned  so  little  of  law  as  to  be  unable  to  draw  up  the 
necessary  docmnent  respecting  the  dissolution  of  bis  ap- 
prenticeship. We  have  seen  how  differently  he  was  em-- 
ployed ;  and  there  is  reason  to  think  that  he  had  fabri- 
cated the  whole  of  his  ancient  poetry  and  antique  maim- 
scripts  during  his  ^pprfenticeship,  and  before  he  left  Bristol. 
His  object  now  wa^  to  go  to  London,  where  he  had  fuU 
confirdi^te  t&at  hi&  tialents  would  be  duly  hono>ured.    He 


had  tirrittep  letters  to  several  booksellers  of  that  city  Vho 
encouraged  him  to  reside  among  them.  Some  literary  ad- 
venturers would  have  entered  on  suo^  a  plan  with  difB-r 
dence ;  and  of  many  who  have  become  authors  by  profes- 
sion, the  greater  part  may  plead  the  excuse  that  they  n^i« 
ther  foresaw,  oor  could  be  made  to  understand  the  many 
mortifications  and  difficulties  that  are  to""  be  surmounted. 
Chatterton,  on  the  contrary,  set  out  with  the  confidence 
pf  ^  man  who  has  laid  his  plans  in  such  deep  wisdom,  that 
he  thinks  it  impossible  they  should  fail.  He  boasted  to 
bis  correspondents  of  three  distinct  resources,  one  at  least, 
of  which  was  unfortunately  in  his  own  power.  He  first 
meant  to  employ  his  pen  ;  then  to  turn  methodist  preacher , 
and  if  both  should  fail,  to  shoot  himself.  As  ^is  friends  do 
not  appear  to  have  taken  any  steps  to  rectify  his  notions  on 
these  schemes,  it  is  probable  they  either  did  not  consider 
him  as  serious ;  or  had  given  him  up,  as  one  above  all 
advice,  and  curable  only  by  a  little  experience,  which  they 
were  not  sorry  he  should  acquire  in  his  own  way,  and  at  his, 
own  expence. 

His  first  literary  attempts  by  which  he  was  to  realize  the 
dreams  of  presumption,  were  of  the  political  kind,  chiefly 
satires  against  the  members.and  friends  of  administration. 
In  March  1770,  be  wrote  a  poem  called  "  Kew  Gardens,'' 
part  of  which  biily  has  been  published,  but  enough  to  show 
that  he  had  been  supplied  by  some  patriotic  preceptor  with 
the  floating  scandal  of  the  day  against  the  princess  dowager, 
lord  Bute,  and  other  statesmen.  It  is  highly  improbable 
tliat  a  boy  who  had  spent  the  greater  part  of  his  time  since 
be  left  school,  in  fabricating  or  decyphering  the  poetry, 
heraldry,  and  topography  of  the  fourteenth  and  fifteenth 
centuries,  should  on  a  sudden  become  well  acquainted 
with  the  intrigues  of  political  men  and  their  families.  In 
ail  this,  his  materials  must  have  been  supplied  by  sonie 
persons  who  lived  by  propagating  the  calumnies  of  personal 
and  political  history,  and  who  would  rejoice  in  the  daunt- 
less spirit  of  their  new  associate.  Another  poem,  of  the 
same  description,  was  entitled  "  The  Whore  of  Babylon." 
Of  both  these  there  are  specimens  in  his  works,  but  it 
does  not  appear  that  the  whole  of  them  were  printed. 

On  his  arrival  in  London,,  near  the  end  of  April,  he 
received,  according  to  his  own  account,  the  most  flattering 
encouragement,  and  various  employment  was  recom- 
laeiided.    Among  other  schemes  was  a  History  of  London^ 

C  H  A  T  T  E  R  T  O  N.  187 

which,  if  be  had  Uved  to  complete  it,  must  have  been  a 
suitable  companion  to  Mr.  Barret's  History  of  Bristol.  In 
the  mean  time  he  v4*ote  for  many  of  the  magazines  and 
newspapers ;  his  principal  contribntions  appeared  in  the 
Freeholder's  Magazine,  the  Town  and  Country,  the  Court 
and  City,  the  Political  Register,  and  the  Gospel  Maga- 
zine. He  wrote  songs  also  for  the  public  gardens,  and  for 
some  time  got  so  much  money  that  he  thought  himself 
comparatively  affluent,  and  able  to  provide  for  his  mother 
and  sister,  whose  hearts  he  gladdened  by  frequent  intima- 
tions of  his  progress.  During  this  career  he  became  ac- 
quainted with  Wilkes,  and  with  Beckford,  who  was  then 
ford  mayor.  These  patriots,  however,  he  soon  discovered 
were  not  so  ready  with  their  money  as  with  their  praise, 
and  as  the  former  appears  to  have  been  his  only  object,  he 
had  some  thoughts  of  writing  for  the  ministerial  party. 
After  Beckford's  death,  which  he  affected  to  lament  as  his 
ruin,  he  addressed  a  letter  to  lord  North,  signed  Mode- 
rator, complimenting  administration  for  rejecting  the  city 
remonstrance,  and  one  of  the  same  date  signed  Probus, 
abusing  administration  for  the  same  measure.  While  this 
unprincipled  young  man  was  thus  demonstrating  how  un- 
safe it  would  be  for  any  party  to  trust  him,  his  letters  |to 
all  his  frieftids  continued  to  be  full  of  the  brightest  prospects 
of  honours  and  wealth.  But  about  the  month  of  J  uly  some 
revolution  appears  to  have  taken  place  in  his  mind  or'  his 
affairs,  which  speedily  put  an  end  to  all  his  hopes. 

Of  what  nature  this  was,  remains  yet  a  secret.  About 
the  time  mentioned,  he  removed  from  a  house  in  Shore- 
ditch,  where  he  had  hitherto  liveicl,  to  the  house  of  a  Mrs. 
Angel,  a  sack-maker  in  Brook-street,  Holboni,  where  he 
beca^ie  poor  and  unhappy,  abandoning  his  literary  pur<* 
suits,  and  projecting  to  go  out  to  Africa,  as  a  naval  sur- 
geon's mate.  He  had  picked  up  some  knowledge  of  sur- 
gery from  Mr.  Barret,  and  now  requested  that  gentleman's 
recommendation,  which  Mr.  Barret,  who  knew  his  versa- 
tile turn,  and  how  unfit  in  other  respects  he  was  for  the 
situation,'  thought  proper  to  refuse.  If  this  was  the  im- 
mediate cause  of  his  catastrophe,  what  are  we  to  think  of 
hiff  lofty  spirit  ?  It  is  certain,  however,  that  he  no  longer 
employed  his  pen,  and  that  the  short  remainder  of  his 
days  were  spent  in  a  conflict  between  pride  and  poverty. 
On  the  day  preceding  his  death,  he  refused  with  indig- 
nation, a  kind  offer  from  Mrs.  Angel  to  partake  of  her 

1,«8  C  B  A  T  T^  R  T  a  N. 

dinner^:  as^rii^g  her  that  he  waif  not  hungry^  although  hci 
bad  not,  eaten  any  thing  for  twa.or  tbrcie  daiySf  On  the 
%5th  of  August,  1770,  he  was  found  de^d,  in  consequence^ 
a9:  is,  supposed,  of  having  swallpwed  ar^qic  in  water,  or 
some  preparation  of  opiiim.  He  wa^  buried  in  a  shell  in 
the.  buryiog-ground  belonging  to^  Shoe -lane  wor^boii&e« 
Previous  to  this  rash  act  he  appe«,rs  to  have  d^tiroyed  all 
fais  manuscripts,,  as  the  room  when,  broken,  open  wa&  found 
covered  with  little  scraps,  of  paper. 

.   It  has.  been,  regretted  that  we  know  veiry  little  of  th^ 
life   of  this    extraordinary  young,  many    whose   writing;!^ 
have  since  become  an  object  of  so  much  curiosity ;  and. 
great  surprize  has  been  expressed,  that  from  the  many 
with  whom  he  appears  to  have  been  acquainted,    such 
scanty  inform;9.tion  has  been  obtained.     For  this,  however^ 
various  reasons  may  be  assigned^  which  will  lessen  the 
ponder.     In  tb^;  first  place,  his  fame,  using  that  word  in 
itsmost:  common  application,^  was  confined  principally  tp 
his  native. city,  and.  there  it  appears  that  his.  friends  under* 
valued  his  talents,    because  they  considered  him  in  no 
better  light  than  that  of^^an  unprincipled  young  man,  who 
had  accidentally  become  possessed  of  certain  an<;ient  ma* 
nuscripts,  some  of  which  he  had  given  up,^  some  he  bad 
mutilated,  and  the  rest  l^p  had  destroyed     He  was  with 
them  an  illiterate  charijty-boy,  the  run-away  apprentice  ox 
backu^y-* writer  of  au  attorney,    atid  aft^r  be    came  to 
London,  they  appear  to  have  ma,de  very  fev?  inquiries  zffter 
bim,  congratulating  themseLy^s  tba^  they  Ip^d  got  rid  of  a 
rash,   impetuous,  headstifong  boy,  wi^a  would  do  ^om^ 
mischief,,  and  disgrace  hin^self  and  bis  relations.     Again, 
^Jk  I/ondon,    notwithstancling  his  bafls^ng  letters  to  .hie 
mother  and  sifter,  he  rose  to  no  big^  r^x^  a^i^png  the  re(T 
putable  writers  of  the  day,  his  productions  beiug  confiq^ 
to  publications  of  the  lower  order,  all  of  which  are  now 
forgotten.    But  there  cannot  be  a  morft  flecisive  pipoof  of 
the  little  regard  he  attracted  i\i  Londqii,  tl^?^n  the  secrecy 
and  silence  which  accpmpanied  hi$  de^tb. .  This  event, 
although  so  extraordinary,  for  young  suicides  are  suri^ly 
Dot  common,  is  not  even  n^entioned  in  apy  4h;^pe,  in  tbf 
Gentleman's  Magazine,  the  Ai^nual  Register,  the  St.  jame^^f 
pr  London  Chronicles,  nor  in  any  of  the  respectable  pcub? 
iioations  of  the  day.    He  die^,  a  cQronex>  jury  s^t  ntpoi) 
the  body,  and  be  was  buried  a^iong  paupers,  so  long  be^ 
£ore  Ills  ^equ^iptf^pce  h^itrd  of  these  ciro^jpiftances,  thj^t  it 

CHATTERTON.       ^18^ 

was  #iib  some  difficulty  they  could  be  traced  with  My*  de- 
gree of  authehticity.  And  lastly,  it  does  not<  appear  tbut 
any  iniquities  were  made  ittto'his  early  history  for  nearly 
seven  years  after  his  death,  i^hen  the  Poems  *  of  ilo^idy 
were  first  pobiiished,  and  led  tbe^way  to  a  T^ry  aciBite^lind 
long  protracted  diseuitsion  on  their  merits.  Itinay  be 
added,  too,  that  they  ^ho  contended  for  the  Authenticity 
of  the  poems, 'were  for  sintGing  every  circumstance  that 
could  prove  the  genius  dfOhiitte^rton,  Utitil  Mr.  Tbdoias 
Wartonand  sbme* Others  took  the  ojpposite  side  of  the 
question,  brought  the  poems  to  the  test  of  mteirnal'  evi- 
dence, and  discovered  that  however' eoi'/ftf^rrfm^ry  it  was 
for  Cfaatterton  to  produce  tbem  in  the  ^ghteentb  century, 
it  was  impossible  that  Rowley  cpuld  have  written  them  in 
the  fifteenth. 

When  public  attention  #as  at  ^length  ^led  to  €hatt6r- 
ton^s  history,  his  admirers  took  every  step  to  extite  com- 
passi6n  in  bis  favour.     It  became  the  ftwhion  to  i^peiat  'that 
be  iras  starved  by  an  insensible  age,  or  suffered,  by^tiie 
neglect  of  patrbns,  to^  perish  in  want  of  the  common  ne« 
ce»alries  of  life.     But  of  this'fhere  is  no  satisfactory  evi- 
dence.    On  the  contrary,  he  Appears  to  have  beeu  fully 
^  employed  by'bis  literaty -friends  almost  up  to  the  day  of 
'  bis  death,  and  from  onebf-them  he  solicited  money  a  vefy 
little  before  that  cktastrophe,  and  received  it  with  an  as* 
sura-nee  that  he  should*  haVe  more  if  he  wantied  it    This 
benefactor  was  the  late  'Mr.'  Hamilton  senior,  the  pro- 
prietor of  the  Critical  Review,  a  man  of  well^nown  li- 
berality, both  of  ttiind'-and  puifse.     One  who  knefw  him 
well>  when  in  London,  and  who  wrote  under  the  inspectida 
of  Mr.  Hamilton  in  the  Critical  Bieview,  gives  itas  a  f>ro- 
bable  conjecture,  that  **  he  wished  to  seal  his  seicret  with 
'bis- death.     He  knew  that  be  and  Rowley  were*  suspected 
to  be  the  ^ame ;  his^  Londdo  'friends  spoke  of  it  with  litde 
temple,    and  he  neither  confessed  nor  denied  it.      He 
might  fear  somewhat  frony' binlself ;- might  dread  the  effeots 
of  increasing  obligations,  a<nd  be  struck  with  horror- at  the 
thought  of  a  public  detection.      He  sometimes  seemed 
'wild,    abstracted,   tind  incoherent;    at  others   he   had   a 
~  settled  gloominess  in  his  countenance,  the  sure  presage  of 
his  fatal  resolution.     In  short,  this  was  the  very 'tempera- 
ment and  c6nstitution  frbm  which -we  should,  in  similar  cir« 
cuinstances,  e^itpect  thesame  event.     He  was  one  of  thO^ef 
irregtrtai^  meteor?  which  astodtsh  the  universe  fo^  a  momeat^ 

190  CHAT  T,E  R  T  O  N. 

and  then  disappear  for  ever/^  This  is  at  least  plausible ; 
but  the  immediate  cause  of  his  death,  must  perhaps  yet  re- 
main a  mystery.  He  had  written  so  recently  to  his  Bristol 
friends  (about  a  mouth  before),  without  a  syllable  indi- 
cating discontent  or  despair,  that  it  was  wholly  unexpected 
on  their  part ;  but  suicide,  at  one  time  or  other,  his  bio- 
graphers have  proved,  was  his  fixed  purpose,  and  the 
execution  of  it  was  probably  to  depend  on  his  disappoint- 
ment in  whatever  wild  or  impracticable  scheme  he. might 
meditate.     He  got  enough  in  London  by  his  literary  la- 

.  bouts,  to  supply  the  decent  necessaries  of  life,  bat  his 
dreams  of  affluence*  were  over,  and  had  probably  left,  that 
frightful  void  in  his  mind  at  which  despair  and  disappointed 
paide  entered. 

The  person  of  Chatterton  is  said  to  have  been  like  his 
genius,  "  premature ;  he  had  a  manliness  and  dignity  be- 

.  yond  his  years ;  and  there  was  a  something  about  him  un- 
"Commonly  prepossessing.  His  most  remarkable  feature 
was  his  eyes,    which,    though  grey,    were    uncommonly 

.  piercing ;  when  he  warmed  in  argument,  or  otherwise,  they 

.  sparkled  with  fire,  and  dne  eye,  it  is  said,  was  still  more 
remarkable  than  the  other.^' 

As  to  his  genius,  it  must  ever  be  the  subject  of  admira* 
tion,  whether  he  was,  or  was  not,  the  author  of  the  poem^ 
ascribed  to  Rowley.  If  we  look  at  the  poems  avowedly 
his  own,  together  with  his  productions  in  prose,  where 
shall  we  find  such  and  so  many  indubitable  proofs  of  ge- 

.  nius  at  an  early  age,  struggling  against  many  difficulties  ? 

:  Let  us  contemplate  him  as  a  young  man,  without  classical 
education,  and  who  knew  nothing  of  literary  society,  but 

.  during  the  few  months  of  his  residence  in  London  ;  and  if  to 
this  we  add  what  has  been  most  decidedly  proved,  that  he  was 
not  only  the  author  of  the  poems  attributed  to  Rowley,  but 
consumed  his  early  days  in  the  laborious  task  of  disguising 
them  in  the  garb  of  antiquity,  perpetually  harassed  by 
suspicion  and  in  dread  of  discovery ;  if  likewise  we  reflect 
that  the  whole  of  his  career  closed  before  he  had  completed 
his  eighteenth  year,  we  must  surely  allow  that  he  was  one 
of  the  most  extraordinary  young  men  of  modern  times,  and 
deserves  to  be  placed  high  among  those  instances  of  pre- 
mature talents  recorded  by  Kleferus  in  his  *^  Bibliotbeca 

.  Eruditorum  Praecocium,'*  and  by  Baillet  in  his  "  Enfans 
Celebres."  Still  our  admiration  should  be  chastened  by 
confining  it  to  the  single  point  of  Cbatterton^s  extreme 


youth/  If  we  go  farther,  and  con»der  Rowley's  poenis  as 
the  most  perfect  productions  of  any  age;  if,  with  dean 
Milles,  we  prefer  him  to  Homer,  Virgil,  Spenser,  and 
Shakspeare,  we  go  far  beyond  the  bounds  of  sober  critir 
cism,  or  rather  we  defy  its  laws.  Wonderful  as  those 
poems  are,  when  considered  as  the  productions  of  a  boy, 
many  heavy  deductions  must  be  made  from  them,  if  we 
consider  them  as  the  productions  of  a  man,  of  one  who  has 
bestowed  labour  as  well  as  contributed  genius,  and  who 
has  learned  to  polish  and  correct,  who  would  not  have  ad- 
mitted such  a  number  of  palpable  imitations  and  plagia- 
risms, and  would  have  altered  or  expunged  a  multitude  of 
tame,  prosaic,  and  bald  lines  and  metres. 

The  general  character  of  his  works  Ikas  been  both  fairly 
and  elegantly  appreciated  by  lord  Orford,  in  the  last 
edition  of  his  lordship's  works.  His  life,  says  this  critic, 
should  be  compared  widi  ^^  the  powers  of  his  mind,  the 
perfection  of  his  poetry,  his  knowledge  of  the  world,  which 
though  in  some  respects  erroneous,  spoke  quick  intuition ; 
his  humour,  his  vein  of  satire,  and  above  all,  the  amazing 
number  of  books  he  must  have  looked  into,  though  chained 
down  to  a  laborious  and  almost  incessant  service,  and  con- 
fined to  Bristol,  except  at  most  for  the  last  five  months  of 
his  life,  the  rapidity  with  which  he  seized  all  the  topics  of 
conversation  then  in  vogue,  whether  of  politics,  literature, 
or  fashion ;  and  when  added  to  all  this  mass  of  reflection, 
it  is  remembered  that  his  youthful  passions  were  indulged 
to  excess,  faith  in  such  a  prodigy  may  well  be  suspended 
—and  we  should  look  for  some  secret  agent  behind  the 
curtain,  if  it  were  not  as  difScult  to  believe  that  any  man 
whopossessedsuch  a  vein  of  genuine  poetry  would  have  sub- 
mitted to  lie  concealed,  while  he  actuated  a  puppet ;  or 
would  have  stooped  to  prostitute  his  muse  to  so  many  un- 
worthy functions.  But  nothing  in  Chatterton  can  be  se- 
parated from  Chatterton.  His  noblest  flight,  his  sweetest 
strains,  his  grossest  ribaldry,  and  his  most  common-place 
imitations  of  the  productions  of  magazines,  were  all  the 
effervescences  of  the  same  ungovernable  impulse,  which, 
cameleon-like,  imbibed  the  colours  of  all  it  looked  on.  It 
was  Ossian,  or  a  Saxon  monk,,  or  Gray,  or  Smolktt^  or  Ju- 
nius-^and  if  it  failed  most  in  what  it  most  affected  to  be,  a 
poet  of  the  fifteenth  century,  it  was  because  it  could  not 
imitate  what  had  not  existed.*' 

M2  C'U  A  -T  T  E  R  rrx)  N. 

Th&faets^already  relafted  are  .pnnciipally  taken  from  the 
,aecount.dtawn  up  originally  for  the  Biographia  Britannica» 
^land  at  the  dismncie'of  eighteen  y^ars,  prefixed  to  ^an.  edi- 
tion  of  .^is.  iworks,   'witbout  >any  .addition  or   alteration. 
^^Samediiog*  yet  remains  to  ibe  said  of  his  virtues,  whii:by .  if 
•the  .poetical  ;eolc^ii|ims:  that  have  appeared  deserve  any 
.crudity  were.  many.     Except  bis  teimperance,    however^ 
^akestdy  noticed,  -we 'find  ocily  that  he  preserved  an  .affec- 
tionate attacbmeAt  for  bis  mother  and  sister,   and  .even 
eoneerning  this,  it  avonld  appear  that  more  has  been  said 
.than  is( consistent.     It  has  been  asseited  that  he  sent  pre- 
:sent»tothem  from  London,  when  in  want  himself;  but  it 
is  evident  from  bis  letters  that  these  were  unnecessary  ar- 
ticles for  persons  in  their  situation,,  and  were  not  sent  when 
he  was  in  want*.     Six  weeks  after,  when  he  felt- himself 
in  that  state,  he  committed  an  act  which  affection  for  his 
'  relations,    since   he    despised  all  higher   considerations, 
-ought  to  have;  retarded.     His  last  letter  to  his  sister  or 
mother,  dated  July  20,  is  full  of  high-spirited  hopes,  and 
contains  a  promise  to  visit  them  before  the  first  of  Januarj"^, 
but  not  a  word,  that  can  imply  discontent^  far  Jess  an  in- 
tention to  put  an  end  to  his  life.     What  must  have  been 
their  fedings  when  the  melancholy  event  reached  them! 
.  How  little  these  poor  women  were  capable  of.  ascertaining 
his  character  appears  from  the  very  singular  evidietice  of 
<his  sister,  who  affirmed  that  he  was  ^^  a  lover  of  truth  from 
{the.  earliest  dawn  of  reason.''     The  affectionate  prejudices 
:  of  a  fond  relation  may  be  pardoned,  but  it  was  surely  unoe- 
'Cessary  to  introduce  this  in  a  life  every  part  of  which  proves 
hi»  utter  contempt  for  truth  at  an  age  when  we  areitatrght 
>  |o  espect  a  disposition  open,,  ingenuous,  and  candid. 

With  regard  to  the  controversy  occasioned  by  the  pab« 

'liaations.  attributed  to  Rowley,  it  is  unnecessary  .to  enter 

. upon  it, . although  it  has  lately  been  attempted,  to  bere- 

vived,  but  without  exciting  much  interest.     Whether  the 

object  of  .this  controversy  was  not  disproportiohisd:  to  the 

^warmth  it  excited,,  and  the  length  of  time  it  consumed, 

.  the  reader  may  judge  from  a.perusal  of  the  whole. of  Chat- 

iterton^s  productions.    The  principal  advocates  for  the  ex- 

.istence  of  Rowley,  and  the  authenticity  of  his  poera^,  were 

Mr.  Bryant,  Dean  Milles,    Dr.   Glynn^    Mr.  (uow  Dr.) 

*  See  a  Note  in  tbe  Biog.  Britanniea,  vol.  IV.  p.  588,  iigned  0:  wrU^ia  hf  . 
Pr,  Lort,  but  omitted  ia  the  Life  lately  published. 

C  H  A  T  T  E  R  T  O  N.  WS 

Henley*,  Dr.  Langhoiti  (in  the  Monthly  Review),  and 
Mr.  James  Harris.  Their  opponents  were  Mr.  Tyrwhitt, 
Horace  Walpole,  the  two  Wartons,  Dr.  Johnson,  Mr* 
Steevens,  Dr.  Percy  (bishop  of  Dromore),  Mr.  Gibbon, 
Mr.  Jones,  Dr.  Farmer,  Mr.  Colman,  Mr.  Sheridan  *,  Dr. 
Lort,  Mr.  Astle,  Mr.  (sir  Herbert)  Croft*,  Mr.  Hayley  *> 
lord  Camden,  Mr.  Gough,  Mr.  Mason,  the  writer  of  the 
Critical  Review,  Mr.  Badcock  (in  the  Monthly  Review), 
the  Reviewers  in  the  Geotleman's  Magazine,  iand  various 
Correspondents  in  the  same  Miscellany.  To  these  may  be 
added,  Mr.  Malone,  who  lived  to  detect  another  forgery 
by  a  very  young  impostor,  in  the  history  of  which  the 
reader  will  probably  recollect  many  corresponding  circum-* 
stances  ;  and  will  be  inclined  to  prefer  the  shame  of  Chat- 
terton,  fatal  as  it  was,  to  the  unblushing  impudence  and 
unnatural  fraud  of  one  who  brought  disgrace  and  ruin  on  a 

In  1803,  an  edition  of  Chatterton's  works,  far  more 
complete  than  any  that  had  yet  appeared,  was  published 
under  the  care  of  Messrs.  Southey  and  Cottle,  for  the 
benefit  of  Mrs.  Newton,  Chafterton's  sister  (since  dead), 
and  of  her  daughter ;  but  the  coldness  with  which  it  was 
received  by  the  public  is  perhaps  a  proof  that  it  will  not  be 
possible  to  perpetuate  the  fame  of  an  author,  who  has  con- 
cealed his  best  productions  under  the  garb  of  a  barbarous 
language,  which  few  will  be  at  the  trouble  of  learning. 
The  controversy  is  no  longer  interesting,  and  perhaps  the 
warmth  with  which  so  many  great  names  engaged  in  it, 
may  hereafter  be  reckoned  as  surprising  as  the  object 
itself.  ^ 

CHAUCER'  (Jeffery  or  Geoffrey),  styled  the  Father 
of  English.  |)oetry,  is  one  of  whose  birth  and  family  nothing 
has  been  decided.  It  has  been  contended  on  the  one 
hand,  that  he  was  of  noble  origin ;  on  the  other,  that  he 
descended  from  persons  in  trade.  Even  the  meaning  of 
his  name  in  French,  Chaucitt\  a  shoemaker^  has  been 
brought  in  evidence  of  a  low  origin,  while  the  mention  of 
the  name  Chaucer,  in  several  records,  from  the  time  of 
•William  the  conqueror  to  that  of  Edward  I.  has  been 
thought  sufficient  to  prove  the  contrary.  Leland  says  he 
was  nohili  toc9  natus ;  but  Speght,  one  of  his  early  biogra« 

*  These  gentlemen  are  the  only  survivors  (1813)  of  this  celebrated  dijpvtc. 
1  JobasoD  and  Cbalmers'ii  English  Poets,  1810.— Life  in  Biog.  Brit.  fcc. 

Vot.  IX,  '  O 


pbers,  informs  us,'  that  *•'  in  the  opinion  of  some  heralcfsy 
he  descended  not  of  an)'  great  house,  which  they  gather" 
by  his  arms ;"  and  Mr.  Tyrwhitt  is  inclined  to  believe  the 
heralds  rather  than  Leiand.  Speght,  however,  goes  far- 
ther, and  makes  his  father  a  vintner,  who  died  in  134^, 
and  left  his  property  to  the  church  of  St.  Mary  Aldermary, 
where  he  was  buried.  This  is  confirmed  by  Stowe,  who 
says,  "  Richard  Chawcer,  vintner,  gare  to  that  church  his 
tenement  and  tavern^  with  the  appurtenance,  in  the  Royal- 
streete  the  corner  of  Kerion-lane,  and  was  there  buriedjf 
1348."  But  neither  Stowe  nor  Speght  afford  any  proof 
that  this  Richard  Chawcer  was  the  father  of  our  poet. 

With  respect  to  the  place  of  his  birth,  we  cannot  [iro* 
duce  better  authority  than  his  own.  In  his  "  Testament 
of  Love,"  he  calls  himself  a  Londoner,  and  speaks  of  the 
city  of  London  as  the  place  of  his  "  kindly  engendrure." 
In  spite  of  this  evidence,  however, .  Leiand,  who  is  more 
than  usually  incorrect  in  his  account  of  Chaucer,  reports 
him  to  have  been  born  in  Oxfordshire  or  Berkshire.  The 
time  of  his  birth  is,  by  general  consent,  fixed  in  the  se- 
cond year  of  Edward  III.  1328,  and  the  foundation  of  this 
decision  seems  to  have  originally  been  an  inscription  on 
his  tomb,  signifying  that  he  died  in  1400  at  the  age  of 
seventy-two.  Collier  fixes  his  death  in  1440,  but  he  is  so 
generally  accurate,  that  this  may  be  supposed  an  error  of 
the  press.  Phillips  is  more  unpardonable  ;  for,  contrary  to 
all  evidence,  he  instances  the  reigns  of  Henry  IV.  V.  and 
VI.  as  thosejn  which  Chaucer  flourished. 

His  biographers  have  provided  him  with  education  both 
at  Oxford  and  Cambridge,  a  circumstance  which  we  know 
occurred  in  the  History  of  other  scholars  of  that  period,  and. 
is  not  therefore  improbable.  But  in  his  "  Court  of  Love," 
which  was  composed  when  he  was  about  eighteen,  he 
speaks  of  himself  under  the  name  of  "  Philogenet,  of  Cam- 
bridge, clei*k."  Mr.  Tyrwhitt,  while  he  does  not  think 
this  a  decisive  proof  that  he  was  really  educated  at  Cam- 
bridge, is  willing  to  admit  it  as  a  strong  argument  that  he 
was  not  educated  at  Oxford.  Wood,  in  his  AnnaU  (vol.  L 
book  I.  484.)  gives  a  repdrt,  or  rather  tradition,  that 
**  when  Wickliff  was  guardian  or  warden  of  Canterbury 
college,  be  had  to  his  pupil  the  famous  poet  called  JefFry 
Chaucer  (father  of  Thomas  Chaucer,  of  Ewelme  in  Ox- 
fordshire, esq.)  who  following  the  steps  of  his  master,  re- 
flected mach  upon  the  corruptions  of  the  clergy."     This  is 


something  like  evidence  if  it  could  be  depended  on ;  at 
least  it  is  preferable  to  the  conjecture  of  Leiand,  who  sup- 
poses Chaucer  to  have  been  educated  at  Oxford^  merely 
because  he  had  before  supposed  that  he  was  born  either  in 
Oxfordshire  or  Berkshire^     Those  who  contend  for  Cam- 
bridge   as   the  place  of  his  education^  fix  upon  Solere's 
hall,  which  he  has  described  in  his  story  of  the  Miller  of 
Trompington ;  but  Solere^s  hall  is  merely  a  corruption  of 
Soler  hall^  i.  e.  a  hall  with  an  open  gallery,  or  soUre  win-* 
dow  *.     The  advocates  for  Oxford  are  inclined  to  place 
him  in  Mertou  college,  because  his  contemporaries  Strode 
and  Occleve  were  of  that  college.     It  is  equally  a  matter 
of  conjecture  that  be  was  first  educated  at  Cambridge,  and 
afterwards  at  Oxford.     Wherever  he   studied,    we  have 
suiEcient  proofs  of  bis  capacity  and  proficiency.     He  ap- 
pears to   have  acquired  a  very  great  proportion  of  the 
learning  of  his  age,  and  became  a  master  of  its  philosophy^ 
poetry,    and  such  languages   as   formed  the  intercourse 
between  men  of  learning.     Leiand  says  he  was  ^^  acuttcs 
Dialecticus^  dulcis  Rhetor ^  kpidus  Poeta^  gravis  Philosophus, 
ingeniosus  Matheinaticus^  dcnique  sanctus  Theologus^'*     It  is 
equally  probable  that  he  courted  the  muses  in  those  early 
days,  in  which  he  is  said  to  have  been   encouraged   by 
Cower,  although  there  are  some   grounds  for  supposing 
that  his  acquaintance  with  Gower  was  of  a  later  date. 

After  leaving  the  university,  we  are  told  that  he  travelled 
through  France  and  the  Netherlands,  but  the  commence- 
ment and  conclusion  of  these  travels  are  not  specified.     On 
his  return,  he  is  said  to  have  entered  himself  of  the  Middle 
Temple,  with,a  view  to  study  the  municipal  law,  but  even 
this  fact  depends  chiefly  on  a  record*,  without  a  date,  whicfa^ 
Speght  informs  us,  a  Mr.  Buckley  had  seen,  where  Jeffery 
Chaucer  was  fined  ^'  two  shillings  for  beating  a  Franciscans 
frier  in  Fleet-street."     Leiand  speaks  of  his  frequenting 
the  law  colleges  after  his  travels  in  France,  and  perhaps 
before.     Mr.  Tyrwhitt  doubts  these  travels  in  France,  and 
has  indeed  satisfactorily  proved  that  Leland*s  account  of 
Chaucer  is  full  of  inconsistencies — Leiand  is  certainly  in- 
consistent as  tQ  dates,  but  froqi  the  evidence  Chaucer  gave 
in  a  case  of  chivalry,  we  have  full  proof  of  one  journey  in 
France,  although  the  precise  period  cannot  be  fixed. 

^  Mr.  Warton  thinks  that  ^lere-  circumstaiice  to  distingaish  and  deno- 
hall  wai  Aula  Solarii,  the  hall  with  the  minat^  one  of  the  academical  hospitia, 
upper  story,  at  that  time  a  sufficient     Hitt.  of  Poetryi  toI.  I.  p.  432^  note  |k 

02    ^ 

196  CHAUCER. 

Whatever  time  these  supposed  employments  might  h^re 
occupied,  we  discover,  at  length,  with  tolerable  certainty, 
that  Chaucer  betook  himself  to  the  life  of  a  courtier,  and 
probably  with  all  the  accomplishments  suited  to  his  ad- 
vancement in  the  court  of  a  monarch  who  was  magnificent 
ID  his  establishment,  and  munificent  in  his  patronage  of 
learning  and  gallantry.     At  what  period  of  life  he  obtained 
a  situation  here,  is  uncertain.     The  writer  of   the  life 
prefixed  to  Urry's  edition  supposes  he  was  not  more  than 
thirty,  because  his  first  employment  was  in  quality  of  the 
Icing's  page  j  but  the  first  authentic  memorial,  respecting 
Chaucer  at  court,  is  the  patent  in  Rymer,  41  Edward  III. 
by  which  that  king  grants  him  an  annuity  of  twenty  marks, 
about  200/.  of  our  money,  by  the  title  of  Falettus  noster  *^ 
'<  our  yeoman,"  and  this  occurred  when  Chaucer  was  in 
bis  thirty-ninth  year.     Several  mistakes  have  arisen  re-» 
specting  these  grants,  from  his  biographers   not  under- 
standing the  meaning  of  the  titles  given  to  our  poet. 
Speght  mentions  a  grant  from  king  Edward  four  years 
later  than  the  above,  in  which  Chaucer  is  styled  valcttus 
hospitii^  which  he  translates  grome  of  the  pallacey  sinking 
our  author,  Mr.  Tyrwhitt  observes,  as  much  too  low,  as 
his  biographer  in  Urry's  edition  had  raised  him  too  high, 
by  translating  the  same  words  gentleman  of  the  king^s  privy 
chamber.    Valet  or  yeoman  was,  according  to  the  same 
acute  scholiast,  the  intermediate  rank  between  squier  and 

It  would  be  of  more  consequence  to  be  able  to  deter- 
mine what  particular  merits  were  rewarded  by  this  royal 
bounty.  Mr.  Tyrwhitt  can  find  no  proof,  »;id  no  ground 
for  supposing  that  it  wafbestowed  on  Chaucer  for  his  poe- 
tical talents,  although  it  is.  almost  certain  that  he  had 
distinguished  himself,  as  a  poet,  before  this  time.  The 
**  Assemblee  of  Foules,'*  the  "  Complaint  of  the  Blacke 
Knight,'*  and  the  translation  of  the  "  Roman  de  la  Rose,*' 
were  all  composed  before  1367,  the  sera  which  we  are  now 
considering.  What  strengthens  Mr.  Tyrwhitt's  opinion  of 
the  king's  indifference  to  Chaucer's  poetry,  is  his  appoint- 
ing him,  a  few  years  after,  to  the  office  of  comptroller  of 

*  Mr.  Ellis  observes  that  this  office,  of  iihich  was  acquired,  together  with 

"  by  whatever  name  we  translate  it,  the  habits  of  chivalry,  by  passing  ia 

might  be  held  even  by  persons  of  the  gradation  through  the  several  menial 

hrghest  rank,  because  the  only  science  oi&ces  about  the  court."    Eilis't  Spe- 

then  in  request  among  the  nobility  cimeni,  T6l.  I.  p.  802. 
was  that  of  etiquette,  the  knowledge 

C  H  A  U  C  E  E.  197 

the  custom  of  wool,  with  an  injunction  that  ^  the  said 
Geffrey  write  with  his  own  hand  his  rolls  touching  the  said 
office  in  his  own  proper  person,  and  not  by  his  substitute." 
The  inferences,  however,  which  Mr.  Tyrwbitt  draws  from 
this  fact,  viz.  "  that  his  majesty  was  either  jbotally  insen- 
sible of  our  author^s  poetical  talents,  or  at  Iea$t  had  no 
mind  to  encourage  him  in  the  cultivation  or  exercise  of 
them,"'  savours  rather  too  much  of  tbe  conjectural  spirit 
which  he  professes  to  avoid.  He  allows  that,  notwith- 
standing what  be  calls  ^*  the  petrifying  quality,  with  which 
these  Custom-house  accounts  might  be  expected  to  operate 
upon  Chaucer's  genius,^'  he  probably  wrote  bis  "  House 
of  Fame*'  while  he  was  in  that  office.  Still  less  candid  to  the 
memory  of  Edward  will  these  inferences  appear,  if  we 
apply  modern  notions  of  patronage  to  the  subject ;  for  in 
what  manner  could  tbe  king  more  honourably  encourage 
the  genius  of  a  poet,  than  by  a  civil  employment  which 
rendered  him  easy  in  bis  circumstances,  and  free  from  the 
suspicious  obligations  of  a  pension  or  sinecure  ? 

Chaucer's  biographers  bave  given  some  particulars  of  his 
life,  befor&the  office  just  mentioned  was  conferred  upon 
him.  He  is  said  to  bave  been  in  constant  attendance  on 
his  majesty,  and  when  tbe  court  was  at  Woodstock,  re- 
sided at  a  square  stone  house  near  tbe  park  gate,  which 
long  retained  the  name  of  Chaucer's  house ;  and  many  of 
the  rural  descriptions  in  his  works,  have  been  traced  to 
Woodstock  park,  the  favourite  scene  of  his  walks  and 
studies.  But  besides  his  immediate  office  near  the  royal 
person,  he  very  early  attached  himself  to  the  service  of  the 
celebrated  John  of  Gaunt,  duke;,  of  Lancaster,  and  from 
this  connection  his  public  life  is  to  be  dated.  Tbe  author 
of  tbe  fife  prefixed  to  Urry's  edition  observes,  that  the 
duke's  '^  ambition  requiring  all  the  assistance  of  learned 
men  to  give  it  a  plausibly  appearance,  induced  him  to  do 
Chaucer  many  good  offices,  in  order  to  engage  him  in  his 
interest."  But  altlioucrb  the  assistance  of  learned  men  to 
an  ambitious  state^lnan  is  very  well  understood  in  moderm 
times,  it  is  somewhat  difficult  to  conceive' what  advantage 
could  be  derived  from  such  assistance  before  the  invention 
of  printing.  It  is  more  probable  that  tbe  duke  had  a  relish 
for  the  talents  and  tast^  of  Chaucer,  and  became  his  patroA 
upon  the  most  liberal  grounds,  altiuHigh  Chaucer  might 
afterwards  repay  his  favours  by  ejsposipg  the  conduct, of 

200  CHAUCER. 

When  Richard  II.  succeeded  hU  grand fatbery  he  was 
but  eleven  years  of  age,  and  his  upcle  the  duke  of  Lan» 
caster  was  consequently  entrusted  with  the  chief  share  in 
the  administration  of  public  affairs.  One  of  his  6rst  plea- 
sures was  to  solemnize  the  young  king*s  coronation  with 
great  pomp,  previously  to  which  a  court  of  claims  was 
e^stablished  to  settle  the  demands  of  those  who  pretended 
to  have  a  right  to  assist  at  the  ceremony.  Among  these^ 
Chaucer  claimed  in  right  of  his  ward,  who  was  possessed 
of  the  manor  of  Billington  in  Kent;  and  this  was  held  of 
the  crown,  by  the  service  of  presenting  to  the  king  three 
maple  cups  on  the  day  of  his  coronation  ;  but  this  claim 
was  contested,  and  if  it  had  not,  is  remote  enough  from  the 
kind  of  information  which  it  would  be  desirable  to  obtain 
respecting  Chaucer.  All  we  knov\  certainly  of  this  period, 
is,  that  the  duke  of  Lancaster  still  preserved  his  friendship 
for  our  poet,  and  probably  was  the  means  of  the  grants 
just  noticed  having  been  renewed  on  the  accession  of  the 
young  king. 

Soon  after  this,  however,  Chaucer's  biographers  concur 
in  the  fact  that  be  experienced  a  very  serious  reverse  in 
bis  affairs,  which  in  the  second  year  of  liicbard  II.  were  in  ' 
mich  disorder,  that  he  was  bbliged  to  have  recourse  to  the 
kmg's  protection,  in  order  to  screen  him  from  the  impor«t 
tuuities  of  his  creditors.     But  as  to  the  cause  of  this  em- 
)>arrassment,  we  find  no  agreement  among  those  who  have 
attempted  a  narrative  of  his  life.    Some  think  his  distresses 
were  temporary,  and  some  that  they  were  artificial*  Among 
the  latter,  the  writer  of  his  life  in  the  Biographia  Britan- 
nica  hazards  a  supposition  which  is  at  least  ingenious.     He 
is  of  opinion  that  Chaucer  about  this  time  found  out  a  rich 
match  for  his  son  Thomas,    namely,  Maud,  the  second 
daughter  of  sir  John  Burghershe ;  and  in  order  to  obtain 
this  match,  he  was  obliged  to  bring  bis  son  somewhat  upon 
a  level  with  her,  by  settling  all  his  landed  estates  upon 
him :    and  that  this  duty  might  occasion  those  demanda 
which  put  him  under  the  necessity  of  obtaining  the  king's 
protection.     The  conclusion  of  the  matter,  according  to . 
ihis  conjecture,  must  be,  that  Chaucer  entailed  his  estates 
vpoif  his  son,  and  found  means  to  put  off  his  creditors,  a 
measure  not  very  honourable.     But  we  are  still  in  the  daxk 
as  to  the  nature  of  those  debts,  or  the  existence  of  his 
landed  property,  and  it  is  even,  doubtful  whether  this  Tbo* 



mft8  Chaueer  was  his  son^.  We  know  certainly  of  no  9on 
but'  Lewis^  who  was  born  in  1381,  twenty-one  years  %itm 
his  marriage,  if  the  date  of  his  marriage  before  giren  b^ 

It  appears  from  the  historians  of  Richard  JI.  that  the 

duke  of  Lancaster,  about  the  third  or  fourth  year  of  that 

monarches  reign,  began  to  decline  in  political  influence,  if 

not  in  popularity,  owing  to  the  encouragement  be  had  given 

to  the  oelebi*ated  reformer  Wickiiffe,  whom  be  supported 

against  the  clergy,  to  whose  power  in  state  a&irs  he  had 

long  looked  with  a  jealous  eye.     Chaucer^s  works  show 

evidently  that  he  concurred  with  the  duke  in  his  opinion  of 

the  clergy,  and  have  procured  him  to  be  ranked  among 

the  few  wbo  paved  the  way  for  the  reformation.     Yel  whea 

the  insurrection  of  Wat  Tyler  was  imputed  to  the  princi^ 

pies  of  the  Wicklevites,  the  duke,  it  is  said,  withdrew  bii 

countenance  from    them,    and    disclaimed  their   tenets 

Chaucer  is  likewise  reported  to  have  altered  his  sentiment!^ 

hut  the  fact,  in  neither  case,  is  satisfactorily  confirmed. 

The  duke  of  Lancaster  condemned  the  doctrines  of  those 

followers  of  Wickliff  only,  who  had  excited  public  disturb^- 

ances ;  and  Chaucer  was  so  far  from  abandoning  his  forf- 

mer  notions t,  that  in  1384,  he  exerted  bis  utmost  intereot 

in  favour  of  John  Combertpn,  commonly  called  John  of 

Northampton,  when  about  to  be  re*chosen  mayor  of  Lonckm. 

Comberton  was  a  reformer  on  WicklifTs  principles,  and  so 

obnoxious  on  that  account  to  the  clergy,  that  they  stirriod 

up  a  commotion  on  his  re-election,  which  the  king  was 

*  '<  After  reading,  in  the  circum-  sister  to  Catherine  Rouet,  who  married 

stantial   accounts*  of  Chaucer's    bio-  a  sir  John  Swynford,  and  was  thefa*' 

graph^re,  that  lie  was  married  in  1360  Tourite  mistress,   and  ultimatdy  tiie 

to  Philippe  Rouet,  by  whom  he  had  wife,  of  the  duke  of  X«anca«ter;  aod 

issue  Thomas  Chaucer  and  other  chiU  that  Chaucer  himself  mentions  no  son 

dren,  we  are  surprised  to  learn  that  it  but  Lewis,  whom  he  states  to  have 

js  dovtbtful  whether  Thomas  Chancer  been  bom  in  1^31,  »  date^  which  seems 

was  his  son;  that  the  earliest  Hnown  to  agree  with  tiie  record  above  Q»en- 

eridence  of  his  marriage  is  a  record  of  tioned,  and  to  place  the  da|e  of  his 

1381,   in  #hich  he  receives  a  haiC-  marriage  in  1380. '^   EUis't  Specimeinsy 

year's  payment  of  an  annuity  of  ten  voL  F.  p,  20(^. 

marks,  granted  by  Edward  III.  to  his         f  His  biographers   say  he  died  a 

wife  as  one  of  the  maids  of  honour  niember  of  the  church  of  Rome.     Fox 

X'lofmalla'')  lately   in    the  servtee   of  claims  him  as  a  reformer.    Aets  arid 

.      qneen  Philippa;   that  the    name    of  Monuments,  vol*  II.  p.  42,  edit.  168^. 

^     Fhilippa  Rouet  does  not  occur  in  the  Dr.  Warton  (Essay  on  Pope)  observes 

litt  of  these  maids  of  honour,  but  that  tb«t  Chaucer,  as  well  as  Oante*  ai- 

Chaucer's  wife  mAy  possibly  havie  be^n  serted  Uiat  the  cliiircli  of  Rome  was 

Philippa   Pykard  \   that  notwithstand-  Antichrist,  a  notion  Bossuet  has  taken 

log  this,  his  said  wife  was  certainty  much  pains  to  refute. 

202  CHAUCER. 

obliged  to  quell  by  force.  The  consequence  was,  that 
some  lives  were  lost,  Comberton  was  imprisoned,  and  strict 
search  tvas  made  after  Chaucer,  who  contrived  to  escape 
first  to  Hainault,  then  to  France,  and  finally  to  Zealand. 
The  date  of  his  flight  has  not  been  ascertained,  but  it  was 
no  doubt  upon  this  occasion  that  he  lost  his  place  in  the 

While  in  Zealand,  he  maintained  some  of  his  country- 
men who  had  fled  thither  upon  the  same  account,  by 
sharing  the  money  he  brought  with  him,  an  act  of  liberality 
which  soon  exhausted  his  stock.  In  the  mean  time,  the 
partizans  of  his  cause,  whom  he  left  at  home,  contrived  to 
make  their  peace,  not  only  without  endeavouring  to  pro-- 
cure  a  pardon  for  him,  but  without  aiding  him  in  his  exile, 
where  he  became  greatly  distressed  for  want  of  pecuniary 
mipplies.  Such  ingratitude,  we  may  suppose,  gave  him 
more  uneasiness  than  the  consequences  of  it ;  but  it  did 
not  lessen  his  courage,  as  he  soon  ventured  to  return  to 
England.  On  this  he  was  discovered,  and  committed  to 
the  Tower,  where,  after  being  treated  with  great  rigour, 
he  was  promised  his  pardon,  if  he  would  disclose  all  he 
knew,  and  put  it  in  the.  power  of  government  to  restore  tb^ 
peace  of  the  city.  His  former  resolution  appears  now  to 
have  forsaken  him,  or,  perhaps,  indignation  at  the  ungrate^ 
fat  coi>duct  of  his  associates  induced  him  to  think  disclo- 


sure  a  matter  of  indiflerence.  It  is  certain  that  he  complied 
with  the  terms  ofiered  ;  but  we  are  not  told  what  was  thi^, 
amount  of  his  confession,  or  what  the  consequences  of  it 
were  to  others,  or  who  they  were  whom  he  informed  against. 
We  know  only  that  he  obtained  bis  liberty,  and  that  a|i 
oppressive  share  of  blame  and  obloquy  followed.  To  alle- 
viate his  regret  for  this  treatment,  and  partly  to  vindicate 
his  conduct,  he  now  wrote  the  "  Testament  of  Love  ;'* 
and  although  this  piece,  from  want  of  dates,  and  obscurity 
of  style,  is  not  sufficient  to  form  a  very  satisfactory  bio- 
graphical document,  it  at  least  furnishes  the  preceding 
account  of  his  exile  and  return. 

The  decline  of  the  duke  of  Lancaster's  interest  contri- 
buted not  a  little  to  aggravate  the  distresses  of  our  author, 
and  determined  him  to  take  leave  of  the  court  and  its  in- 
trigues, and  retire  in  pursuit  of  that  happiness  which  his 
years  and  habits  of  reflection  demanded.  With  this  view 
it  was  necessary  to  dispose  of  those  pensions  which  had 
been  bestowed  upon  him  in  the  former  reign. ;  and  whicb^ 

CHAUCER.  203 

t)otwithstanding  his  espousing  a  cause  not  very  acceptable 
to  the  sovereign,  had  been  continued  to  him  in  the  present. 
Accordingly  in  May  1388,  he  obtained  his  majesty's  licence 
to  surrender  his  two  grants  of  twenty  marks  each,  in  favour 
of  one  John  Sealby.  After  this  he  retired  to  his  favourite 
Woodstock;  and,  according  to  Speght,  employed  a  part  of 
his  time  in  revising  and  correcting  his  writings,  and  enjoy* 
ing  the  calm  pleasures  of  rural  contemplation.  It  is  thought 
that  the  composition  of_his  "  Canterbury  Tales"  was  be- 
gun about  this  time,  1389,  when  he  was  in  the  sixty-first 
year  of  his  age,  and  when,  contrary  to  the  usual  progress 
of  mind,  his  powers  seem  to  have  been  in  their  fullest 

It  was  not  long  after  this  period  that  the  duke  of  Lan« 
caster  resumed  his  influence  at  court;  but  whether  Chaucer 
was  enabled  to  profit  by  this  reverse,  or  whether  he.  had- 
seen  too  much  of  political  revolutions  to  induce  him  to 
quit  his  retreat,  his  biographers  are  doubtful.  It  appear^ 
however,  probable  that  the  duke  of  Lancaster  had  it  still 
as  much  in  his  will  as  in  his  power  to  befriend  him  ;  and  it 
might  be  owing  to  his  grace's  influence,  that  in  1389  we 
find. him  iclerk  of  the  works  at  Westminster;  and  in  the 
following  year  at  Windsor  and  other  palaces:  but  Mr. 
Tyrwhitt  doubts  whether  these  offices  were  sufficient  to 
indemnify  him  for  the  loss  of  his  place  in  the  customs^ 
In  the  "  Testament  of  Love,"  he  complains  of  **  being 
berafte  out  of  dignitie  of  office,  in  which  he  made  a 
gatheringe  of  worldly  godes;"  and  in  another  place  he 
speaks  of  himself  as  '^once  glorious  in  worldly  welefulnesse, 
and  having  such  godes  in  welthe  as  maken  men  ricbe.^f 
All  this  implies  a  very  considerable  reverse  of  fortune; 
although  Speght's  tradition  of  his  having  been  possessed  of 
*'  lands  and  revenues  to  the  yearly  value  almost  of  a  thou* 
sand  pounds,"  remains  utterly  incredible. 

But  the  king's  favour  did  not  end  with  the  offices  just 
mentioned.  In  the  seventeenth  year  of  his  reign,.  1394^ 
he  granted  to  Chaucer  a  new  annuity  of  twenty  pounds; 
in  1398,  his  protection  for  two  years  ;  and  in  1399,  a. pipe 
of  wine  annually.  From  the  succeeding  sovereign  Henry 
IV.  he  obtained,  in  the  year  last  mentioned,  a  confirmation 

*  Chaucer'f  fame  rests  chiefly  on  venty,  and  Chaucer  before  he  finished 

kis  Canterbury  Tales,  and  Dryden's  what  we  hare  of  hU  Tales  was  pro- 

OQ  his  Fables,   both  written  towards  bably  not  much  less. 
fikB  decline  of  life.    I>ryden  was  se« 

so*  .  C  H  A  U  C  E  R. 

f»f  bis  two  grants  c^  20/.  and  of  the  pipe  of  wine^  ^mi  9* 
iiie  same  time  an  additional  )grant  of  an  annuity  of  fortj 
narks.  Notwithstanding  this  dependent  state  of  his  affairs, 
some  of  his  biographers  represent  him  a?  possessed  of  Dua«- 
nington  castle  in  Berkshire,  which  he  must  have  purchased 
At  the  time  he  received  the  above  annuity  of  twenty  pounds; 
£ot  up  to  that  date  (1394)  it  Was  in  the  possession  of  Mt 
Richard  Abberbury.  Mr.  Tyrwhitt  remarks  that  the  tra- 
ditioii  which  Evelyn  notices  in  his  Sylva^  of  an  oak  in 
DunningtoD  park  called  Chaucer's  oak,  may  be  sufficiently 
siecounted  for,  without  supposing  that  it  was  plaoted  by 
Chaucer  himself,  as  the  castle  was  undoubtedly  in  the  hands 
of  Thomas  Chaucer  for  many  years.  During  his  retire- 
ment in  1391,  he  wrote  his  learned  treatise  on  the  Astro- 
labe, for  the  use  of  his  son  Lewis,  wbo  was  then  te^  years 
old ;  and  thi^  is  the  only  circumstance  respecting  bis  family 
ivhich  we  have  on  his  own  or  any  authority  that  deserves 
credit.  Leland,  Bale,  and  Wood  place  this  soti  under  the 
tuition  of  his  father's  friend  Nicholas  Strode  (whom^  how^- 
«ver,  they  call  Ralph)  of  Merton  college,  Oxford  ;  bat  if 
Wood  could  trace  Strode  no  farther  than  the  year  1370,  it 
18  impossible  he  could  have  been  the  tutor  of  Ciiaiicer's  sob 
in  1391. 

The  accounts  we  have  of  Chaucer's  latter  days  are  ex- 
tremely  inconsistent.  His  biographers  bring  bim  from 
Woodstock  to  Dunnington  castle,  and  from  that  to  LQQdon 
to  solicit  a  continuation  of  his  annuities,  in  which  he  foun4 
such  difficulties  as  probably  hastened  his  end.  Wood,  in 
)iis  Annals,  informs  us  that  although  he  did  not  repent  at 
the  last  of  his  reflections  on  the  cler^,  ^^  yet  of  that  be 
wrote  of  love  and  baudery,  it  grieved  him  much  on  his 
death'^bed :  £or  one  that  lived  shortly  after  his  time,  maketb 
report^,  that  when  he  saw  death  approaching,  be<iid  often 
cry  out,  '  Woe  is  me,  woe  is  me,  that  I  cannot  recall  and 
anuuU  those  things  which  I  have  written  of  the  base  and 
iilthy  love  of  men  towards  women  :  but  al^s  !  they  are  now 
icontinued  from  man  to  man,  and  I  cannot  do  what  I  de<- 
Mre\''  To  this  may  be  added,  that  the  affecting  lines 
**  Code  Counsaile  of  Chaucer,''  are  said  to  have  been  made 
by  him  when  on  his  death-bed,  and  in  great  aoguisb. 

*  Tb.  Qagoai^e  in    2  parte  Die-     s^ri  Armig^eri,  qm  Thomas  tepult  i|k 
tionar.  Theolog.    p.  377.  MS.  <*  Fuit     Nuhelm  juxta  OxoKki^m." 
Idem  Ckawserui  pater  Thorns  Cfaaw- 

CHAUCER.  305 

It  seems  generally  agreed  that  he  died  Oct  25^  1400^ 
and  was*  buried  in  Westminster-abbey,  in  the  great  soath 
cross-aile.  The  monument  to  his  memory  was  erected 
above  a  century  and  a  half  after  his  decease,  by  Nicholas 
Brigham,  a  gentleman  of  Oxford,  a  poet,  and  warm  ad« 
mirer  of  our  author.  It  stands  at  the  north  end  of  a  mag- 
nificent recess,  formed  by  four  obtuse  foliaged  arches,  and 
is  a  plain  altar,  with  three  quatrefoils,  and  the  same  num-^ 
her  of  shields.  The  inscription,  and  figures  on  the  baek^ 
are  almost  obliterated. 

Although  Chftucer  has  been  geneJrally  hailed  as  the 
founder  of  English  poetry  and  literature,  the  extent  of  the 
obligations  which  English  poetry  and  literature  owe  to  him 
has  not  been  decidedly  ascertained.  The  improvement  be 
introduced  in  language  and  versification  has  been  called  in 
question,  not  only  by  modern  but  by  ancient  critics*  Th# 
chief  faults  attributed  to  him,  are  the  mixture  of  French  in 
all  his  works,  and  his  ignorance  of  the  laws  of  versifioa^ 
tion.  With  respect  to  the  mixture  of  French  words  and 
phrases  in  Chaucef  s  writings,  it  must  be  observed  that  the 
French  language  was  prevalent  in  this  country  several  ceti-^ 
turies  befofe  his  time.  Even  previously  to  the  conquest, 
the  Normans  had  made  it  a  fashion  to  speak  French  in  the 
English  court,  and  from  thence  it  would  naturally  be 
adopted  by  the  people ;  but  after  the  conquest  this  became 
the  case  in  a  much  greater  proportion.  It  was  a  matter  of 
policy  in  the  conqueror  to  introduce  his  own  language,  and 
it  would  soon  become  a  matter  of  interest  in  the  people  to 
acquire  it.  We  uniformly  find  that  where  new  settleih» 
appear,  even  without  the  superiority  of  conquerors,  the 
aborigines  find  it  convenient  to  learn  their  language.  The 
history  of  king  William's  conquest  and  policy  shows  that 
his  language  must  soon  extend  over  a  kingdom  which  he 
had  parcelled  out  among  his  chiefs  as  the  reward  of  their 
valour  and  attachment.  One  step  which  he  took,  must 
above  all  others  have  contributed  to  naturalize  the  French 
language.  He  supplied  all  vacancies  in  the  ecclesiastieal 
establishnient  with  Norman  clergy ;  and  if,  with  all  this 
influence,  the  French  language  did  not  universally  prevail, 
it  must  at  least  have  interfered  in  a  very  considerable  degree 
with  the  use  of  the  native  tongue.  At  schools,  French  and 
Latin  were  taught  together  in  the  reign  of  Edward  III.  aftd 
it  was  usual  to  make  the  scholars  construe  their  Latiti 
lessons  into  French,  a  practice  which  must  have  greatly 

200  CHAUCER. 

retarded  the  progress  of  the  native  tongue  towards  reifine«« 
ment.     Some  check,  indeed,  appears  to  have  been  giveni 
to  this  in  the  reign  of  the  same  sovereign ;  but  the  pro- 
<;eedings  in  parliament  and  the  statutes  continued  to  be 
promulgated  in  French  for  a  far  longer  period. 
.  These  circumstances  have  been  advanced  to  prove  that 
Chaucer  ought  not  to  be  blamed  for  introducing  words  and 
phrases  with  which  his  countrymen  were  familiar  long  be-> 
fore  his  time,  and  which  they  probably  considered  as  ele- 
gancies.    If  Chaucer  was  taught  at  school,  as  other  youths 
were,  it  is  plain  that  he  must  have  learned  French  while 
he  was  learning  his  mother  tongue,  and  was  taught  to  give 
a  preference  to  the  former  by  making  it  the  vehicle  of 

The  language,    therefore,    in  use  in   Chaucer's  dajs^ 
among  the  npper  classes,  and  by  all  that  would  be  thought, 
learned,  was  a  Norman-Saxon  dialect,  introduced  by  the, 
influx  and  influence  &f  a  court  of  foreigners,  and  spread 
wherever  that  influence   extended.     Jourpej^s  to  France; 
were  also  common,  for  thp  purposes  of  improvement  iii; 
&ucb  accomplishments  as  were  then  fashionable,  and  this, 
kind  of  intercourse,  which  is  always  in  favour  of  the  country, 
visited,  would  perhaps  tend  to  introduce  a  still  greater 
proportion  of  French  phraseology*     But  still  the  founda- 
tion was  laid   at  home,  in  the  prevailing  modes  of  edu-, 
cation.     With  respect  to  the  progress  of  this  mixture,  and  ^ 
tb^  effects  of  the  accessions  which  in  the  course  of  nearly 
three  centuries,  the  English  language  received  from  Nor- 
mandy,   the  reader  is  referred   to   Mr.  Tyrwhitt's  very, 
elaborate  ^^  Essay  on  the  Language  and  Versification  of 
Chaucer,"  prefixed  to  his  edition   of  the  ^^  Canterbury 
Tales.''     It  appears,  upon  the  whole,  that  ^^  the  language 
of  our  ancestors  was  complete  in  all  its  parts,  and  had^ 
served  them  for  the  purposes  of  discourse,  and  even  of 
composition  in  various  kinds,  long  before  they  had  any  in- 
timate acquaintance  with  their  French  neighbours."     They 
had  therefore  "  no  call  from  necessity,  and  consequently  no 
sufficient  inducement,  to  alter  its  original  and  radical  con- 
stitutions, or  even  its  customary  forms."  ^  And  accordingly^ 
notwithstanding  the  prevalence  of  the   French  from  the 
causes  already  assigned,  it  is  proved  by  Mr.  Tyrwhitt  that 
**  in  all  the  essential  parts  of  speech,  the  characteristical 
features  of  the  Saxon  idiom  were  always  preserved ;  and 
the  crowds  of  French  words  which  from  time  to  time  were 


impol'ted,    were  themselves  made  subject,    either  imme- 
diately, or  by  degrees,  to  the  laws  of  that  same  idiom.^* 

As  to  what  English  poetry  owes  to  Chaucer,  Dr.  John- 
son  has  pronounced  him  ^'  the  first  of  our  versifiers  who 
wrote  poetically,"  and  Mr.  Warton  has  proved  "  that  ia 
elevation  and  elegance,  in  harmony  and  perspicuity  of 
versification,  he  surpasses  his  predecessors  in  an  infinite 
proportion;  that  bis  genius  was  universal,  and  adapted  to 
themes  of  unbounded  variety ;  that  his  merit  was  not  less 
in  painting  familiar  manners  with  humour  and  propriety, 
than  in  moving  the  passions,  and  in  representing  the  beau* 
tiful  or  the  grand  objects  of  nature  with  grace  and  sub- 
limity. In  a  word,  that  he  appeared  with  all  the  lustre 
and  dignity  of  a  true  poet,  in  an  age  which  compelled  him 
to  struggle  with  a  barbarous  language,  and  a  national  want 
of  taste ;  and  when  to  write  verses  at  all,  was  regarded  2a 
a  singular  qualification." 

The  Saxons  had  a  species  of  writing  which  they  called 
poetry,  but  it  did  not  consist  of  regular  verses,  nor  was  it 
embelUshed  by  rhime.  The  Normans,  it  is  generally 
ttjiought,  were  the  6rst  who  introduced  rhime  or  metr^ 
copied  from  the  Latin  rythmical  verses,  a  bastard  species, 
•which  belongs  to  the  declining  period  of  the  Latin  language. 
To  deduce  the  history  of  versification  from  the  earliest 
periods  is  impossible,  for  want  of  specimens.  Two  very 
trifling  ones  only  are  extant  before  the  time  of  Henry  II. 
namely,  a  few  lines  in  the  Saxon  Chronicle  upon  the  death 
of  William  the  Conqueror,  and  a  short  canticle,  which, 
according  to  Matthew  Paris,  the  blessed  virgin  was  pleased 
to  dictate  to  Godric,  an  hermit  near  Durham.  In  the  time 
of  Henry  II.  Layamon,  a  priest,  translated  chiefly  from 
the  French  of  Wace,  a  fabulous  history  of  the  Britons,  en* 
titled  Le  Brut,  which  Wace  himself,  about  1155,  had 
translated  from  the  Latin  of  Geffry  of  Monmouth.  In  this 
there  are  a  number  of  short  verses,  of  unequal  lengths, 
but  exhibiting  something  like  rhime.  But  so  common  w^n 
it  to  write  whatever  was  written,  in  French  or  Latin,  that 
another  century  must  be  passed  over  before  we  come  to 
another  specimen  of  English  poetry,  if  we  except  the  Or- 
mulum^,  and  a  moral  piece  upon  old  age,  &c.  f  noticed 

*  A  paraphrase  on  the  Gospel  histories,  written  by  one  Orme  or  Ormin. 
f  A  specimen  of  this  is  given  in  Dr.  Johnson's  latroduciion  to  bis  Pic- 

203  C  H  A  U  e  E  R. 

by  Mr.  Tyrwbitt,  and  which  hie  conjectures  to  have  beea 
written  earlier  than  the  reign  of  Henry  II. 

Between  the  latter  end  of  the  reign  of  Henry  HI.  and 
the  time  of  Chaucer,  the  names  of  many  English  rhimer» 
bave  been  recovered,  and  many  more  anonymous  writers, 
or  rather  translators  of  romances,  flourished  about  this 
period  ;  but  they  neither  invented  nor  imported  any  im- 
provements in  the  art  of  versification.  Their  labours,  bow* 
ever,  are  not  to  be  under\'alued.  Mr.  Warton  has  very 
justly  remarked,  that  "  the  revival  of  learning  in  most 
countries  appears  to  have  first  owed  its  rise  to  translation. 
At  rude  periods  the  modes  of  original  thinking  are  un- 
ktiown,  and  the  arts  of  original  composition  bave  not  yet 
been  studied.  The  writers,  therefore,  of  such  periQds 
aire  chiefly  and  very  usefully  employed  in  importing  the 
ideas  of  other  languages  into  their  own."  But,  ad  many 
of  these  metrical  romances  were  to  be  accompanied  by 
iDusic,  they  were  less  calculated  for  reading  than  reci- 

These  authors,  whatever  their  merit,  were  the  only 
English  poets,  if  the  name  may  be  used,  when  Chaucer 
appeared,  and  the  only  circumstances  under  which  he 
found  the  poetry  of  his  native  tongue,  were,  that  rbime 
was  established  very  generally  ;  that  the  metres  in  use  were 
principally  the  long  Iambic,  consisting  of  not  more  than 
fifteen,  nor  less  than  fourteen  syllables,  and  broken  by  a 
caesura  at  the  eighth  syllable ;  the  Alexandrine  metre,  con- 
sisting of  not  more  than  thirteen  syllables,  nor  less  thati 
twelve,  with  &  csesura  at  the  sixth  ;  the  octosyllable  metre; 
and  the  stanza  of  six  verses,  of  which  the  first,  second, 
fourth  and  fifth  were  in  complete  octosyllable  metre,  and  the 
third  and  last  catalectic,  i,  e.  wanting  a  syllable,  or  even  two. 

Such  were  the  precedents  which  a  new  poet  might  be 
expected  to  follow.  But  Chaucer  composed  nothiiig  in  the 
first  or  second  of  these  four  metres.  In  the  fourth  he  wrote 
only  the  Rhime  of  sir  Thopas,  which  being  intended  to 
ridicule  the  vulgar  romances,  seems  to  bave  been  pur- 
posely written  in  their  favourite  metre.  In  the  third,  or  octo- 
syllable metre  *,  he  wrote  several  of  his  compositions,  par- 
ticularly an  imperfect  translation  of  the  Roman  de  la  Rose^ 

*  So  oalled  by  Mr.  TyrwhiU,  (whoie  althouc^  it  &kaa  oonsiits  of  nine,  attd 

opinioos  aie  chiefly  followed  oo  this  sometiimrs  of  ten  vyilables,  feheeigbUi 

subject)  from  what  he  apprehends  to  is  always  the  last  accented  syllable. 
bave  been  its  original  form,'  in  wbicb. 


the  Hoijse  of  Fame,  the  Detbe  of  the  Duchesse  Blanche^ 
and  his  Dreine,  all  wrhich  are  so  superior  to  the  versi6ca« 
tioo  of  his  cootemporaries  and  predecessors,  as  to  establish 
bis  preeminence,  and  prove  that  the  reformer  of  English 
poetry  had  at  length  appeared. 

But, the  liiost  considerable  part  of  his  works  entitle  him 
to  the  honour  of  an  inventor.  They  are  written  in  the  he^ 
roic  metre,  and  there  is  no  evidence  of  any  English  poet 
having  used  it  before  him.  He  is  not  indeed  to  be  cod<» 
sidered  as  the  inventor  in  the  most  extensive  sense,  as  the 
heroic  metre  had  been  cultivated  by  Dante,  Petrarch,  and 
Boccace,  bot  he  was  the  first  to  introduce  it  into  his  na** 
tive  language,  in  which  it  has  been  employed  by  every  poet 
of  eminence)  to  the  present  day. 

The  age  of  Chaucer  had  little  of  what  we  now  under-^ 
stand  by  refinement.  The  public  shows  and  amusements 
were  splendid  and  sumptuous.  They  had  all  somewhat  of 
a  dramatic  air;  at  their  tournaments  and  carousals  the 
principal  pentonages  acted  parts,  with  some  connection  of 
story,  borrowed  from  the  events,  and  conducted  according 
to  the  events  and  manners  of  chivalry.  But  the  national 
manners  and  habits  were  barbarous,  unless  where  the  re- 
straints of  religion  repres^d  public  licentiousness ;  and, 
with  respect  to  taste,  the  spectacles  in  which  the  hi^er 
orders  indulged^  were  such  as  would  not  now  be  tolerated 
perhaps  even  at  a  fair.  What  influence  they  had  on  pubhc 
decency,  it  is  difEcult  to  ascertain.  la  Chaucer's  time 
there  was  indeed  no  public^  because  there  was  little  or  no-* 
thing  of  that  coipmunication  of  sentiment  and  feeling  which 
we  owe  to  the  invention  of  printing. 

In  such  an  age,  it  is  the  highest  praise  of  Chaucer,  that 
he  stood  alone,  the  first  poet  who  improved  the  art  by 
melody,  fancy,  ai>d  sentiment,  and  the  first  writer,  whe* 
ther  we  consider,  the  quantity,  quality,  or  variety  of  his 
productions.  It  is  supposed  that  many  of  his  writings  are 
lost.  What  remain,  however,  and  have  been  authenti- 
cated with  tolerable  certainty,  must  have  formed  the  oc« 
cupatiou  of  a  consiiterable  part  of  his  life,  and  been  the 
result  of  copious  reading  and  reflection.  Even  his  transla-^ 
tions  are  mixed  with  so  great  a  portion  of  original  mact^ 
auy  it  may  be  presumed,  required  time  and  study,  and 
ikio§/^  baf^  hours^  of  inspiration,  which  are  not  always 
within  command.  The  principal,  obstruction  to  the  plea« 
^ure  we  should  otherwise  derive  fimn  Chaiicer^a  works,  is 

Vol.  IX.  P 


210  CHAUCER. 

that  profusion  of  allegory  which  pervades  tbem^  particd* 
larly  the  "  Romaunt  of  the  Rose,"  the  "  Court  of  Love,*' 
**  Flower  and  Leaf,"  and  the  "  House  of  |*ame."  Pope, 
in  the  first  edition  of  hid  Temple  of  Fame,  prefixed  a  note 
in  defence  of  allegorical  poetry,  the  propriety  of  which 
cannot  be  questioned,'  but  which  is  qualified  with  an  ex- 
ception which  applies  directly  to  Chaucer.  **  The  inci- 
dents by  which  allegory  is  conveyed,  should  never  be  spun 
too  long,  or  too  much  clogged  with  trivial  circumstances, 
or  little  particularities."  But  this  is  exactly  the  case  with 
Chaucer,  whose  allegories  are  spun  beyond  all  bounds, 
and  clogged  with  many  trivial  and  unappropriate  circum- 

^  For  upwards  of  seventy  years  after  the  death  of  Chau- 
cer,   his  works  remained  in    manuscript.      Mr.  Tyrwhitt 
enumerates  twenty-six  manuscripts  which  he  had  an  op* 
portunity  of  consulting  in  the  various  public  and  private 
libraries  of  London,  Oxford,  Cambridge,  &c.  but  of  all 
these  he  is  inclined  to  give  credit  to  only  five.     Caxton, 
the  first  English  printer,  selected  Chaucer's  "  Canterbury 
Tales,"  as  one  of  the  earliest  productions  of  his  press,  but 
happened  to  copy  a  very  incorrect  manuscript    This  first 
edition  is  supposed  by  Mr.  Ames  to  have  been  printed 
in  1475  or  1476.     There  are  only  two  complete  copies 
extant,  one  in  his  majesty's  library,  and  another  in  that  of 
Merton-college,  both  without  preface  or  advertisement. 
About  six  years  after,  Caxton  printed  a  second  edition, 
and  in  his  preface  apologized  for  the  errors  of  the  for- 
mer.    No  perfect  copy  of  this  edition  is  known.     Aoies 
mentions  an  edtfion  '^  collected  by  William  Caxton,  and 
printed  by  Wynken  de  Worde,    1495,    folio,"    but  the 
existence  of  this  is  doubtful.     Pynson  printed  two  edi«' 
tions ;   the   first,   it  is   conjectured,    in    1491,    and    the 
second  in  1526,  which  was  the  first  in  which  a  collec- 
tion of  some  other  pieces  of  Chaucer  was  added  to  the. 
Canterbury  Tales.     Ames  notices  editions  in   1520  and 
1522,  but  bad  not  seen  them,  nor  are  they  now  known. 
In  1532  an  edition  was  printed  by  Thomas  Godfrey,  and 
edited  by  Mr.  Thynne,  which  Mr.  Tyrwhitt  informs  -us, 
was  considered,  notwithstanding  its  nlany  imperfections^  as 
the  standard  edition,  and  was  copied,   not  only  by  the 
booksellers,  in  their  several  editions  of  1542,  1546,  1555^ 
and   1561,  but  also  by  Mr.  Speght,  in  1597  and   1^0^. 
Speght's  edition  was  reprinted  in  1687,  and  in  1721  ap* 

CHAUCER.  211 

peftred  Mr.  Urry's,  who,  while  he  professed  to  compare  a 
great  many  manuscripts,  took  such  liberties  with  bis  au-» 
thorns  text  as  to  render  this  by  far  the  worst  edition  ever 

There  is  an  interleaved  copy  of  Urry^s  edition  in  the 
British  Museum,  presented  by  Mr.  William  Thomas,  a 
brother  of  Dr.  T.  Thomas,  who.  furnished  the  preface  and 
glossary,  and  upon  whom  the  charge  of  publishing  devolved 
after  Mn  Urry^s  death.  This  copy  has  many  manuscript 
notes  and  corrections.  From  one  of  them  we  learn  that  the 
life  of  Chaucer  was  very  incorrectly  drawn  up  by  Mn  Dart, 
and  corrected  and  enlarged  by  Mr.  William  Thomas ;  and 
from  another,  that  bishop  Atterbury  prompted  Urry  to 
this  undertaking,  but  ^^  did  by  no  means  judge  rightly  of 
Mr.  Urry^s  talents  in  this  case,  who  though  in  many  re- 
spects a  most  worthy  person,  was  not  qualified  for  a  work 
of  this  nature.'^  Dr.  Thomas  undertook  to  publish  it,,  at 
the  rj^qoest  of  bishop  Smalridge.  In  the  Harleian  collec* 
tiop^is  a  copy  of  an  agreement  between  William  Brome> 
executor  to  Urry,  the  dean  and  chapterjof  Christ  Churchy 
and  Bernard  Lintot  the  bookseller.  By  this  it  appears 
that  it  was  Urry's  intention  to  apply  part  of  the.  profits  to« 
waurds  building  Peckwater  quadrangle.  Lintot  was  to  print 
a  thousand  copies  on  small  paper  at  iL  lOs.  and  two  hundred 
and  fifty  on  large  paper  at  2/.  lOs,  It  does  not  appear 
that  this  speculation  succeeded.  Yet  the  edition,  from  its 
having  been  printed  in  the  Roman  letter,  the  copiousness 
of  the  glossary,  and  the  ornaments,  &c.  continued  to  be 
the  only  one  consulted,  until  the  publication  of  the  '*  Can- 
terbury Tales"  by  Mr.  Tyrwhitt,  in  1775.  This  very  acute 
critic  was  the  first  who  endeavoured  to  riestore  a  pure  text 
by  the  collation  of  MSS.  a  labour  of  vast  extent,  but  which 
must  be  undertaken  even  to  greater  extent,  before  the 
other  works  of  Chaucer  can  be  published  in  a  manner 
worthy  of  their  author.  Mr.  Warton  laments  that  Chaucer 
has  been  so  frequently  considered  as  an  old,  rather  than  a 
good  poet ;  and  recommends  the  study  of  his  works.  Mr. 
Tyrwhitt,  since  this  advice  was  given,  has  undoubtedly 
introduced  Chaucer  to  a  nearer  intimacy  with  the  learned 
public,  but  it  is  not  probable  that  he  can  ever  be  restojred 
to  popularity^.  His  language  will  still  remain  an  insur- 
laountable  obstacle  with  that  numerous  class  of  readers  to 
whom  poets  must  look  for  universal  reputation.     Poetry  i^ 

p  2 


the  art  of  pleasing ;  but  pleasure,  as  generally  understoodi 
admits  of  very  little  that  deserves  the  name  of  study. ' 

CHAUFEPIE  (JaMRs  G£OR<i}E  D£),  author  of  a  very 
useful  Biographical  Dictionary^  was  descended  from  the 
ancient  and  noble  family  of  the  Calfopedi  of  Floreace, 
which  removed  into  France  under  Francis  I.  At  the  revo- 
cation of  the  edict  of  Nantz^  Samuel  de  Chaufepi^,  the! 
representative  of  the  family,  and  protestant  minister  at 
Couh6  in  Poitou,  was  obliged  to  take  refuge  in  Frieslaiid| 
where  he  died  pastor  of  the  church  of  Leuwarden  in  1704« 
He  had  ten  children  by  hia  wife  Maria  Marboeuf  de  la 
tlimbaudiere,  of  whom  the  subject  of  the  present  articles 
Was  the  youngest,  and  born  at  Leuwarden,  Nov.  d,  i702« 
He  was  educated  partly  at  Franeket,  under  professor  An- 
dala,  as  appears  by  his  maintaining  ati  academical  thesis 
before  that  professor,  in  1718,  on  ^Mnnate  Ideas,*'  and 
probably  about  the  same  time,  a  second  on  ^'  The  punish^ 
ment  of  the  Cross,^'  >which  was  afterwards  published  in  a 
collection  by  Oerdes^  iti  1734.  After  being  admitted  int<» 
the  ministry,  he  preached  for  so^me  time  at  Flushing,  theft 
at  Delft,  and  lastly  at  Amsterdam,  where  he  was  pastor  of 
the  Walloon  churchy  and  where  he  died,  highly  respected 
for  piety  and  learning,  and  much  lamented,  July  3,  i7a-6. 
He  was  not  more  diligent  in  the  discharge  of  his  profes*" 
sional  functions^  than  attached  to  studious  researches,  which 
he  pursued  throughout  the  whole  of  his  long  life*  In  1736 
be  published^  ^'  Lettres  sur  divers  sujets  important  de  la 
Religion/*  12aio$  and  in  1746  prefixed  a  life  or  histo-^ 
Tical  eulogium  to  the  sermons  of  John  Brutel  de  la  Ri-^ 
viere.  In  1756  he  published  three  sermons,  intended  td 
prove  the  truth  of  the  Christian  religion  from  the  present 
atate  of  the  Jews ;  and  wrote  an  account  of  the  life  and 
writings  of  our  cielebrated  poet  Pope,  which  was  prefixed 
to  a  French  translation  of  his  works^  printed  at  Amsterdam 
in  1758.  He  also  translated  from  the  Dutch  an  abridge- 
ment, in  question  and  answer,  of  the  history  of  bis  country; 
and  from  the  English,  part  of  Shuckford*s  works,  with 
additions,  and  several  volumes  of  the  ''  Universal  His-* 
tory,'*  which  he  improved  very  consideiubly,  particularljr 
in  the  history  of  Venice*  This  labour^  however,  he  discon** 
tiqued  in  1771,  and  does  not  appear  after  that  to  have 

1  JohnsMi  and  Chalmers'i  EnsHih  Poets,  ISlO.-^Biof.  Brit — ^TjFrwkiti'f  Cm- 
terbary  Talet.-*£UU't  Speciment.— Wartoa's  Hist,  of  Enslifh  Pfletry;  see 


published  any  thing  of  consequence,  confining  himself  to 
fais  pastoral  duties,  if  we  except  bis  *^  Life  of  Servetus," 
which  in  1771  was  translated  into  English,  by  James  Yair, 
minister  of  the  Scots  church  at  Campvere,  and  published 
Sit  London,  8vo.  The  chief  object  of  it  seems  to  be  to 
vindicate  Calvin  from  the  reproaches  usually  thrown  upon 
him  for  the  share  he  had  in  the  prosecution  of  Servetus ; 
but  some  will  probably  think  that  he  has  at  I^ast  been 
equally  successful  in  throwing  new  and  not  very  favourable 
light  on  the  conduct  and  principles  of  Servetus. 

A  selection  of  Chaufepie's  ^*  Sermons''  was  published 
after  his  death  by  his  nephew  and  colleague  in  the  church 
at  Amsterdam,  Samuel  de  Chaufepi^.  But  the  work  which 
gives  him  the  best  title  to  a  place  here,  is  his  ^^  Nouveau 
Dictionaire  Historique  et  Critique  pour  servir  de  Supple-^ 
ment,  ou  de  Continuation  au  Dictionaire  de  M.  Pierre 
Baylfe,"  Amsterdam,  1750 — 1756,  4  vols.  fol.  Theeditorg 
of  the  French  Diet.  Historique,  of  1804,  messieurs  Chau-» 
don  and  Delandine,  speak  of  this  as  an  ill-digested  work, 
and  say  that  the  author,  in  continuing  Bayle,  has  imitated, 
him  neither  in  his  good  nor  his  bad  qualities,  and  that  he 
does  >not  interest  his  readers  like  the  philosopher  of  Rot^ 
terdam,  his  style  being  inferior  and  incorrect.  They 
allow,  however,  that  he  respects  religion,  although  hm 
declaims  sometimes  against  the  Roman  Catholics;  and 
they  give  due  praise  to  his  researches  respecting  the  lite^ 
raiure  of  France,  England,  and  Holland.  That  he  de* 
platms  against  the  Roman  catholics  sometimes,  is  an  ob«>. 
jection  very  natural  to  the  editors  of  the  French  dictionary^ 
but  frequent  recourse  to  Chaufepie^s  work  convinces  us 
that  he  speaks  with  impartiality,  and  engages  as  little  as 
possible  with  points  of  controversy.  The  work  was  origi* 
nally  intended  as  a  supplement  to  Bayle,  but  various  cir- 
pumstances  stated  by  the  author  in  his  preface,  prevented 
the  booksellers  from  prosecuting  this  plan,  and  it  may 
father  be  considered  as  a  new  work,  founded  partly  oft 
Bayle,  and  partly  on  the  English  ^^  General  Dictionary,** 
)0  vols.  fol.  The  new  articles  from  the  pen  of  Chaufepi6 
jire  in  general  accurate,  and  this  work  ought  to  be  better 
Itnown  in  this  country,  because,  owing  to  the  author's  re- 
ligious principles,  less  use  has  been  made  of  it  abroad  than 
it  deserves.  The  English  articles,  although  this  circum- 
stance is  not  perhaps  of  much  importance  here,  are 
more  full  than  in  any  other  work  published  on  the  Con- 

214  C  H  A  U  F  £  P  I  E. 

tinent,  and  the  additions  the  author  has  made  not  only  to 
them,  but  to  Bayle's  series,  afford  a  very  favourable  idea  of 
the  labour  and  research  he  must  have  employed.  He  ap- 
pears to  have  been  first  applied  to  by  the  booksellers  of 
Amsterdam  in  1739,  and  to  have  spent  several  years  in 
.preparing  it  for  the  press.  With  respect  to  the  charge  that 
it  is  less  interesting  to  readers  than  Bayle,  we  can  only  re- 
mark that  in  proportion  as  any  biographer  follows  Bayle, 
he  will  render  his  work  a  tissue  of  interrupting  impertinent 
cies  and  crude  sentiments.  ^ 

CHAULIEU  (William  Anfreye  de),  was  born  at  Fon- 
tenay  in  Normaiid)f<' in  1639.     His  father,  counsellor  of 
state  at  Rouen,  placed  him  in  the  college  de  Navarre  at 
Paris,  where  he  acquired  a  profound  knowledge  of  the  an- 
cient authors,  and  contracted  an  intimacy  with  the  duke  de 
Rochefoucault  and  the  abb6  Marsillac,  whose  patronage  he 
acquired  by  his  lively  conversation  and  his  various  talents ; 
and  while  he  was  countenanced  by  them,  he  formed  an 
acquaintance  that  had  a  great  influence  on  his  poetical 
efforts.     The  duchess  of  Bouillon,  a  niece  of  cardinal  Ma-< 
zarin,  was  about  to  lay  out  a  large  garden,  and  for  that  pur- 
pose thought  it  necessary  to  obtain  a  piece  of  ground  be- 
longing to  the  estate  of  the  family  of  Chaulieu.     The  pofet, 
mth  much  address,  brought  the  treaty  to  effect  agreeably 
to  the  desires  of  the  duchess,  and  thus  acquired  the  favour 
of  a  lady,  who  afterwards  became  the  inspirer  of  his  son- 
nets.     Her  house  was  a  temple  of  the  muses ;  she  encou- 
raged, rewarded,  and  inspired  all  such  as  shewed  marks  of 
poetic  genius ;  and  evinced  a  particular  regard  for  Chau- 
lieu.    Through  her  he  became  known  to  the   duke  'de 
Yendome,  a  great  friend  of  the  muses,  who,  as  grand  prior 
of  France,  presented  him  with  a  priorate  on  the  isle  of 
OleroUj  with  an  annual  revenue  of  28,000  livres.     To  this 
were  afterwards  added  the  abbacies  of  Pouliers,  Renes, 
Aumale,  and  St.  Stephen,  the  profits  of  which  enabled  him 
to  pass  his  life  in  ease  ^nd  affluence. '  The  first  thing  by 
which  Chaulieu  became  known  as  a  poet  was  a  rondeau  on 
Benserade's  translation  of  Ovid^s  Metamorphoses.      He 
soon,  found  opportunities  for  appearing  frequently  before 
the  public ;  and  hi^  acquaintance  with  Chapelle  determined 
bim  entirely  for  jovial  poetry.     Chaulieu  was  no  poet  by 
profession ;  he  sung  with  the  flask  in  his  hand,  and  we  ar^ 

\  Pict.  Hist—- Chaiife^ie'9  preface.»-Sa]ui  Qnomut 

C  H  A  U  L  I  E  U.  215 

told  that  in  the  circle  of  genial  friends  he  acquired  those 
delicate  sentiments  which  render  his  poetry  at  once  so  na- 
tural and  so  charming.     The  muses  were  the  best  comforts 
of  his  age,  as  they  had  frequently  been  in  his  younger 
years,  when  he  was  visited  by  the  gout,  the  pains  of  which 
he  contrived  to  alleviate,  by  conversations  with  his  friends 
and  the  muses,  and  prolonged  his  life  to  a  very  advanced 
age,  dying  in  1726,  in  his  81st  year.     He  was  extremely 
desirous  of  becoming  a  member  of  the  acadeipy  of  fine 
arts  ;  and,  on  seeing  another  preferred  to  him,  he  took  his 
revenge  by  satirical  attacks  on  the  management  of  the  in* 
stitution.     It  was  the  perfect  consonance  of  his  life  with 
bis  poems,  that  gave  them  the  natural  air  for  which  they 
have  ever  been  so  greatly  admired.     The  philosophy  of  th^ 
graces,  that  animates  his  works,  was  also  the  rule  of  bis 
life.     But  few  of  his  poems  were  published  during  his  life- 
time, and  those  occasionally  and  detached ;  the  trouble  of 
collecting  them  he  left  to  his  friends  after  his  death.    The 
first  eaitions  were  very  imperfect,  till  Camusac  and  St. 
Marc  took  the  pains  to  publish  them  in  a  completer  coUec* 
tion,  1750,  2  vols.   12mo.      They  consist  of  epistles  in 
verse,  and  letters  in  prose  intermingled  ^ith  verses.     Both 
are  characterised  by  an  easy  gaiety,  agreeable  pictures^ 
lively  strokes,  genuine  wit,  pleasing  fictions,   Epicurean 
morality,  or  ^^  sagesse  commode,'*  as  Saint  Marc  used  to 
call  it,  and  a  style  varied  as  the  subject  requires.     They 
are  not,  however,  without  flat,  incorrect,  and  puerile  pas- 
sages.    His  versification  is  flowing  and  harmonious,  but 
frequently  faulty  and  contrary  to  the  rules  of  speech,  and 
sometimes  designedly  negligent,  in  imitation  of  the  simple 
style  of  Marot.     Some  find  great  harmony  in  the  continual 
recurrence  of  the  same  rhymes,  in  which  he  followed  Cba- 
pelle,  and  is  praised  by  Dubos;  and  Camusac  thinks  that 
such  verses  are  eminently  adapted  to  music.     Saint  Marc, 
on  the  other  handj  and  the  younger  Racine,  complain  of 
their  monotony,  and  conceive  that  the  beauty  of  them 
consists  solely  in  the  conquest  of  greater  difliculties,  and 
that  the  French  language  is  not  so  poor  in  sonorous  phrase- 
ology as  to  stand  in  need  of  such  a  practice.     Though  the 
letters  of  Chaulieu  were  all  actually  written,  and  mostly 
directed  to  Bouillon,  yet  they  are  frequently  interspersed 
with  ingenious  fictions.     Excepting  that  to  the  chevalier 
3ouillon,  the  most  remarkable  letter  is  that  addressed  to 
Di.  UFarei  aatbepoet>  with  great  frankness,  gives  usiu 


216  C  H  A  U  L  N  E  a 


it  hi9  own  portrait. — Chaalieu's  odes  arc  not  of  the  higher 
species.  * 

CHAULNES  (Albert  duke  de),  a  peer  of  France, 
but  more  remarkable  as  an  astronomer  and  mathematician, 
w^s  born  at  Paris  Dec.  30,  1714.  He  soon  discot^ered  a 
singular  taste  and  genius  for  the  sciences ;  and  in  the  tu- 
mults of  armies  and  camps,  he  cultivated  mathematics, 
^tronomy,  mechanics,  &c.  He  was  named  honorary-acade- 
mician the  27th  of  February  1743,  and  few  members  were 
more  punctual  in  attending  the  meetings  of  that  body,  where 
be  often  brought  different  constructions  and  corrections  of  in-!- 
dtruments  of  astronomy,  of  dioptrics,  and  achromatic  tele- 
scopes. These  researches  were  followed  with  a  new  paral- 
lactic machine,  more  solid  and  convenient  than  those  that 
were  in  use ;  as  also  with  many  reflections  on  the  manner 
of  applying  the  micrometer  to  those  telescopes,  and  of 
measuring  exactly  the  value  of  the  pans  of  that  instrument. 
The  duke  of  Chaulnes  proposed  many  other  works  of  the 
same  kind,  which  were  interrupted  by  his  death  Sept.  23, 
1769.  ^ 

Several  of  his  papers  are  published  in  the  volumes  of 
Memoirs  of  the  Academy  of  Sciences;  particularly,  !•  Ob- 
servations on  some  Experiments  in  the  4th  part  of  the  24 
book  of  Newton's  Optics,  an.  1755.  2.  Observations  ott 
the  Platform  for  dividing  mathematical  instruments,  1765; 
3.  Determination  of  the  distance  of  Arcturus  from  the 
Sun's  limb,  at  the  summer  solstice,  1765.  4.  On  some 
means  of  perfecting  astronomical  instruments,  1765. 
5.  Of  some  experiments  relative  to  dioptrics,  1767.  6.  The 
art  of  dividing  mathematical  instruments,  1768.  7*  Obser- 
vations of  the  Transit  of  Venus,  June  3,  1769;  1769. 
8.  New  method  of  dividing  mathematical  and  astronomical 

CHAUNCY  (Charles),  an  eminent  nonconformist, 
2|.nd  great  uncle  to  the  historian  of  Hertfordshire,  was  the 
fifth  and  youngest  son  of  George  Chauncy,  esq.  of  Yard- 
ley-bury  and  New-place  in  Hertfordshire,  by  Agnes,  the 
slaughter  of  Edward  Welch,  and  widow  of  Edward  Hum- 
berstone^  and  was  born  in  1592.  He  was  educated  at 
Westminster  school,  from  which  he  went  to  Trinity  college, 
Cambridge,  where  he  was  admitted  to  his  several  degrees, 

1  Chattfepi^._Moreri.-*NiceroD.--01ivet'8  Hist,  de  )'AoBd<aii«.-^I>M!t  Kifft^ 
*  HuUoa's  OicUonary. 

C  H  A  U  N  O  Y.  217 

(tUl  he  became  bachelor  of  dmnity.     His  reputation  for 
learning  was  such  as  gained  him  the  esteem  and  friendship 
of  the  celebrated  Dr.  Usher^  archbishop  of  Armagh.     In 
consequence  of  his  distinguished  skill  in  Oriental  litera- 
ture, he  was  chosen,  by  the  heads  of  bouses,  Hebrew^  pro- 
fessor; bat  Dr.  Williams,  the  vice-chancellop,  preferring 
a  relation  of  his  own,  Mr.  Chauncy  resigned  his  preten* 
Mens,  and  was  appointed  to  the  Greek  professorship.     He 
was  the  author  of  the  hriuficiq  which  is  prefixed  to  Leigh*a 
'*  Critica  Sacra'^  upon  the  New  Testament.     When  Mr. 
Chauncy  quitted  the  university,  he  became  vicar  of  Wai^ 
ilk  Hertfordshire.     Being  of  puritanical  principles,  he  was 
much  offended  with  the  <^  Book  of  Sports ;''  and  opposed^ 
although  with  less  reason,  the  railing  in  of  the  Communion 
table.     Besides  this,  he  had  the  indiscretion  to  say  in  a 
sermon,  that  idolatry  was  admitted  into  the  church ;  that 
much   Atheism,   Popery,   Arminianism,  and   Heresy  had 
crept  into  it ;  and  that  the  preaching  of  the  gospel  would 
be  suppresi>ed.     Having  by  these  things  excited  the  indigo 
nation  of  the  ruling  powers,  he  was  questioned  in  the  high 
commission ;  and  the  cause  being  referred,  by  order  of 
that  court,  to  the  determination  of  bis  ordinary,  he  wafi 
imprisoned,  condemned  in  costs  of  suit,  and  obliged  to 
make  a  recantation ;  which,  as  it  had  been  extorted  from* 
him  through, fear,  lay  heavy  on  his  mind.     He  continued, 
indeed,  some  years  in  his  native  country,  and  officiated  at 
Marston  Lawrence,  in  the  diocese  of  Peterborough ;  but 
at  length  retired  to  New  England,    where  he  made   an 
open  acknowledgment  of  his  crime  in  signing  a  recanta- 
tion contrary  to  the  dictates  of  his  conscience.     For  some 
conaiderable  time  succeeding  his  arrival  at  New  England 
in  1637,  he  assisted  Mr.  Reyner,    the  minister  of  that 
place;  after  which  he  removed  to  a  town  at  a^  little  dis*- 
tance,    called    ^  Scituate,'*    where  he   continued  twelve 
years  in  the  discharge  of  his  pastoral  office.     When  the 
republican  party   became  predominant  in   England,  Mr* 
Chauncy  was  invited,  by  his  old  parishioners  at  Ware,  to 
return  back  to  his  native  country,  and  had  thoughts  of 
complying,  but  was  so  earnestly  pressed  by  the  trustees  of 
Harvard  college,  in  Cambridge,  which  then  wanted  a  pre- 
sident,  to  accept  of  the  government  of  that  society,  that 
be  could  not  resist  their  solicitations.     This  event  took 
place  in   1654^  and  from  that  time  to  his  death,  which 
happened  on  the  19th  of  February,  1671-2,.  in  the  dOth 

a^lS  C  H  A  U  N  C  Y. 

year  of  his  age,  Mr.  Cbauncy  continued  with  great  repiita* 
lion  at  the  head  of  the  college,  discharging  the  duties  of 
his  station  with  distinguished  attention,   diligence,    and 
ability.     So  high  was  the  esteem  in  which  he  was  held, 
that  when  be  bad  resided  about  two  years  in  Cambridge^ 
the  cburch  of  that  town,  to  whom  he  was  united,  and 
among  whom  he  preached,  kept  a  whole  day  of  thanksgiv- 
ing to  God,  for  the  mercy  they  enjoyed  in  their  connection 
with  him.     Mr.  Cbauncy,  by  his  wife  Catherine,  whose 
life  was  published,  had  six  sons,  all  of  whom  were  brought 
up  for  the  ministry.     Isaac  the  eldest  of  them,  became 
pastor  of  a  nonconformist  society  in  London,  and  wrote 
several  treatises  *.     Mr.  Charles  Cbauncy  had  a  number  of 
descendants,  who  long  flourished  both  in  Old  and  New 
England.     One  of  them  was  the  late  Dr.  Cbauncy  the  phy* 
sician,  who  died  in   1777,  well  known  for  his  skill  and 
taste  in  pictures,  and  for  his  choice  collection  of  themi^ 
afterwards  in  the  possession   of  his  brother,    Nathani^ 
Cbauncy,  esq.  of  Castle*street,  Leicester- fields,  who  died 
in  1790.^ 

CHAUNCY  (Maurice),  whose  name  we  find  some- 
times spelt  Chamney,  Chancy,  and  Channy,  was  a  monk  of 
the  Charter-house,  London,  and  with  many  others  of  the 
same  order,  was  imprisoned  in  the  reign  of  Henry  VIIL 
for  refusing  to  own  his  supremacy.  When  the  monastery 
was  dissolved,  and  several  of  his  brethren  executed  in 
1535,  Cbauncy  and  a  few  others  contrived  to  remain 
unmolested  partly  in  England  and  partly  in  Flanders,  until 
the  accession  of  queen  Mary,  when  they  were  replaced  at 
Shene  near  Richmond,  a  monastery  formerly  belonging  to 
the. Carthusians.  On  the  queen's  death,  they  were  per- 
mitted to  go  to  Flanders,  under  Cbauncy,  who  was  now 
their  prior.  The  unsettled  state  of  the  reformatiop  there 
obliged  them  to  remove  from  Bruges  to  Doway,  and  from 

*  Hiis  Isaac  ChauDcy,  attberesto-  Ternment,  that  they  left  him,  and  he 

-ration,  was  in  poraestion  of  the  rectory  Itrft  off  preaching,  and  was  succeeded 

9i   Wo«dborough   in  Wiltshire,   and  by  the  celebrated  Dr.  Watts,  who  knew 

came  afterwards   to  London,   with  a  the  business  of  the  pulpit,  and  recalled 

▼iew  to  practise  physic,  but  was  in-  the  congregation.     Cbauncy  was  after- 

dnced  to  accept  a  call  from  a  dissent-  wards  appointed  tutor  of  a  dissenting 

ing  meeting,  in  which  he  preached  for  academy,  which  was  afterwards  oon- 

fourteeu  years,  but  being  a  bigotted  ducted  by  Dr.  Ridgley.     He  died  Feb. 

independent,  be  so  tormented  his  hear-  28,1712.    Calamy. 
en  with  declamations  on  church  go- 

^  Biog.  Brit.  art.  Henry  Cbauncy .-—Qent.  Mag.  Tol.  LX.—- NeaPs  Biitory  Of 
Kew  England,  and  of  the  Puritans. 

'  -  J 


.  C  H  A  U  N  C  Y-  •  219 

>  I.oiivain,  where  they  remained  until  a  bouse  was 
'•»^*=*<i  for  them  at  Nieuport,  and  there  at  length  they 
■'  '^nf^d  a  settlement  under  the  crown  of  Spain.  Chaun* 
However,  died  at  Bruges  July  15,  1581,  highly  re- 
■  *vaed  by  those  of  his  own  order.  Of  his  works  one  only 
»-  wurUi  mentioning,  entitled  "  Historia  aliquot  nostri 
*-stM  uii  Martyrum,  cum  pia,  tum  lectu  jucunda,  nunquam 
.iiiLc»iu.c  typis  excusa,**  printed  at  Mentz,  1550,  4to, 
*.»c.i  curious  copper-plates.  This  work,  which  is  very 
contains  the  epitaph  of  sir  Thomas  More,  writtea 
imself;  the  captivity  and  martyrdom  of  Fisher,  bishop 
Rochester;  and  the  same  of  sir  Thodnas  More  ;  and  of 
r  eminent  persons,  who  were  executed  in  Henry  VIlI/s 
::n.  Wood  mentions  a  second  edition  at  Cologne  in 
'  ^08,  which  we  think  we  have  seen.  '• 

CHAUNCY  (Sir  Henry),  knt.  author  of  the  «  Histori- 
*^v\  -Antiquities  of  Hertfordshire,*'  which  bears  a  higher 
price  than  any  other  topographical  volume,  was  descended 
from  a  family  which  came  into  England  with  William  the 
conqueror.  He  was  bom  in  1632,  and  had  his  grammati-* 
cai  education  at  Bishop's  Stortford  school,  under  Mr. 
Thomas  Leigh;  and  in  1647,  was  admitted  in  Gonvil  and 
Caius  college  in  Cambridge.  He  removed,  in  164^,  to 
the  Middle-Temple;  and  in  1656,  was  called  to  the  bar*. 
In  1661,  he  was  constituted  a  justice  of  peace  for  the 
county  of  Hertford ;  made  one  of  the  benchers  of  the  Mid- 
dle-Temple in  1675,  and  steward  of  the  Burgh-court  ia 
Hertford;  and  likewise,  in  1680^  appointed  by  charter, 
recorder  of  that  place.  In  1681,  he  was  elected  reader  of 
the  Middle-Temple ;  and  on  the  4th  of  June,  the  same 
year,  received  the  honour  of  knighthood  at  Windsor^castle, 
from  king  Charles  IL  He  was  chosen  treasurer  of  the 
Middle-Temple  in  1685.  On  the  1 1th  of  June,  1688,  be 
was  called  to  the  degree  of  a  serjeant  at  law,  and  the  same 
year  advanced  to  be  a  Welsh  judge,  or  one  of  his  majesty's 
justices  for  the  counties  of  Glamorgan,  Brecknock,  and 
Kadnor,  in  the  principality  of  Wales.  He  married  three 
wives;  1.  Jane,  youngest  daughter  of  Francis  Flyer,  of 
Brent«Petham,  in  Hertfordshire,  esq.  by  whom  he  bad 
seven  children.  She  died  December  3 1 ,  1672.  S.Eliza- 
-beth,  the  relict  of  John  Goulsmith,  of  Stredset,  in  Norfolk, 
esq  one  of  the  coheirs  of  Gregory  Wood,  of  Risby,  in 
fSuffolk^  gent.     By  her  he  had  no  issue.     She  died  Au* 

I  Ath.  Ox,  Tolrl.— Dodd'g  Church  History.— ^Tan'- 

MO  C  H  A  U  N  C  Y* 

n4,  1677.  3.  His  third  wife  was  Elissaibetb,  the  seeond 
jbter  of  Nathaniel  Thruston,  of  Hoxny,  in  Suffolk^  esq^ 
by  whom  he  had  two  children.  He  died  April  17199  and 
May  1,  was  buried  at  Yardley-Bury.  He  published  '^  The 
llistotricat  Antiquities  of  Hertfordshire,"  i700,  fol.  Tq 
this  work  he  left  some  additionsi  which  afterwards  came 
into  the  hands  of  Salmon,  and  were  the  foundation  of  hia 
History  of  Hertfordshire.  The  first  essay  towards  a  deline* 
ation  of  Hertfordshire  was  attempted  by  John  Norden,  i|i 
bis  *<  Speculum  Britannise/*  published  in  1593;  but  it  ia 
not  to  be  compared,  in  point  of  compleatness  and  perfect 
tion,  with  sir  Henry  Chauncy*s  historical  description.  Sip 
Henry^s  digressions,  however,  are  pedantic,  and  the  work 
would  have  admitted  of  greater  care  with  respect  to  the 
execution  of  the  engravings.  Mr.  Forester,  of  Bradfield  in 
this  county,  father  of  Dr.  Puher  Forester,  chancellor  of 
Lincoln,  and  a  liear  relation  of  sir  Henry  Cbauncy,  had 
made  large  additions  to  sir  Henry^s  book.  The  copy  was 
in  the  hands  of  the  late  William  Forester,  esq.  who  died 
about  1767.  Mr.  Cole  was  possessed  of  another  copy,  witb 
great  manuscript  additions  by  the  late  Browne  Willis.  A 
third  copy,  with  large  additions,  by  Peter  Le  Neve,' is  in 
the  library  of  the  Society  of  Antiquaries.  Two  copies,  with 
copious  additions  in  MS.  were  given  by  Mr.  Gough  to  the 
Bodleian  Library.  The  rev.  Dr.  Paul  Wright,  vicar  of 
Oakley  in  Essex,  and  who  formerly  resided,  as  curate  and 
lecturer^  in  the  town  of  Hertford,  having  received  some 
manuscript  papers  relative  to  sir  Henry  Chuancy's  work, 
proposed  to  publish  an  accurate  edition  of  it  with  continua** 
tions  to  the  present  time,  but  this  was  never  executed.  A 
new  edition  has  lately  been  announced  by  Mr.  Clutterbuck 
of  Watford,  who  has  purchased  the  MS  Collections  of  Mr. 

CHAUSSE  (Michael  Akgelo  pb  la),  a  learned  anti- 
quary of  Paris  in  the  last  century,  went  early  in  life  to 
Rome  for  the  sake  of  studying  antiquities ;  and  the  same 
taste  that  had  led  him  to  that  famous  city  induced  him  to 
mmain  tfiere.  His  <<  Musasum  Romanum,*'  Rome,  1690, 
firi.  and  augmented  to  2  vols.  foL  in  1746,  evinced  the 
anccess  of  his  application.  This  valuable  collection  com* 
prises  a  numerous  succession  of  antique  gems,  which  had 
ttever  befoM  been  given  by  impressioxi  to  the  public,  en- 

1  Biog.  Brit. — Cough's  Topogrephy.-*-MS  communication  by  Henry  Ellia, 
esq.  respectii^  the  4st9  of  bis  4estb,  wkiok  is  grossly  emu»«eu8  ia  |be  Biog.  Brit^ 

C  H  A  U  S  S  E.  ^t 

graved  on  two  hundred  and  eighteen  plates.  It  has  gone 
through  several  editions.  Craevius  inserted  part  of  it  ia 
his  '^  Thesaurus  Antiq.  Romanorum."  The  same  author 
published  at  Rome  a  collection  of  engraved  gems,  entitled 
'  "  Gemme  aiiiiche  figurate,"  Rome,  1700,  4to;  and  "  Au** 

reus  Constanttni  nummus,  &c.  explicatus,*'  Rome,  170?^ 
4to.  His  last  publication  was  *^  Le  Pitture  antit^he  d^le 
Grotte  di  Roma  e  del  Sepolcro  di  Nasoui,  &c/'  the  plat^ 
by  Pietro  Santo  and  Bartoli,  Rome,  1706^  fql.  ThesQ 
different  works  present  a  great  stock  of  erudition  and  sa*« 
gacity,  and  are  much  consulted  by  the  curious;  we  have 
no  account  of  the  author*s  death.  * 

CHAUVEAU  (Francis),  a  painter,  engraver,  and  de- 
signer of  great  talents  and  industry,  was  born  at  Paris  ia 
1613,  and  died  there   in  1676.     His   first  performances 
were  some  engravings  from  the  pictures  of  Laurence  de  la 
Hire,  who  was  his  master ;  but  the  liveliness  of  his  ima? 
gi nation  not  comporting  with  the  tardiness  of  the  gravhig 
tool,  he  began  to  delineate  his  own  thought  in  aquafortis* 
If  his  works  have  not  the  delicacy  and  mellowness  that  dis-> 
tingttish  the  engravings  of  some  other  artists,  yet  he  threw 
into  them  all  the  fire,  all.  the  force  and  sentiment  of  which 
his  art  is  susceptible.     He  worked  with  surprising  facility. 
Bis  children  used  to  read  to  him  after  supper  the  passages 
of  history  he  intended  to  draw*     He  instantly  seized  the 
most  striking  part  of  the  subject,  traced  the  design  of  it 
on  the  plate  of  copper,  with  the  point  of  his  graver ;  and, 
before  he  went  to  bed,  fitted  it  for  being  corroded  by  the 
aquafortis  the  nes^t  day,  while  he  employed  himself  in 
engraving  or  drawing  something  else.     He  supplied  not 
only  painters  and  sculptors  with  designs,  but  also  carvers 
and  goldsmiths,  jewellers  and  embroiderers,  and  even  joinr 
ers  and  smiths.     Besides  4000   pieces  engraved   by  his 
hand,  and  1400  executed  from   his  designs,  he  painted 
several  small  pictures,  which  were  much  admired,   and 
many  of  them  were  purchased  hy  Le  Brun.   The  multitude 
of  works  on  which  he  was  ei^loyed  brought  their  author^ 
to  hia  faoaae^  and  their  frequient  meetings  and  conversa** 
dons  there  terminated  ita  ibe  establishment  of  the  Frencii 
academy.     He  was  adtnit^d  .into  the  royal  academy   of 
painting  and  sculpture  in.l663»  and  obtained  a  p^n^ion  foe 

22fl  C  H  A  U  V  E  A  U. 

engraving  the  plates  of  the  Carousal.  His  stnall  platen^ 
Mr.  Strutt  says,  are  executed  in  a  style  much  resembling 
that  of  Le  Clerc,  founded  upon  -that  of  Callot.  In  his 
large  prints  he  approaches  near  to  that  coarse,  dark  style^ 
which  was  adopted  by  bis  tutor,  La  Hire.  Among  the  sets 
of  prints  executed  from  his  own  compositions,  are  those 
for  the  **  Bible  History  ;"  the  "  History  of  Greece ;"  the 
"^Metamorphosis  of  Benserade ;"  the  "  Jerusalem  of  Ta«— 
so ;"  the  /*  Fables  of  La  Fontaine ;"  "  Alaric,"  or  «  Rome 
conquered  ;^'  and  several  romances.  Among  the  prints  en* 
graved  from  other  masters  are,  **  Christ  with  the  Aisciples 
at  Emmaus,"  from  Titian ;  a  "  Concert,"  from  Dominichino  5 
the  "  Life  of  St  Bruno,"  from  Le  Sueur;  "Apollo  and 
Daphne,"  from  N.  Poussin  ;  "  A  Virgin  and  Child,  with 
St.  John  and  Kttle  Angels,"  finely  etched,  and  finished 
with  much  taste;  and  "  Meleager  presenting  the  Head  of 
the  Boar  to  Atalanta."  With  all  his  talents  and  bme^ 
Perrault  assures  us  thatiie  was  a  man  of  great  modesty. ' 

CHAUVEAU  (Rene),  son  of  the  foregdng,  was  bom 
in  1663,  and  followed  the  footsteps  of  his  father.  Like 
him,  he  had  an  admirable  facility  in  inventing  subjects  and 
in  embellishing  them,'  and  a  variety  and  ingenious  turn  ia 
the  disposition  of  his  figures  ;  but  he  particularly  distin* 
guished  himself  as  a  sculptor.  He  worked  for  Louis  XI  V« 
and  for  several  foreign  princes.  The  marquis  de  Torci  was 
the  last  that  employed  him,  at  his  chateau  de  Sabl&  This 
nobleman  hkving  asked  him  what  wages  he  would  have  by 
the  day  ?  Chauveau,  provoked  at  the  question,  which  he 
thought  degrading,  abruptly  quitted  both  his  .work  and 
employer,  and  came  to  Paris,  where  he  died  in  1722,  at 
the  age  of  fifty-nine,  from  the  fatigue  of  the  journey,  in 
addition  to  the  vexation  he  suffered  from  having  changed 
his  money  into  bank  notes.  * 

CHAUVIN  (Stephen)^  a  protestant  clergyman,  was 
bprn  at  Nismes  in  1640,  and  being  obliged  to  leave  his 
country  upon  the  revocation  of  the^edict  of  Nantes,  went 
to  Rotterdam,  and  afterwards  to  Berlin,  where  he  became 
professor  of  philosophy.  He  died  in  1725  at  the  age  of 
eighty-five.  He  published,  1.  A  ^^  Lexicon  philosophiciim,** 
Rotterdam,  1692,  fol.  and  at  Leuwarden,  nvSj  wid^  platen ' 
2.  A  new  '*  Journal  des  S^avans,''  begun  in  1694  at  Rot- 
terdam, and  continued  at  Berlin,  but  less  estieemed  tl|a« 

t  Moreri.— Diet.  HiBt.«.P«nattlt  les  ttOMUl  lllMSlrw* 
■  Moien«^Dict.  Hwt. 

C  fl  A  U  V  1  N,  2«S 

t^e  '^  Histoire  des  Ouvrages  des  S^avans'*  by  Basnage,  who 
on  the  continent  was  considered  as  a  better  writer,  and  a 
man  of  more  taste.  ^ 

CHAZELLES  (John  Matthew  de),  a  French  matbe* 

tician  and  engineer,  was  born  at  Lyons  July  24,  1657, 

and  educated  there  in  the  college  of  Jesuits,  from  whence 

he  removed  to  Paris  in  1675.     He  first  made  an  acquaint^ 

ance  with  du  Hamel,  secretary  to  the  academy  of  sciences ; 

who,  observing  his  genius  to  lie  strongly  towards  astronomy, 

presented  him  to  Cassini.     Cassini  took  him  with  him  to 

the  observatory,  and  employed  him  under  him,  where  he 

made  a  very  rapid  progress  in  the  science.     In  1683,  the 

academy  carried  on  the  great  work  of  the  meridian  to  the 

north  and  south,  begun  in  1670,  and  Cassini  having  the 

southern  quarter  assigned  him,  took  in  the  assistance  of 

Chazelles.     In   1684,  the  duke  of  Montemart  engaged 

Chazelles  to  teach  him  mathematics,  and  the  year  after 

procured  him  the  preferment  of  hydrography-professor  for 

the  gallies  of  Marseilles,  where  he  set  up  a  school  for 

young  pilots  designed  to  serve  on  board  the  gallies.     la 

1686,  the  gallies  made  four  little  campaigns,  or  rather  four 

courses,  for  exercise,  during  which  Chazelles  always  went 

on  board,  kept  his  school  on  the   sea,  and  shewed  the 

practice  of  what  he  taught     He  likewists  made  a  great 

many  geometrical  and  astronomical  observations,  which 

enabled  him  to  draw  a  new  map  of  the  coast  of  Provence. 

In  1687  and  1688  he  made  two  other  sea  campaigns,  and 

drew  a  great  many  plans* of  ports,  roads,  towns,  and  forts, 

which  were  so   much  prized  as  to  be  lodged  with  the 

ministers  of  state.     At  the  beginning  of  the  war  which 

ended, with  the  peace  of  Ryswick,  Chazelles  and  some 

mari]\e  o;fficers  fancied  the  gallies  might  be  so  contrived  as 

to  live  upon  the  ocean,  and  might  serve  to  tow  the  men  of 

war  when  the  wind  failed,  or  proved  contrary ;  and  also 

help  to  secure  the  coast  of  France  upon  the  ocean.     He 

was  sent  to  the  western  coasts  in  July  1689  to  prove  this 

scheme;  and  in  1690  fifteen'  Rallies,   new-built,  set  sail 

from   Rochefort,   cruised  as  far  as  Torbay   in  England, 

and  proved  serviceable  at  the  descent  upon  Tinmouth. 

Here  he  perfonned  the  functions  of  an  engineer,  and 

shewed  the  courage  of  a  soldier.    The  general  officers  he 

served  under  declaimed  that  when  they  sent  him  to  take  a 

S2«  C  H  A  Z  E  L  jL-  E  S- 

Yieir  of  any  post  of  the  enemy,  tbey  could  rely  entirely 
upop  his  inteliigenoe.  The  gallies,  after  their  expeditiqn^ 
came  to  the  mouth  of  the  Seine  into  the  ba^sonfi  of  Havro 
de  Grace  and  Honfleur;  but  could  not  winter  because  it 
was  necessary  to  empty  the»e  basK>ni  several  tim^s,  to  pre-* 
vent  the  stagnation  and  stench  of  the  water.  He  proposed, 
to  carry  them  to  Rohan ;  aod  though  all  the  pilots  were 
against  him,  objecting  insuperable  difficultie99  b^  sue* 
ceeded  in  the  undertaking*  While  he  was  at  Rob^n  he 
digested  into  order  the  observations  which  he  had  made  oa 
the  coasts,  and  drew  distinct  mapis,  with  a  portulan  t9 
them,  viz.  a  large  description  of  every  haven,  of  the 
depth,  the  tides,  the  dangers  and  advantages  discovered^ 
&c.  which  were  inserted  in  the  *^  Neptune  Fran9ois,"  pubr 
lished  in  1692,  in  which  year  he  was  engineer  at  the 
descent  at  Oneille.  In  i^93  M.  de  Pontchartrain,  theft 
secretary  of  state  for  the  marine,  and  afterwards  chanceL* 
lor  of  France,  resolved  to  get  the  ^^  Neptune  Frau^oia^* 
carried  on  to  a  second  volume,  which  was  also  to  include 
.the  Mediterraneaa.  Cbazelles  desired  that  be  might  have 
a  yearns  voyage  in  this  sea,  for  making  astronomical  ob* 
servations  ;  and,  the  request  being  granted,  be  passed  by 
Greece,  Egypt,  aud  the  other  parts  of  Turkey,  with  bis 
quadrant  an4  telescope  in  his  hand.  When  he  was  ia 
£g¥pt  he  measured  the  pyramids,  and  found  that  the  four 
aides  of  the  largest  lay  precisely  againat  the  four  quarters 
of  the  world.  Now  as  it  is  highly  probable  that  this  eicact 
position  to  east,  west,  north,  and  south,  was  designed 
3000  years  ago  by  those  that  raised  this  vast  atru^ture,  it 
follows,  that,  during  so  long  an  interval,  there  h^  been 
DO  alteration  in  thefiituation  of  the  heavens  ;  or,  that  the. 
poles  of  the  earth  and  the  meridians  have  all  along  coor 
tiaued  the  sanoe.  He  likewiae  made  a.  report  of  his  voyage 
in  the  Levant,  and  gave  tlie  academy  all  the  satisfaction 
they  wanted  concerning  the  position  of  Alexandria :  upoo 
whieh  he  was  made  a  member  of  the  academy  in  1695. 
Cbazelles  died  Jan.  16,  1710,  of  a  malignant  fever.  He 
was  a  very  extraordinajy  and  uaeful  man ;  and,  betides  hia 
great  geniua  and  attainments,  was  also  remarkable  for  hia 
moral  and  religioiis  endowments.  ^ 

CHEFFONTAINES  (Ghiustopher},  in  Latin,  a  Capite 
FaQtiuaiy .  a  learned  divine,  fifty-fifth  general  of  the  oor- 

>  Eloge  by  f  oatcneUe.^'-^ortri.^-^ultoii't  Diet 

C  H  E  F  f  0  *»  t  A  I  N  E  S.  fi* 

ahd  mti^ht  tmiiyj  9thd  born  in  16r32V  H«  ^^  HtiJilair 
ad^clfbis&ojp  Of  CsAskredi  to  ei^et'ci^e  ^  efibtopal  offid^  iil 
tbe  dfb^ese  of  S^^risy  ifi  the  ^hi^iit^  of  OArdlbftI  dd  Pdev& 
if^cli^nta^  £6,  1595,  1^  Rod«f,  leatifig  ikev^iral  tfa^o«^ 
^effl  li^rks;  aM6tig  tb^m,  <<  D^  ifece^&rii  The6t6gi2d 
SciioUitlcit  ttjfh^tiicnie/*  Parts,  15^6,'  8y5.  Of^hicbbib- 
^i^gr^ph^ri  iritis  iHi  tor  b^  careful  ihat  tbd  Kaf  itiAtktd  E 
be  jHyi  WtftMihg,  6f  is  iv6t  ffom  ^nofk^f  b66Ic^  it  being  fre- 
^ti^ntl^  Wktititi^.  rie  iVrot^  ^1^  a  tdlnik^  Against  ditels^ 
^tftitlfea  •*  Cdfrftffatibn  itf  Potrft  iTHortneilr/'  1579,  8V0, 
d«<f  "  I>^  Vit-ginitafe  Mariite  et  Josepbi,"  1578,  8Va,-  &c. 
JDttpt^  hm  a  v^  Ibtlg  artitle  on  <7beffontaines.  Re  ap- 
p6uti  Wirne  b^en  'H  iMLh  of  great  leatniiig,  And  tinddr- 
^d6d  A±  htngdig^s  besides  his  natite  Bi&  Breton.  > 

CHE'KE  fSfii  J6ftK),  a  Jeai^fied  Writer  of  the  ^Hietiiih 
6€miiff^  Ai^heii&ei  irotH  ^ti  itticmi  fdriiily  in  the  Isie  o^ 
Wiglft,  w^  bd^h  Hi  CMnbrld^,  Jmi«  16,  15^4,  being  th6 
9dti  6f  P6teY  Cbeke,  gi^ht.  and  AgnM,  daughter  of  Mr. 
Itiiftciti  of  CaiViMidgedhird.  Aft^  rdctif itig  bis  ^ramnra^ 
t^fi  e&haitidn  (ihd«r  Mr.  Jdhn  Mbrgan,  he  was  adrtiitt^d 
ifib  S9t.  5dhti'i  tane^ii,  mtthriA^Hi  itt  lidf,  where  he 
hecim^  fery  ^lAeM  fbt  hM  kn6itiedg^  in  the  learned 
"KWgtfage^,  ptfrtieutetly  the  Greek  tongiley  whifch  wafti  then 
sCf j^ost  unfliWttidtJr  Aegleet^.  6eib^  fi^cdnolc^e^ded  as  sttcb, 
BV  Dt  nitHiy  to  Kirfg  Hehfj  VlII.  he  ^trAs  soOn  »fiet  made 
lfni<**s  scbohli-,  *nd  ^uppifed  by  his  tfitogesty  i^  montjr 
f^f ''Ms  ediicittioh,'  l^nd  fof  bisr  ch&rges  in  trarellj^g  inttif 
folYstgn  6tmArriei  WhiK  he  cblfitihu^d  in  coltg^6'  h6  ifr*^ 
fn^dCid^dt  it  more  ^ttb'sta^fi&l  khd  t^^'ful  Kind  of  IdLrningf 
A^ti  wb^i  hkd  Efe^n  re<^«iVed  f^  sorfi6  y^xth ;  imd  ^hcew«' 
A^dd  ^dciflH  tfae  Md'dy  of  thdi  Oi*^^  And  LAtin  tin's 
^Mig^,  arMf  df  dS^Ihity.  After  having'  tak^n  bis  degree! 
ill  arts  be  was  chosen  Greek  lecturer  of  the  university. 
Tber^  was  no  salary  .belonging no  that  place:  but  king 
.  Miiffy  HAvthl  fternnd^d^  ibotit  the  year  1540,  a  pfof^stlor* 
smp  of  tbe  bxeek  bhgue  in  the  university  of  Cambridge^ 
¥m  i  t/dpitid  bf  forty  potinds  ayear^  Mr.  Cheke,  fhougb 
^ut  MUntf-^k  f^rf  at  ag^,  wis  choifen  thfe:first  jirofessoi 
ThiA  place  he  heli  long  after  he  ieit  the  university,  namelyj 

tilt  pfiitMt  1^51,  Arid  t^Aisr  highly  im^triA^ntAl  in  btin^nf 

tbe  GreeK  language  into  repu*ie.    fite  endieavouredi  parti* 
Vot.  IX.  Q 


C  H  E  K  E. 

cularly  to  reform  and  restore  the  original  pronunciation  of 
it)  but  met  with  great  opposition  from  Stephen  Gardiner, 
bishop  of  Wincht^ster,  chancellor  of  the  university^  and 
their  correspondence,  on  the  subject  was  published.   Cheke» 
bpweyer,  in  the  course  of  his  lectures,  went  through  all 
Homer,  all  Euripides,    part  of  Herodotus,    and   through 
Sophocles  twice,  to.  the  advantage  of  his  hearers  and  bis 
own  credit     He  was  also   at  the   same  time   university- 
orator.     About  the  year  1 543  he  was  incorporated  ipastet 
of  arts  at  Oxford,  where  he  had  studied  some  time.     Oq 
the  10th  of  July  1544  he  was  sent  for  to  court,  in  order  to 
be  school- master,  or  tutor,  for  the  Latin  tongue,  jointly 
with  sir  Anthony  Cooke,  to  prince  Edward  :  and,  about 
the  same  time,  as  an  encouragemeiikt,  the  king  granted 
him,  being  then,  as  it  is  supposed,  in  orders,  one  of  the 
canonries  in  his  new-founded  college  at  Oxford,  now  Christ 
Church  ;  but  that  college  being  dissolved  in  the  beginning 
of  1545,  a  pension  was  allowed  him-  in  the  room  of  bis 
canon^ry.     While  he  was  entrusted  with  the  prince's  edu- 
cation, he  made  use  of  all  the  interest  he  had  in  promoting 
men  of  learning  and   probity.     He  seems  also   to  have, 
sometimes   had  the   lady   Elizabeth  under  his  care.     In 
1547,  he  married  Mary,  daughter  of  Richard   Hill,  Ser- 
jeant of  the  wine-cellar  to  king  Henry  VIII.     When  his 
royal  pupil*  king  Edward  VI.  came  to  the  crown,  he  re- 
warded him  for  his  care  and  pains  with  an  annuity  of  one^ 
hundred  marks;   and  also  made  him  a  grant  of  several 
lands  and  manors  *,     He  likewise  caused  liim,  by  a  man- 
damus, to  be  elected  provost  of  King^s  college,  Cambridge, , 
vacant  by  the  deprivation  of  George  Day,  bishop  of  Chi-. 
Chester.     In  May   1 549,  he  retired  to  Cambridge,  upon 
some  disgust  he  had  taken  at  the  court,  but  was  the  same, 
summer  appointed  one  of  the  king^s  commissioners  for  vi«. 

■  *  Id  1548  be  granted  to  him  and 
Walter  Moyle^  iht  very  advanta^reou* 
purcttaM  of  the  cckllege  of  St.  John 
Baptist  of  Stoke,  near  Clare,  in  Suffolk, 
and  likewise  all  the  messuageg,  tene- 
ments, &c.  with  the  appurtenances 
belonging  to  the  college  of  Corpus 
Cbristi,  in  the  paritih  of  St.  Laurence 
Poultney;  London,  lately  dissolved ; 
together  with  divers  other  lands  and 
tenements  in  'the  counties  of  Suffolk^ 
Devon,  Kent,  and  in  London ;  for  the 
f um  of  958/.  3s.  5d,  ob,  a  good  penny- 
wortii,  undoubtedly,  as  Mr.  Strype  ob- 

serves.   The  next  year  he  obtained  the 
house  and  site  of  the  late  priory  oT 
Spalding  in  the  county  of  Lincoln,  the 
manor  of  Hunden  in  the  same  county.  * 
and  divers  other  lands  and  tenenlelks' 
in  the  counties  of  Lincoln  and  Suffalk^ 
to  the  yearly  value  of  118/.  lid*,  q.  and 
no  rent  reserved.    As  we  bear  no  more 
of  church  preferments  given  to  him,  it 
seems  doubtful  whether  he  ever  was  in 
orders,  and  it  is  certain  that  the  ca« 
nonrj  of  Christ  Cburch>  mentioned  ia 
the  text,  might  have  been  held  by  a 
layman  at  that  time. 

G  H  fi  K  Ei  327 

Siting  that  university.     The  October  following,  he  was  one 
of  the  thirty-two  .commissioners  appointed  to  examine  then 
old  ecclesiastical  law-books^  and  to  compile  from  thence  a 
body  of   ecclesiastical   laws  for  the  government  of  thb 
church ;  and  again,  three  years  after,  he  was  put  in  a  new 
commission  issued  out  for  the  same  purpose.     He  returned 
to.  court  in.  the  winter  of  1 549,  but  met  there  with  great 
uneasiness  on .  account  of  some  offence  given  by  his  wife 
to  Anne,  duchess  of-  Somerset,  whose  dependent  she  was. 
Mr.  Cheke  himself  was  not  exempt  from  trouble,  being  o^ 
the  number  of  those  who  were  charged  with  having  sug- 
gested bad  counsels  to  the  duke  of  Somerset,  and  after- 
wards betrayed  him.     But  having  recovered   from  these 
imputations,  his  interest  and  authority  daily  increased,  and 
he.  became  the  liberal  patron  of  religious  and  learned  men, 
both  English  and  foreigners.     In  1550  he  was  made  chie£ 
gentleman  of  the  king's  privy -chamber,  whose  tutor  hm 
still  continued  to  be,  and  who  made  sv  wonderful  progress 
through,  his  instructions.     Mr.  Cheke,  to  ground  him  well 
in  niorality,  read  to  him  Cicero's  philosophical  works,  and 
Aristotle's  Ethics ;  but  what  was  of  greater  importance,  in- 
structed him  in  the  general  history,  the  state  and  interest, 
the  laws  and  customs  of  England.     He  likewise  directed 
him  to  keep  a  diary  of  all  the  remarkable  occurrences  that 
happened,  to  which,  probably,  we  are  indebted   for  the 
king's  Journal  (printed  from  the  original  in  the  Cottoniaa 
Lbrary)  in  Burnett's  History  of  the  reformation.     In  Octo- 
ber, 1551,  his  majesty  conferred   on   him  the  honour  of 
knighthood  ;  and  to  enable  hiuh  the  better  to  support  that 
rank,    made  him   a   grant,   or  gift  in  fee  simple    (upon 
consideration  of  his  surrender  of  the  hundred  marks  above^ 
mentioned),  of  the.  whole  manor  of  Stoke,  near  Clare,  ex- 
clusively of  the  college  before  granted  him,  and  the  ap- 
purtenauces  in  Suffolk  and  Essex,  with  divers  other  lands^ 
tenements,  &c.  all  to  the  yearly  value  of  145/.  \9s.  3d. 
And  a  pasture,,  with  other  premises,  in  Spalding;  and  the 
rectory,  and  odier  premises,  in  Sandon.     The  same  year 
he  held  two  private  conferences  with  some  other  learned 
persons  upon  the  subject  of  the  sacrament,  or  transubstan- 
tiation.     The  first  on  November  the  25th,   in   secretary 
Cecil's  hbuse,  and  the  second  December  sd  the  same  year, 
at  sir  Richard  Morison's.     The  auditors   were,  the  lord 
Rwssel,  sir  Thomas  Wroth  of  the  bed-chamber,  sir  An- 
thony Cooke,   one  of  the  king's  tutors,    Throgmorton, 

a  2 



d^^  C  H  E  K  fi. 

atttriV^rfeih  df  ttit  tecli^^c]^,  Mr..Kn6!te^,  rfnd  MA  m*^ 
flngrtoii,  \^hh  Whcnh  ^6ife  ^omed  tfefe  l»ar^(5tftS  tf  Ndrthafcm^^^ 
ttorf,  afirrf  <he^  eari  of  Hntlknd,  ift^  the  >ec(^(f  ^oii'^^jrto^. 
The  pbnish  disputantjr  f6r  the  ferf  p^6s*h6fe  #6^^,  F^cKm- 
fiaiW,  aftert^ards  dctfn  of  St.  PatA'i,  and  T6flg ;  and  at  the? 
rf6doridf  dispfdtation,  WatsCiW.  The  ditsp'uta^Wtt  6ri  th6  dtHtnt 
tftrfe  w^re,  Sr  John  Chefc6,  sff  WHlftam  GecIFy  H^rtf,  dfea^ 
«^  Ddtiatn',  Whitehead,  atfef  GrJndAf.  Sbtn^  actoufnt  6P 
tfr^^e  dfeputatt<rt»  is  irtilT  ext^irt  W  La<fft,  iW  tlic  li»M^  rf 
]if  SS.  Belonging  id  B6n6*t  66flege,-  GitnbrMg^ ;  irtS  from 
tli^rt'c^  ^uljfeherf  iit  Eti'gliA  by  Mr;  Stry^^ in  hi*  riYt€W4ti% 
Life  of  ^if  Joh'rf  Ctr€ke.  Sh-  Jdbn  aflsey  pi»6etfr^  B\i'(ft^"'af 
SfSS.  ^d  the  flfdstifityus*  LtefKto Js  valrfAte  coIfe6'ti6rtf  fcf 
ifhe'  king*^  ftb'^ai^y  j  but!  dthtif  <y«rtrig  fa  rfi*  Jobtf^i  ttrliW¥- 
toUi^iy  di  tlhfdirgk  ^ottte  othei'  accidertt;  *ey  iieieit  ttXi^&3^ 
rfteiT  desT!inati6n'.  Four  volume?s  df  thi^  66Wectionsr  wei^ 
gi^en'  hy  h%  ^tin  I*ehVy  €hete,  to  ftuutj^hvey  Pui'efoy,  es^- 
<yn6  of  queen  EH2fdbfeth*s  c56unc?l  'M  the  nbr th,-  whos*  sohy- 
TB6ttas^  Piirefoy,  6f  Barwdl  m  LeicestWiMrt,  ga*%£hett 
t?6' the  fatiibu^  intiqtrity,  WHKadfi  Hoftotf^  ifnf  »« 1^  ;  ihd'  htf 
mide'  itstd  of  ihent  i*  biff  deictipthti  6t  LeiiesfeWMflE?.- 
Many  yejtfS  after,  fie  pnresenrterf  tWife  ft)  <hd  Bo^leSfth'  B- 
braiy  srt  Ox:f6rd,  wftete  the?y  nov*  j^ie,  SoflAe^otfrtr  ^  thi^ 
c6ft6(itiot\^,  acftif  C^e^rf  d^a*,^  e*me  iWto-  th*  hands  6# 
William  tefff  Paget;  ^nd  sir  Wffliath  CecfJ;  The  (Wi^tttf! 
df  tfi^'  "  It?rt6rkry,^^  M  fi'^e  yMxh^  4io^  19  fti  tbte  Bod^ 
letdti^  UbVaryr  dutf  t^<y  volnmes  of  eollfectiotii',  xeMifng^y 
Afitairi,  s^e  in  the  6ott6niatf. 

Mr;  Chefre  fcein^  it  CanWWid^'  «  tBe  ^^aimtfehc*«eii# 
in  15^^ 2,  disptttedr  thii*e  agAihsl  Je^tis  Cfiriilfrf  lofcrf  descfeii* 
ihW  heir.  0\i  rbfe  2ith'6f  Atign^tj  th^  ^i«n<i  y^^y  he  ^te» 
made  cfratnb^rlain'  of  the'  ekcheqir^r  fdr  Bfe ;  aAtf  ?n  I  i  55^ 
cotistittited  clerk  o^  tSife'  coiiiitil  j  atttf,  ^bori  aftidr;  6m  of 
th6  ^cr6td/ies'  of  sta!tie;  afnd  a  prtVy-'cburi^ribf.  I*  JHWjr 
the  sa'Tii^  yedr,  the  MiVg  granted  to  him,  aftd  Mjh«i's»ABllW,' 
the  hdtioMT  6t  ^I'are  in  Suffoffi,  wfeh  diver*  oft?ey  hen*,-  tA 
tfre  ^eiri;^  va1Vi6  of  ott^=  h^indred  pCmrtdb.  EHs  2ieal  fdf  HWf- 
protesta'nti  refigM^  imfdeed  Mm'  to  at^pfove  Af  tW4  slrtilei 
riient  6f  the  croMrn  upon*  the  ludfy  Jdtte  Grey?  a^d-  1«« 
acted,  but  for  a  very  short  tinie,  as  stecretary  to  h^f  atttf 
hfer  council  ^fVer  kin^  Edwalrd^s  defeeas^,  for  *««*/  hpdti 
queen  Mary'3  afccessibn  t!6  the  thtonfe,  hi  Wa*  ^bUim1fte# 
to  the  Tovirer*,  and  edi  indictitterit  drivftt  i4^  igalifist  1M% 
the  12th  ok*  r3^h  of  August.    Tht^  yeAr  ftHfewi'Aif,  afteY  fitf 

.^f  {^di^f  Md  rft*4  M  e^pl^n^d  ^o  %w  sojipp  Gij^ik 

:^^it  t^p  ^^vipg  p/jGqqded  the  pgpi^J)  ;z;eplftJUJ  w^  Cng\afl,d,  Ijtfs 
yrbp^jP  f^ist^t^  was  jcqnfi^oQJied  ,to  the  jQueen's  usej,  upd^r 

,V^*y4-  8W«  Wy  fie^oced  ii)  circufl^Uqc^^^  h^  was  fpxfi^ 
49  J;^d  ft  Pfift^k-l^ftture  fit  Sti^^rg^  |br>is^ub^i?t^^9. 
Ig.Jtl^  Jl^eg^ipiug  9f  .the  y^efir  J 55^^  J^  wife  bemg  .c^^e 
cjfl  firj^^s^?,  fejp  reswjly.ed,  Jpfeifefty  WQ^i  *  trefcAefpws  ;\nyji^. 
.^^p  b^  jT^cj^A^jBd  J5«^^i?fi^  ioi:^  P^j^t  and  ^  jQbi)# Ji^sj^ip, 
•«>  fi9  M^kS^f    S^  M^  'b^  cQ^mnUpd  ^XxflXogy,  in  Avbj^di  ' 

¥ffde»^ftl«i^  *#t  j^j^^^y^  .^n^  b^ug  JpQdYj?^  by  %;  ^^Jfj. 
w,«fiB.  Fgr,  fey^r4«r  pf  Jmas  Pbjbp  ^'  W^  yf^Y'M^  .^Sfe 

^  May,  jxnbflrsp^,  l^^j^dfoWed,  |?flW,  apd^fivp  jintO(a 
H^SBW^  fiWtV^#4  Jtj?  tbe  aftaf^tbarbpj^^,j^v^t  on  .l^qjr^.a 

#^«P  b^  iW«s  pppiw.tted  closj?  pr^oyer.     %  ^0Q^  fopod 

}JI»t  ^)W  ?»^9§  P».  ?fiP9W^ ^  W  Jtl^ilk^,;  #  .^9. W  .t}je 
iflij^eo^  c^^np  vHif^re  /jent  tp  tbe  f  9wer  |o  /^de|i^TOwr.Jp 
;;fqQl^qUe  bi^^  vV>  tfee  pW^^  ^f  .I^W^>  tbonjg^  .yitbout  #gf- 
cess.  But  tbe  desire  of  gaining  so  great  a  man,  induced 
the  queen  to  send  to  him  Dr.  Fecbenham,  d«an  oi  8t  Ptttfrs, 
^  pijan  pf  ^  mi9djer9.te  tejp»per,  ^^n^  with  wbp|p  !?=e  ^ad  b^^nt 
Aoqiifiiji^ed  in  4he  late  reiga.  This  maA's  arj^i^meiite  being  . 
infoi;c^d  by  the  dreadful  alternative,  "  either  copiply,  or 
JftMfiR*"  sir  J^obp's  fr;»iUy  w»s  uo%  able  to  ji^ijbbsitand  Ui^epi. 
He  was,  therefore,  at  his  pwn  desire,  carried  before  cardi- 
nal Pole,  who  grayrfy  advised  bim  to  return  tp  thp  .uoity 
ct  fehe«httvch  :  and  in  this  dilemma  of  £ear  and  perplexity, 
he  endeavoured  to  escape  .by  drawing  up  ^  pstper^  ep^^iift- 
ing  of  quotation;  ^HJ^  pi  the  fathers  tbatt  »&^0^d  W  .(LPmM* 


^50  CHE  K  E. 

nance  transubstantiation,  representing  thetn  as  his-owti 
opinion,  and  hoping  th&t  would  suffice  to  jMrocure  bim  his 
liberty,  without  any  other  public  declarations  of  bis  change. 
This  paper  be  sent  to  cardinal  Pole,  with  a  letter  dated 
July  15,  in  which  he  desired  him  to  spare  him  from  making 
an  open  recantation  ;  but  that  being  refused,  he  wrote  a 
letter  to  the  queen  the  same  day,^  in  which  he  declared  bis 

'  readiness  to  obey  her  laws,  and  other  orders  of  religion. 
After  this,  he  made  his  solemn  submission  before  the  car- 
dinal, suing  to  be  absolved,  and  received  into  the  bosond 
of  the  Roman  catholic  church ;  which  was  granted  faim  ks 
H  great  favour.  But  still  he  was  forced  to  make  a  public 
recantation  before  the  queen,  on  the  4th  of  October,  and 
another  long  one  before  the  whole  court ;  and  submitted  to 

.  whatever  penances  should  be  enjoined  him  by  the  pope^ 
legate,  i.  e.  the  cardinal.  After  all  these  mortificatiohs, 
his  lands  were  restored  to  him,  but  upon  condition  of  ah 
exchange  with  the  queen  for  others*.  The  papists,  by 
way  of  triumph  over  him  and  the  protestants,  obliged  iiim 
to  keep  company  generally  with  cathofitis-  and  even  to  be 

'present  at  the  examinations  and  convictions  of  tbose^tbey 
called  heretics.  But  his  remorse,  and  iextreme  vexation 
for  what  he  had  done,  sat  so  heavy  upon  hrs  mind,  that 
pining  away  with  shame  and  regret,  he  drW  September  13, 
1557 y  aged  forty- three,  at  his  friend  Mr.  Peter  Osb<Mttd's 
house,  in  Wood-street,  London^  and  wasburied  vA  ^t,  AJ- 
ban's  chlirch  there,  irr  the  north  chapel  of  the  ch6ir,  the 
16th  of 'September.  A  stone  was  set  afterwards  over  bis 
grave,  with  an  inscrrprionf.  He  left  three;  sons;  Johniand 
Ed^td,  the  two  youngest,  died  without  issfue;  Henry, 
the  eldest,  was  secretary  to  the  council  iti  the  north,  uiid 

'  knighted  by  queen  Elizabeth :  he  died  about  the  year 
1586.     Thomas,  his  eldest  son'  and  heir,  was  knighted  by 

• ,-  .  ■  •  .  '  •         • 

*  upon  hiB  sarrenderioK  tbe  lands  **  Docstripae  Icimen  Cbecus,    vitseqjie 

laentioned,    t|ie    queen  granted. hinii  magister, 

April  13,  1556,  the   reversion  of  the         Anriefa  tfaturse  fabrica,  tnorte  jaeet! 

'jpsanor  of  Brampton-Abbot  in  Devdn-  Non  erat  d  multis  nous,  sed  praeetitit 
•  ffbiref  and  the  annual  rents  ni  3^L  Qs.  unus 

6d,  ohf  and  the  reversion  of  customary         Omnibus,  et  pai'trise  flos  erat  ille  suae. 

landa  of  Freshford,  and  Wood  wick,  in  Geinma  Britanna  fuit,  tnm  Bapintn 
-  Somenetsbire  jibe  capital  messuage  pf .  nulla  tulerunt 

Batokysb^roiigh ;  the  manor  of  Ays-         Tempora  thesaurum,  tempora  nulla 

cote;  and  the  manor  of  Nortblode,  in  ferent^ 

the  same  county;  tKe  manor  of  More  -   tangbaine  and  ^ood  f^ve-tlie  ftnk 

in  Devonshire;  and  some  oUier  things,  verse  somewhat  differently  : 

^  It  was  composed  by  bis  learned  '*  JDocirinsB  Cbecus  linguseque  utrlus- 

IN^Dd  Dr.  Walter  Haddon^  que  toagisten'' 

C  H  £  K  E.  231 

<J$ines  I.     H^'  ptir€;iia8ed  tbe  seat'  of  Pyrgo  near  Romford 
in  Essex/  where  he  and  his  posterity  were  settled  several 
year^.     He  was  buried  March  25,    1659)  in  St  Alban^s, 
Wood-street,  ue^tr  his  grandfather.     Sii*  Thomases  second 
son,  Thomas,  commonly  known  by  the  name  of  colonel 
Cheke,  inherked  the  estate,  and  was   lieutenant  of  the 
Tower  in. the  reigns  of  Charles  11.  and  James  II.     This 
Thomas  had  two  sons,  Henry,  who  died  young,  and  Ed- 
ward, who  sQcceeded  him  in  his  estates.     Edward  dying  in 
1707,   left  two  sons;  but  they  died  both  under  age;  and 
the  estate  devoWed  to  Edward's  younger  sister  Atine,  wife 
of  sir  Thomas  Tipjring  of  Oxfordshire,  bart.  who  left  only 
two  daughters,  whereof  Catherine,  the  youngest,  was  mar- 
ri^  to  Thomas  Archer  of  Underslalde  in  Warwickshire, 
«sq.  the  late  possessor  of  tbe  Essex  estate  of  the  Chekes.   ^ 
Aft  to  bis  character,  he  was  justly  accounted  one  of  the 
best  and  most  learned  men  of  his  age^  and  a  singular  orn?^ 
ment  to  his  country.     He  was  one  of  the  revivers  of  polite 
literature  in  England^  and  a  great  loVer  and  encourager  of. 
ihe  Greek  language  in  particular.    The  authors  h^  chiefly 
admiredand  reeommended  were  Demosthenes,  Xenophon, 
Plato,  Anslptle,  isocrates,  and  Cicero.  He  was  very  haJ3py 
in  imitating'  tbe  ancient  and  best  writers,  and  discovered 
-great  judgment  ia  translating -them.     In  the  orthography 
and  pconuskeiation  of  the  Latin  and  Greek  knguages,  he 
was  Tery  critical,  and  exact;  and  also  took  great  pawns' to 
correct,  regulate,  and  improve  the  English  tongue;  but  his 
notions  on  ^his  subject  were  rather  capfictods,  and  nev^r 
Jbiave  been  adopted.     He  was  a  steady  adherent  to  the  re- 
formed religion,  and  extremely  beneiceirt,  charitable,  and 
<ommanicative.     His  unhappy  fall  is  indeed  a  great  ble- 
mish to  his  memory,  and  a  memorable  -Example  of  htiman 
frailty.     With  regard  to  bis  {lenson,  he  had  a  full  comely 
couotehance,  somewhat  red,   with  a  yellow  large  beard  ; 
and,  as  far  as  can  be  judged  by  his  picture,  he  was  tall 
and  well  made. 

His  works  are:  1.  A  Latin  translation  of  two  of  St. 
Cbrysostom's  Homilies,  never  before  published,  *' Contra 
^bservatores  novilunii;"  and  **  De  dormientibus  in  Chris-^ 
to,''  London,  1543,  4to.  2.  A  Latin  translation  oF  si± 
homilies  of  tbe  same  father,  ^*  De  Fato,"  and  **  Providentja 
Dei/'  Lond.  1547,  3.  "  The  hart  of  Sedition,  how  ^riev- 
4nis  it  is  .to .  a  commonwealth/'  The  running  title  is, 
^'  The  true  subject  to  tbe  rebel."     It  was  pubKi^ed  in 

lH9fan  oc^^/op  of  ^Iif^  |9siiiTep«igMi  ibf  BfTonfltine  and, 
Norfolk;  wd  ^^si^^ b^iag  ioscu'ted  ia  HotinthodVOhrb- 
picle,  under  th^  yteftr  15499  .Wft$  r^rittted  in  1576^  as  ^ 
^gLSQuahle  di^P^^Sle  i^pon  .9pprel^eoaiQii«of.tiiiiiiiltb  from 
malcontents  ^  iiooie,  or  roq^g^does  aiifQad.  fiv.  Gerard 
)L^ng^aine  of  Q^e^i^'^  ^Ql).eg4^,  Oxod^  cauaed  it.toi>e  re* 
printed  figain  about  I64I9  fojr  the  jnse  ^ad.  consideratiefi  of 
ttiQsp  i^ho  took  frmg  9gainaA  iCliarl^  I.  in  the  ume  4if  tke 
c^vi)  warf ,  ^jad  pr^£;(ed  ito  it  a  short  )^  of  tha  z^it/dust. 
4f,  A  La^n  tra^fil^iM^  jof  th^  Knglish  <^43ioniniiimQii-hook  )*'. 
doji^e  ^or  Jii^  vm^  pf  M*  9w&^,  mi  pt ioted  amoBg  Bacerls 
<^  Op^pi^  AipgiAca^n^.'^  iS.  >^  iXe  ^idu  doGUuia^  «t  isano*- 
ti$|^i  Th^plpgi  xli9fiii9i  Mur^iui  Buceri, /&c.  EpistcAss 
dw^/VLpftd.  154^1,  «ta,  pmi^  in  Bttceft's  f/SeiijptaAaglU 
caoi.^  jd^  ^1^  Piy?t$  jMt  ^pififidiaiB  aq  tbe  dcaEh  b€  phat 
l^rp^d  xoan.  ^«  ^<  G«i^^n  keroicntOf  or  Epiiapbkn,  in 
4Atonj^]ia  Jiev^i^m  fs^mmnm  wum/^  Loud.  410.  Tlus 
4)r  Api^Qify  Oepi^y  .wi(#  pi9^J9aUy  of  j^t.  Jofain'^a  college  in 
Cambridge)  ^ad  #  )$«r9Qd  0K|lo  :  aftefiwan^  he  beceme  4Miie 
f^  ^  gn^!^m§n  iPf  Ibe  pjf JFy  cb^fubear,  and  ffrooBi  c^f  4^ 
9tpli?  to  Kei^igr  y>m.  ^d  imfi  of  tbe^^XMsuarti  of  bia  wiH. 

iipp^V  iJc^.  poM^iog  i^  di$f  mba  00  tiM  ^}act  with 
P^ii4Ui€yr,  6a§it,  If; 5 5,  «9;9.  ».  *>  ^^  Bupmtid^  ad  m^ 
gpm  {{aaricwn*'^  Tbif  di^OQiMne  an  sUpaiatitiiMi  twaa  4q)iiMm 
19  ior  >i^g  He^ry^s  iM^a,  ia  oijder  io  aaoiate  tbat  pnnoe^aa 
)^p^^  tisfyf9i$itm  of  MVgiajn.  tt  is  «n;itten  ia  T^evy  aiew 
1^^  La^iPf  9Qd  .wifs  pr«fii;<eid  by  tba  JM^tbo^)  ^^  dadica^ 
p.on  jtp  ^  ^tift  ^r^siatiAa  ol  bis,  ctf  Plutarcdti^s  iiock  hi  ^^ 
{i^stition.  A  <r<i|>y  fol  tbia  dtfcojifse,  in  m|i>uifttopt,  is  ftttU 
j^^^irirad  An  tfo/^  libirary  pi  pnimersiiy  college,  Oxcmi^  ««h. 
TJipiM^ly  Mnrit|t^ff>  «q4  bound  ;up  in  cjatb  of  s^etj  aibicfa 
w4^s  i^  jprobublf }  th^  ii;  was  tbe  vety  book  4hat  wa§  f>re^ 
^f 9jted  tp  |;be  Hng.  An  Eng^ifh  kramliutioo  (sf  it,  doaa  by 
'i(^^  Vj^n^.^d  W'  S<lf  tQb,  ^meriy  fi^lbiiv  ctf  >th»t  college,  waa 
pubiisfaed  by  Mr.  Strype,  at  the  end  of  bis  Life  of  .iii  J<dm 
Cbej^.  9.  Seviar^d  ^^  JUetters^'  of  his  are  pubfisfaad  in  the 
Life  jpst  npi^r  oj^Q^a^,  aiid^^tia  Hanlngtao^s  ^^^^fai^ 
a^^lia^V  'upd  p^rtops  in  Other  places.  18.  A  latiii  Mroa- 
l^ioQ  of  4^p))hbi9bop  Cjeanftier's  book  on  the  LordW  ^Supper, 
^as  also  done  by  ^ir  4obl»  £lbek^,'aiid  panted  in  1 SS3;  4  !• 
pe  ii^^wif^  ^MAlalied  i*i.eo  de  apparatu  belliao,^'  9aaii, 
V^Sjf,  Svo.  StirypQ  giyes  also  a  long  cal;alo^e  of  hts  unpab- 
U^l^ ^f iti|^% jjirbi^  are^^ndiaU^l^^  "*  '  '^    ^^^-^-^^ 

iC  H  E  K  £L      '  tn 

torn  <^ber  lefyrned  men  jof  liU  tkne^  pjart^csafeiiy  Smitib, 
£iv^l,  and  Aftobani)  vrcote  a  yery  bit  and  beanifciCul  band,  f 

£;H£l-8iiM  <iAii£3),  D.  D.  a  laarned  divine  «if  ithe 
duii^xif  £ii§^d,  jiras  honn  ahoul  1740  in  WesttrnxM^, 
nod  edttotfed  atWestmiiister  school,  oq  bishop  Wiiik^tasfA 
found^ation.  FjBotaliiatsGfafiipliifivafitloiSit.  John's i^oUc^  . 
.Catshriilge,  but  did  notcQBtinue  long  Abene  ;  as  Dr.  f  reiiul» 
one  of  ibe.caopnfiof  Ghciat  church,  gaare  bio;  a  jiUidootship 
in  thafc  celabraied  eoilege.  iiere  be  jreaided  for  many 
y^esu^  taking  his  master's  degree  ^n  1762,  thiMt  of  fa^cbdbr 
tf)f  ib^  11772,  and  that  of  D.  Dv  in  1793,  it  has  been 
§Bfid  he  wa^lbr  some  time  udber  at  Westminater  sobooU 
h^  this  is  doubtful.  At  OKfeord  be  ester^  into  ocden  ifi 
U65r,  and  wauy  {irefented  to  Ifae  college  .curacy  of  Latbbiiry 
fiear  I^etvpoct  Pc^n^l,  and  to  the  benefice  of  Badger  in 
fihrfipsfaine,.  i^  Isaac  iiaw|ans  Pioin^e,  esq.  His  oliher 
and  chief  preferment,  was  the  rectory  of  Dcoxford  in 
HaaipRhftfe,  given  hioi  by  Dr.  North,  bislpp  of  Winchester, 
jfhose  xhaplain  he  ^^.  His  leanning  vKas  eacteiisiye ;  and 
bii  manoei's,  ith/q|igh  somewbal^  aansfiec^,  onere  jretamMibie. 
Badibealth,  hoiMeyer,  erected  an  UAoqual  Aoair  «f  spirits, 
iidiiol)>inj^iised  the  powovs  of  jbirauiid  towards  the  cibse  gf 
bis  liJfe.  He  died '  in  1  iO  1 ,  and  was  b&9^d  at  fimkfond. 
Besides  soiQe  f ogilsve  pieees  twathout  his  oame,  and  a  Sw 
aocaaifieai  sesmons,  he  «nr«te  one  of  the  ai>l^t  seiti^  tof 
.^-jleiViacks  4HI  Cibboa^s.  Soman  History/^  1992,  8 vo,  .i^hioli 
jCihboo  having  noticed'  iaa;  ooMleaiytaoMs  jmanner,  Br. 
^helsum  ftosw^sed  himini  a '^ilepiyto ]|4^. Gifabonfs  VJodic 
^catioo,^  1 7«5,4Mro.  Tlie  best  edkioo  of  bis  ^  Remarks'*'  was 
the  second,  puUlisfaed  in  mn^y  inuoh  enlarged.  Dr.  Chel« 
iHim  |B  also  supposed  tp  have  had  a  share  in  the  coUeotiooi  ^ 
■^  fOifen  puhmhed  at  O&lbed  under  the  tkAe  of  ^  QUa 
fiodnda,"  and' to  have  pufaliAed^an  ^  Essay  on  the  ijUstorjr 
of  Mae7^tinto.-^  As  an  amatenii''of  the  >fiae  ^rts^  he  made  h. 
attlnajiie  •coUeolaon  of  pripts  and  gems^  .especiaily  TassieVi 
imitations,  to  ^whom  be  was  an  eaiiy  and  zealous  patKoq/^  • 

^CHSAlililAIA  <TiM0w.8O«[),  ^  a  odebvated  Fvendi 
preacher,  47V(as  bom  at  Pans  Jati.-S,  16)52,  and  entered  tfa^ 
fooiety  of  Jei^ihs  in  1667,  wbei'e  he  n^ade  a  consideraUe 
^u«e,  and  afitenjwards  -taught  classical  literatore  and  rhe- 
toric at  Orleans:  but  his  talents  being  psculiarly  oalei»- 

<  .     .  '  *      * 

>  Life  by  Strype,  1705,  8ro.— Biog.  Brit.— Ath.  Ox.  vol.  I.— Wood's  Aonalf 
hf  Gutcb. — Strype>i  Life  of  Qrffi^XAj^mx.-^^ryftt'M  Parker,  p.  S3, 
•  GeaL  Mag*  ^ot  LXXI.  p.  1 176,  thd  LXtll.  9..  100.  293. 

M4  C  H  E  M  I  N  A  I  S. 

iaied  for  the  pulpit,  he  became  one  of  the  most  popnlat 
preachers  of  his  time  in  the  churches  of  Paris.  It  became 
the  fashion  to  say  that  Bourdaioue  was  the  Corneille,  and 
Cbemii>ais  the  Racine  of  preachers ;  but  his  fame  was 
eclipsed  by  the  superior  merit  of  Massillon.  When  on  ac« 
xoant  of  his  bealUi^  he  was  obliged  to  desbt  from  his  public 
.senricets  he  went  every  Sunday,  as  long  as  he  was  able, 
to  die  country  to  instruct  and  exhort  the  poor.  Hie  (tied 
in  the  flower  of  bis  age  Sept.  15,  168r9.  Bretonneau,  an^^ 
•Aier  preacher  of  note,  published  his  ^^  Sermons'*  in  1690, 
•^vols.  12mo,  which  were  often  reprinted,  and  Bretonneau 
J  added  a  third  volume,  but  the  fourth  and  fifth,  whieh  ap** 
Speared  in  1729,  'were  neither  written  by  Cheminais,  nor 
edited  by  Bretonneau.  The  only  other  production  of  Che*- 
minaiswas  his/<  Sentimens  de  Piet^,"  1691,  12mo,  but  it 
is;  said  be  had  a  turn  for  poetry,  and  wrote  some  verses  of 
the  Hghter  kind.  ^ 

.  CHEMNITZ  (Mautin),  an  eminent  LutiieraTt  divine, 
and  ooe  of  the  reformers  in  Germany,  was  born  at  Britzenr, 
a  town  in  the  marquis£M:e  of  Brandenburg,  in  1522.  His 
father  was  a>  poor  wool*Gomber,  who  found  it  difficult  to 
.give  him  much  educatioi)^  but  his  son's  industry,  supplied 
the  want  in  a  great  measure..  After  having  learned  the 
,  mdinients  of  literature  in  a  school  neat  home,,  he  went  to 
Magdeburg,^  where  he  made  some  progress  in  arts  and  lan»- 
goages.  Then  he  removed  to^  Francfort  upon  the  Oder, 
to  cultivate  philosophy  iunder  hia  relation  George  Sabinus'; 
•and  to  Wittenburg,  whete  he  ^adied  under  Philip  Melanc- 
tbon.  Afterwards  he  became .a^  schooUmaster  in  Prussia; 
and,  in  1552,  was  made  librarian  tortbe  prince.  He  now 
:devoted  himself  wholly  to  the  study  of  divinity,  though  he 
was  a  considerable  mathematician,  and  skilled  particularly 
in  astronormy.  Aften  he  bad  continued  in  the  court  of 
.Prussia  three  years,  he  returned  to  the  university  of  Wit* 
temberg,  and  lived  in  friendship  with  Melaactbon,  who 
employed  him  in  reading  the  common-plaoes.<  From  thence 
be  removed  to  Brunswick,  where  he  spent,  the  last  thirty 
years  of  his  life  as  pastor,  and  commenced  D«  D.  at  Ros^ 
iock.  He  died  April  8,  1586.  His  principal  works  are^ 
I.  '^Haurmonia  Evaugeliorum,"  Francfort,  1583  and  1622i, 
Geneva^  .1628,  4to.  2.  ^^  Examen  Cpncilii  Tridentini.^' 
3.  ^^  A  treatise  against  the  Jesuits,"  wherein  he  explained 

1  Moreii.— Picf.  Hist. 

C  H  E  M  N  I  T  Z.  23S 

to  the  Germans  the  doctrines  and  policy  of  those  crafty 
devisers,  &c.  His  •*  Examination  of  the  Council  of  Trent*' 
has  always  been  reckoned  a  very  masterly  performance, 
and  was  translated  and  published  in  English,  1582,  4to. 

Chemnitz,  according  to  Thuanus  and  many  others,  was 
a  man  of  great  parts,  learning,  judgment,  and  of  equal 
modesty ;  and  was  very  much  esteemed  by  the  princes  of 
bis  own  communion,  who  often  made  use  of  him  in  the 
public  affairs  of  the, church.  Some  protestant  writers  have 
not  scrupled  to  rank  him  next  to  even  Luther  himself,  xor 
the  services  he  did  in  promoting  the  reformation,  and  ex« 
posing  the  errors  of  the  church  of  Rome.  Blount  has  an' 
ample  collection  of  these  encomiums.  His  son  of  the  same 
names,  who  was  born  at  Brunswick  Oct  15,  1561,  studied 
at  Leipsic  and  Francfort,  and  became  successively  syndic 
of  the  council  of  Brunswick,  professor  of  law  at  Rostock, 
'  chancellor  and  counsellor  at  Stettin,  and  lastly  chancellor 
>t  Sleswick,  where  he  died  Aug.  26,  1627.  He  wrote 
several  works,  and  among  them  *^  Historia  Navigationis 
Indiae  Orientalis.*'  ^ 

CHEMNITZ  (BoGESLAUs  Philip),  grandson  of  the 
preceding  Chemnitz,  the  reformer,  was  born  at  Stettia 
May  9,  1605,  and  after  completing  his  education,  served 
in  the  army,  first  in  Holland,  and  afterwards  in  Sweden, 
where  his  merit  raised  him  from  the  rank  of  captain  to  that 
of  counsellor  of  state,  and  historiographer  of  Sweden. 
Queen  Christina  also  granted  him  letters  of  nobility,  with 
the  estate  of  Holstsedt  in  that  country,  where  he  died  in 
1678.  He  wrote,  in  six  books,  an  account  of  the  wai: 
carried  on  by  the  Swedes  in  Germany,  which  was  published 
in  2  vols,  folio,  the  first  at  Stettin  in  164S,  and  the  second 
at  Holme  in  1653;  the  whole  in  the  German  language: 
the  second  volume  is  most  highly  esteemed,  owing  to  the 
assistance  the  author  received  from  count  Oxenstiern. 
The  abb^  Lenglet  mentions  a  Latin  edition,  at  least  of  the 
first  volume,  entitled  '<  Bellum  Germanicum  ab  ejus  ortii 
anno  1612,  ad  mortem  Gustavi  Adoiphi  anno  1632.** 
Chemnit:^  is  also  said  to  be  the  author  of  **  De  ratione  Sta* 
tus  Imperii  Romaoo-Germanici/'  which  was  published  at 
Stettin  in  1640,  under  the  sissumed  name  of  Hyppolitus  a 
Lapide.     Its  object  is  to  impugn  the  claims  of  the  house 

1  Melchior  Adam  id  vitis  Theolog.— Freheri  TheatruoL— Fuller's  Abel  R^di- 
«ifui»<— Saxii  OiMauit.—$louiit's  Ctntunu— Morari.  ' 


C^EfAfil  J  ^. 

ui^er.Uie  fi4e.Qf  ?*  I)^?  Jjj^pt^  4^  PWRe?  d'AJte'p^ve," 
Jsite  ^'  J17^?^  .uu(Je^r  rk^  tit^  ^9^  A'X^s  y^^?  i^^^ffif^  RP 

CJt^e^QH)^  ^  p^Mitex  ii?  iftofiwej^  Mf  tWe  \owff  of  Me^^  i^fts 
)t>.prj^|it  V^v^  in  J,6^J|,  ?^ti;dfs4  VRflpr  Ji^  ^#^/>  fin4  ftt 

l^^  Brpn  in  f  67$  pj;^^eju.^  ^^  pofh^.^o^iy  o/ppiutiifg 

P0i?.t;ry^  find  ipu^ic.  §he  di^w  ,Qn  ,a  l^g^  ^^^e  9  gr^  ^ujpg- 
*Pjr  9/  g^j^s,  .^  ^oxY  in  ,ja^i^l^  she  pfi:t^cuj^}y.e^{f;^5^. 
These  pictures  were  no  less  admirable  for  f  Sfiff^  ^t^  )n 
^drawing,  ^  smgji^lar  ^go^of apd  qf  l^P^i,  ^  :fy^  ?^lf  of 
;PSi#mgj  W»9^  a  sup^^ior  j^dgjpf  nt  jjj  ^t^^  cJ^Wi^^jcxi^. 
T^.^  ^B,rfpm  WiWH^erp  ip  p»i«tmg  y^W?  ?U  favvilj^r  Jp  ^. 
$|a^  ,e;^:i:eUpd  iij  Jiit^ory,  ?#  pajr^^^lc^pi^,  m  faipi^ijr^  ii^ 
fl[V^s,  ipjpftrtraj^  JPW"?tiPS,  ^^  fi^^c^llf  v;^  ^9^  ^9*  jl^" 
flialgsi.  It  ^s  ^^id  ittg^t  sh^  ire<|!ji^tLy  jBj^ecHte;^  fll^e  poir^r^ifs 
,pf  ftbsi^nt  pepqt^s,  we;;^ry  fr cw  ^^e^wcu-y,  tp  w]^\di  ,sbe 
^^  ptr^ng  ^  i^^pss  ,^  if  ij^ip  per?pc|^  ii^^  ^t  ffi  |i^r. 
^CiSLd.ejwy  qf  ^ic^^yrati  fit  P^(^iyi  ^9P^wei^  fi^  m\if  thg^p 
i^^^e  of  fl^o^  aM9  p^fC  her  ;a  jpl^q^  in  tb,^if  ^qj^ty,  ^ 
j^i^dat  }?aria,  ^e^.  ?,  jL7i,i/^jttb(5  a^g^  of  (53,  jvypy^^ 
^Jft^er  i^hie  h^h^ep  iod|i9eid  i9  WW  ¥•  ?^?^  R^y>  r^i^JgV^^r 
IP  t^e  i^mg, ,  whj9  j^is^  ^sp  *4v^i;ip^d  Vf  y^^^-     S^ru^t  ^m 

jjh^  ,de^ig^ed;  tl?j;ee  ^pr^  ftp^^  by  bpi;?^^  yjz.  :p?iQfi^ips 

j)9ppi|es.  Sbe  ^ft  ^^gr^^d  ^  ".fte^q^t  from  tb^  Cyp^,** 
iM^4  *  ,*^  Drawipg-iipqV  con^J^tipg  pf  36  pript^  i^  fqlio,^ . 

jir9^l¥>W  .?*  l??ria  ip  jl§,6p;  jjiwj  bf YNM  bfi?^ .  t^VSftJ  J*P 
jrttdiqae^^tjs  ff{  t^p^rjt  in  bis  ,Q,^n  fcyjnjry^  Jje  trav^HspJiP 
Italy,  wbere  his  sister  supplied  him  with  a  competency,  to 

1  MorerU*-Dtct  Hut 

.9  P4lkui9feOD.^]yAiieAvim,  vol.  IV^    ftwrtt^ 

£^ing  hi^  cominiMi^iin  IMy,  fa<f  made  tlie  W6rkii  of  Ite- 
ptaaef!  am)  Jul!6^  R^yiA^tfo  the  |>rificipaf  object  of  Iri^  sitdteiS, 
bjr  iirhicll  Ms  :l^utufe  coMp^ittoHis  had  alwaj^  ar  0«i^tain  tfhf 
dfttfe  alnfti^qt^,  th(yi!i^h  fife  hatf  dcf  grdat  ]^o^iol^  6f  gfraee^ 
and  hii^  fl^cfrefe  iv*?re  fre^qdenffy  to^6  mfustufUr.  Ti^6  6f  hiif 
pk%6rea(  are  in  ifa^  chof  eh  6f  Notice  Dlnk^,  M  P^}§ ;  tb^ 
6t^y  of  n6r6dt^  holffiryg  th^  cUatg«f^  li^idk  tb«  he&d  of  St. 
Jo^n  tb^  Baptwi! ;  the  other,>  of  Agabtis  foY^^lHrfg  tte  per- 
^eatioti.  of  St.  ^stdl.  Or/  seccouRt  of  hii  feUgioiii'  b^iiig  a^ 
CiOVihfsir,  hie  wa^  dotnpelfed  t6^  cfilit  his  i!i^«h^^  e^fifry, 
and  i^iYed  ih  London,  tMe  hap/py  tetreale  of  tf»  disnr^ssed 
.dfiHTi^  ;  and  iXi^k  he  foMd  vtiMy  pa^roifs.  tfnybiig  the  to-- 
8iH^  iM  gerVtf/y,  plttticuKrfy  tfte  diA«  of  MAntagcw,  for 
#I]f6o(k'  ]f>6  fiMd^ih^  eavttttWof  (tie  GddBj  tii^  J^dgmiant 
cKVifis,  and  b^  iVas  also  employed  ^  Btif'teigh  ^f»d  Cfaats;^ 
^'crftfi  ;•  but  ffmJiiTg  fiini^etf  *cBf>s*d  by  Bitwise,  RO«ife««tf,' 
^nSrd  La  Fo^s^,  Vi  tbttHmtcid  paitttiirg  ^iMi  iri^rleat 
fiiieH.  fii^  mM  prdR)ciV[^  erhphyHimty  Iftywet^,  was 
ddsij^htiir^  fdt  pimir^  and  ei^Mve^,  lifid  M^  dV^Mritlg^ 
Wire  6y  loc^  pif^ifeif fed  to  bb  pdinttn^.  R^  e1l$c)y(fed  peroral 
6f  hft  ow^n  desigH  attrf  in  particnfer,  a  ier^dt  ^nty-twd 
*fiaH  prints  for  the  Kfe  of  Dtfrid,  Wtb  Which  Oiffatt^  if 
IfcokseHer  af  Pirf is,  ornamehte'd  ^  Frt'rfdi  edHlioVi  irf  «fce' 
Pfeilrtis'  ptiblistifed  in  11  n^.  fStfHtt  A6li6es'  iflsb  t^6  ^if- 
f  f atiil]^^  ^h^cb:  he  exe6nted  frditi  Mi'  o^n  dedl^Asv  of  ^ea^ 
ta*te,  **'Thtf  Deatft  of  Anantas'  and  Saf^Mr^"  AAd  «  8t. 
rm  ba'pti8i%'  ih6  Etoncfc"  Hirf  ^rf^tfe  etiav^ftter  Wft^ 
ei^eeltenrt.  He  died  in  tilJy  of  in  dpoplexy^  kt  bis  Kftl^ 
ifi^  fh  the  fti^za,'  GoVeAt-gai^dehv  and  f^is'  fcWried  irt  the? 
ADrcfb  of  ll^t.  I^aifl'^  cl^r6&  in  tb^t  parifsh.  He  h^d  f^owe 
tlAe  heidife  sold  hi^  drdMii^  frotn  Rd^ely  Md  hh  aoa^ 
ddray  figAresi  to  &i^'  ^art  of  D^rby^  M  a  bfrge  iutA  Of 
money.  * 

CttE-SELBTEW  ^WiiLl^aM),  Ati  feni?A*ttt  Wii^oh  aJnd 
Aattomist,  an^d  ^etflebrafed  Writer,  #as  hditi  Oci.  19)  ftMy  ' 
af  BtrrroW-6tf-tbi6-HilL  neaf  SOrtrOifby  irf  Leicest^tshire. 
Aftfer  haf^i%  tcfcei^ed  a  classic^  edO^Aiony  aiiti  been 
ftistriii'cted  iii  t^e  tudith^nts  of  his  pi^6fession  at  Ldfoe^- 
<er,  bt  WaSs  placed  about  1709,  mVder  th^  itttttiodiate 
tnitSofr  of  tfefe  ti^fattA  afnatohiist  C6w^p*ry  atid  resided 
firfib&ouijd^  an^datf  the  same  tibali^tddi^^uVgery  tindeii' 

138  C  H.E  S  E  L  D  B  N. 

Mr.  Feme,    the  head  surgeon  of  St  Thomas's  hospitat 
Such  was  the  proficiency  he  made  under  these  able  mas^ 
ters,  that  he  himself  began,  at  the  age  of  twenty-two,  to. 
read  lectures  in  anatomy,  a  syllabus  of  which,  in  4to,  was^. 
first  printed  in  1711.     Lectures  of  this  kind  were  then, 
somewhat  new  in  this  country,  having  been  introduced,, 
not  many  years  before,  by  M.  Bussiere,  a  French  refugee, 
and  a  surgeon  of  high  note  in  the  reign  of  queen  Aime.,  Till, 
then,  the  popular  prejudices  had  run  so  high  against  the, 
practice  of  dissection,  that  the  civil  power  found  it  difficult 
to  accommodate  the  lecturers  with  proper  subjects ;  and 
pupils  were  obliged  to  attend  the  uuiversitieis,  or  other  publio. 
seminaHes,  where,  likewise,  the  procuring  of  bodies  was  bo.^ 
easy  task.     It  is  an  extraordinary  proof  of  Mr.  Cheseldeu's 
early  reputation,  that  he  had  the  honour  of  being  chosen  a- 
member  of  the  royal  society  in  1 7 1 1,  when  he  could  be  little, 
more  than  twenty-three  years  of  age ;  but  he  soon  justified 
their  choice,  by  a  variety  of  curious  and  useful  communica-. 
tions.  Nor  were  his  contributions  limited  to  the  royal  society, 
but  are  to  be  found  in  the  u^moirs  of  the  royal  academy  of, 
surgeons  at  Paris,  and  in  other  valuable  repositories.     In 
1713  Mr.  Cheselden  published  in  Svo,  his  ^^  Anatomy  of 
the  Human  Body,"  reprinted  in   1722,   1726,  1732;    iiv 
folio  in  1734,  and  in  Svo,  1740,  and  an  eleventh  edition  as  late 
as  1778..    During  the  course  of  twenty  years,  in  which  Mr. 
Cheselden  carried  on  his  anatomical  lectures,  he  wascon^, 
tinually  rinsing  in  reputation  and  practice,  and  upon  Mr^ 
Feme's  retiring  from  business,  he  was  elected  head  surgeoiv 
of  St.  Thomas's  hospital.      At  two  other  hospitals,    St. 
George's,  and  the  Westminster  Infirmary,  he  was  choseii 
consulting    surgeon;    and  at  length    had  the  honour  of^ 
being  appointed  principal  surgeon  to  queen  Caroline,  by^ 
whom  he  was  highly  esteemed ;  and  was  indeed  generally 
regarded  as  the  first  man  in  his  profession. 

In  1723  he  published  in  Svo,  his  *^  Treatise  on  the  high 
operation  for  the  Stone."  This  work  was  soon  attacked 
in  an  anonymous  pamphlet,  called  *^  Lithotomus  castratus, 
or  an  Examination  of  the  Treatise  of  Mr.  Cheselden,''  and 
in  which  he  was  charged  with  plagiarism.  How  unjust  this 
accusation  was,  appears  from .  his  preface,  in  which  he  had 
acknowledged  his  obligations  to  Dr.  James  Douglas  and 
Mr.  John  Douglas,  from  one  of  whom  the  attack  is  sup-' 
posed  to  have  come.  Mr.  Cheselden^s  solicitude  to  da 
justice  to  other  eminent  practitioners  is  futher  manifest^ 

C  H  E  S  EX  DEN.  23d 

from  his  having  annexed  to  hi»  book  a  translation  of  what 
Had  been  written  on  the  subject  by  Franco,  who  published 
"Trwte vdes  Hernies,"   &c.  at  Lyons,  ih   1561,    and  by 
Roaset,  in  his  ^^  CsBsarei  Partus  Assertio  Historiologica,^* 
Paris,  1390.    The  whole  affair  was  more  candidly  explained 
in  1724,  by  a  writer  who  had  no  other  object  than  the 
public  good,  in  a  little  work  entitled  ^^  Methode  de  la  Taille 
aa  baut  appareile  recuillie  des  ouvrages  du  fameuK  Tri« 
umvirat."     This  triumvirate  consisted  of  Rosset,  to  whom 
the  hopour  of  the  invention  was  due ;  Douglas,  who  had 
revived  it  after  long  disuse  ;    and   Cheselden,    who  had 
practised  the  operation  with  the  most  eminent  skill  and 
luccess.     Indeed  Mr.  Cheselden  was  so  celebrated  on  this 
atcouDt,  that,  as  a  lithotomist,  he  monopolized  the  prin* 
cipal  business  of  the  kingdom*     The  author  of  his  eloge, 
in  i^he  *^  Memoires  de  UAcademie  Royale  de  Chirurgerie,^' 
who  was  present  at  many  of  his  operations,  testifies,  that 
one  of  them  was  performed  in  so  small  a  time  as  fifty-four 
seconds.     In   n28,  Mr.  Cheselden  added  greatly  to  his* 
reputation  in  another  view,  by  couching  a  lad  of  nearly 
founeea  years  of  age,  who  was  either  born  blind,  or  had 
lost  his  sight  so  early,  that  he  had  no  remembrance  of  his 
having  ever  seen.     The  observations  made  by  the  young 
gentleman,  after  obtaining  the  blessing  of  sight,  are  sin* 
gularly  ci^rious,    and  have  been  much  attended  to,  and 
reasoned  upon  by  several  writers  on  vision.     They  may  be* 
found  in  the  later  editions  of  the  "  Anatomy.",   In  1729, 
our  author  was  elected  a  corresponding  member  of  the 
royal  academy  of  sciences  at  Paris;  and  in   1732,  soon 
after  the  institution  of  the  royal  academy  of  surgery  in  that 
city,  he  had  the  honour  of  being  the  first  foreigner  asso- 
ciated with  their  learned  body.     Mr.  Oheselden's  "  Osteo- 
gr^ph^:,  x)r  Anatomy  of  the  Bones,"  inscribed  to  queen 
Carolincj  and  published  by  subscription,  came  out  in  1733, 
a  splendid  folio,'  in  the  figures  of  which' all  the  bones  are 
Represented  in  their  natural  size.     Our  author  lost  a  great 
suiia  of  money  by  this  publication,  which  in  1735  wjw  at- 
tacked with  .much  severity  by  Dr.  Douglas,,  whose  criticism 
appeared  undqr  the  title  of  ^^  Remarks  on  that  pompous 
book^  thp  Osteography,  of  Mr,  Cheselden."      The  work 
received  a  more  judicious  censure  from  the   celebrated 
Haller,  who,  whilst  he  candidly  pointed  out  its  errors,  paid 
the  writer  that  tribute  of  applause  which  he  so  justly  de- 
served.    Heister,  likewise,  in  bis  *'  Compendium  of  Ana* 

2W  G  K  E  S  E  L  D  B  N, 

mx\%^  did  jfti^tic^  fo  bi^  ih^rit.     Mf.  Ch^^Ntdh  bof}0^ 

^bed^  bis  desires  witb  re^pe^t  ta  fanr^  atid  fyttt^dj  V^gavi 

at\etigth  to' wish  fenr  tt  Iffe  of  gretffer  trAnq^iflit^  add  fe-i 

^   lliremetit  ,*^  dnd  iit  1737  be  oBtairfed  Art  htkfonri^fe  sHiMi^ 

i\oh  6f  ibid  kind^   i>f  bein^  dp^oi¥it«d  hi^a^  ^ur^toi*  Hf 

CheUeti  libspH^;  which  place  Ut  h^ld,*  #i«h  ibe  bigb«i« 

.  reptitsrtion,  till  hi^  d^^tR     H^  did!  iiot,  hoi^t^r,  #boIiy 

ifmit  iAi  eh'deiv6urs  to'  ddtslffcd  th^  kito^IeJdg^  of  UK  i^8^ 

ifes^dh ;  fo^  ^'jbfd^n  th^  ^iMitiY^dh  of  Mf .  Glt^aft«Pj  iAm- 

lat?e)n  bf  M6ns.  Ife  l>raB*fr  "  OpfertttiOtfrf  of  Ste-^fery/*  Kg 

tomrW^ted  t#e»ty-6fi^  tif^^ut  frl^^«  Cd^l^db  it;  and  fl 

f  ^i^teijr  of  t^Iuiabfe  /eiiiflrk^,  sdme  of  wbkb  h6  had  liKlUH; 

^o  el^iy  ks  ^mi^  iWW^it  pi^il  {^  ifit.  ¥€n^i    TU^  Unb 

Ifte  mt  iiieiirf  #cift  ifi  whicB  he  ^^dgtfd.     In'  175^^,  Mf/ 

^be^gld^n,  a^  a  g6Vei'oor  M  ffce  FomdTlir^  hos^t^l,  s^^  « 

Bgn^faietioii  ef  fifty  pounds^  io  thaCt  cKaHty,  ^rncfosS^  M  « 

^'  'tis  what  thfe  h^rt^y  <&  t!lit'6rfiappy  6wfe  5 
Foi*  #hift  iMn  ^«sy  ffaie  g^^  %  hto  bestdi^.*' 

In  ffae  lifter  etiR  of  th«  i^/be  y^ar^  be  ti^a^  istiiei  ¥H0H  it 
Aitfatytic  ^tMt^,,  frofai  ti^hfitB  in  ai(t/eahiW<J^  hd  io6iS  pfe^. 
tiftctly  rSto^^ed.  Thfe  flditering  j/rospfefet,-  fidwfevir,  of 
bfd  co)iiinxidHtk  ih  life,  ^6aM  v&iri^bM ;  ttity  on  W^  ^6tfr 
of  Aprrl,  iISi;  he  W^  ^AJeMy  carried  off  by  «  fit  6f  Art 

Srbjfifexy,  ^t  Etfth,  ib  tb*  rixty-fbtfrtb  yea*  of  bk  ^ge. 
e  hfartfed  VfkibbMl  Kiiigitt;  k  cHi^ert'af  dittgWer,  arid,  it 
m  oiHtM  hot,  si^^  6f  tfag  faiiii<yu^  Rdb^^t  Urii^t;  ^bi^^ 
lb'  ihe  Sooth-sei  toki^y  In  i7ii&.     fiy  tfiriil  ikdy  Mt; 
Chfefeld^h  hdd  emty  6hf!6  datf^bter,^  Wiftelmiirt  Webordi,- 
.  who  ivrfs  married  td  thiirtei  Cdteft,  M.  U.  of  Wtfddcbtej  Ifr 
Shropshire,  abd  ttfenibit  of  ijatliafnent  fbr  T'driH^«rcK,  Ifi 
iJt^tfhWshire.     Dr.  Cotfes  difcd  wlthdui  t^m;  ori  tb^  ift^ 
0^  Mirch,   119^ ;  a^d  Mtk.  Cbtes,  #ho  ifurVlviia  hiih,'  dm 
^tbe  y^afs  ^ncd  at  O^^ebbtihe',  in  thd  paVish  ifi  S^iths^ 
Cdtfibe;  irf  the  t6b«ty  d( keni  Mrs.  CH*seWtdb  died ib  1 7*4. 
Mf.  (Db^seld^b'd  ir^ptitatiom  w^s  gre^t  Ib  ilMtcirihy,  hut 
^'e  a^^rfebfend  tbdt  it  vfras  itill  ^^feat^,'  ^S  ritor^  jil«t»^ 
fbanded,    itt  ^ij^krf.     Thfe  emrncfrtt  strf^ebb  M^.  I^r^; 
ib  a  d^dibatiod'  £b   6itt   abtbor,    cei^bHii^^   HtOEt    as  ifa^ 
dhidMHi  bf  fals  ^rofe^iob ;  aclttio^ledges  Ms  bvH  slflff         J 
ih  ^ijf^fety  tb  bavfe  bfeeb  drieflydfeflved  froiri  iflrai  ««(! 
ref^fesehts,  ihit  pdiittiif  <*rill  be  ever  indM^fed  for  &t6 
Bigtiil  ^Hrcis  he  bas  don^  id  thk  bhibdi  of  thtsS  ]iie(fi6^ 


GfiESKLt)Elff.  241 

^H^  In  surgery  he  was  undoubtedly  a  great  improver, 
having  introduced  simplicity  into  the  practice  of  it^  and 
iaid  aside  the  operose  and  hurtful  French  instruments 
which  had  been  formerly  in  use.  Guided  by  consummate 
skill,  perfectly  master  of  his  hand,  fruitful  in  resources, 
he  was  prepared  for  all  events,  and  performed  every  ope- 
ration with  remarkable  dexterity  and  coolness.  Being 
fully  competent  to  each  possible  case,  he  was  successful 
ip^lL.  He  was  at  the  same  time  emin^ently  distinguished 
By  bis  tenderness  to  his  patients.  Whenever  he  entered 
the  hospital  on  his  morning  visits,  the -reflection  of  what 
h^  was  unavoidably  to  perform,  impressed  him  with  un- 
easy sensations ;  and  it  is  even  said  that  be  was  generally 

'  sick  with  anxiety  before  he  began  an  operation,  though 
during  the  performance  of  it  he  was,  as  hath  already  been 
observed,  remarkably  cool  and  self-collected.  Our  author's 
eulogist  relates. a  striking  contrast  between  him  and  a 
French  surgeon  *  of  eminence.  The  latter  gentleman, 
having  had  his  feelings  rendered  callous  by  a  course  of  sur-* 
gical  practice,  was  astonished  at  the  sensibility  shewn  by 
Mr*  Cheselden  previously  to  his  operations,  and  considered 
it  as  a  .great  mark  of  weakness  in  his  behaviour.  Yet  the 
same  gentleman,  being  persuaded  to  accompany  Mr.  Che- 
selden to  the  fencing*-scbool,  who  frequently  amused  him- 
self with  it  as  a  spectator,  could  not  bear  the  sight,  atid 
was(  taken  ilL  The  adventure  was  the  subject  of  conver- 
sation at  court,  and  both  were  equally  praised  for  goodness 
ci  heart;  but  the  principle  of  humanity  appears  to  ha  vis 
been  stronger  in  Mr.  Cheselden,  because  the  feeling  of  it 
was  not  weakened  by  his  long  practice. 

The  connections  gf  our  eminent  surgeon  and  anatomist 

:  were  not  ccHifmed  to  persons  whose  studies  and  pursuits 
were  congenial  to  those  of  his  own  profession^  He  was 
fond  of  the  polite  arts,  and  cultivated  an  acquaintance  with 
men  of  genius  and  taste.  <  He  was  honoured^  in  particular, 
with  the  friendship  of  Pope,  who  frequently  speaks  of 
dining  with  htm,  but  once  bad  an  interview  rather  of  an 

V  anpleasing  kind.  In  174>2,  Mr.  Cheselden,  in  a  conver- 
sation with  Mr.  Pope  at  Mr.  Dodsley's,  expressed  his  sur- 
prisBe  at  the  folly  of  those  who  could  imagine  that  the  fourth 
book  oS  the  Dunciad  bad  the  least  resemblance  in  .style^ 

*  wit,  ^humour,  or  fancy,  to  the  ^hree  preceding  booklet 
Though  he  was  not,  perhaps,  altogether  singular  in  t|iis 

\  opinion,  which  is  indeed  a  very  just  one,  i£  was  no  small 
Vol.  IX.  R  v 



.242  C  H  £  S  £  L  D  E  N. 

,  mortification  to  him  to  be  informed  by  Pope,  tbut  be  binf- 
self  was  the  author  of  it,  and  was  sorry  that  Mr.  Cheselden 
did  not  hke  the  poem.  Mr.  Cheselden  is  understood  to 
•have  too  highly  valued  himself  upon  bis  taste  in  poetry 
.and  architecture,  considering  the  different  nature  of  bis 
real  accomplishments  and  pursuits.  His  skill  in  the  latter 
art  is  said  not  to  have  been  displayed  to  the  best  advantage 
in  Surgeons' -hall,  in  the  Old  Bailey,  which  was  principally 
built  under  his  direction.  These,  however,  are  triHing 
.  shades  in  eminent  characters. ' 

CH£SN£  (Andrew  du),  an  eminent  historian,  and 
justly  considered  as  the  father  of  French  history,  was  born 
in  the  Isle  of  Bouchard,  in  Torraine,  May  1564.  He  was 
the  youngest  of  the  four  sons  of  Tanneguy  Du  Chesne, 
lord  of  Sausoniere.  His  name  has  been  Latinized  in  dif<* 
ferent  forms.  He  has  at  different  times  called  himself 
QuernoBus,  Quercetanus,  Duchenius ;  and  by  others  he 
has  been  called  Querceus,  a  Quercu,  Chesneus,  and  Cbes- 
nius*  In  his  historical  works  he  assumed  no  other  title 
than  that  af  geographer  to  the  king,  except  in  his  history 
of  the  house  of  fietbune,  printed  in  1639,  where  be  calhs  . 
•himself  historiographer  to  the  king.  His  family  produced 
many  men  of  talents  in  the  army  and  at  the  bar^  He  was  " 
first  educated  at  Loudun,  and  after  a  course  of  grammar 
and  rhetoric,  came  to  Paris^  where  he  studied  pbUosophy, 
.in  the  college  of  Boncours,  under  Julius  Caesar  Boulanger, 
.an  eminent  philosopher^  and  one  of  the  best  historians  of 
that  period. 

. .  Du  Chesne's  first  attempt  as  an  author,  was  a  duodecioiQ 
volume,  printed  in  1602,  and  dedicated  to  Beulanger, 
entitled  '^  Egregiarum  seu  Electarum  Lectionum  et  Anti- 
quitatum  liber.''  The  same  year  he  dedicated  another  to 
M.  de  Cerisy,  archbishop  of  Tours,  entitled  ^^  Januarise 
.Kalendae,  seu  de  solemnitate  anni  tarn  Ethnica  quam  , 
Christiana  brevis  tractatus^"  with  a  Latin  poem,  ^^  Gryphus 
de  Ternario  numero."  In  1605  he  composed  for.  a  young 
lady  whom  he  married  in  1608^  ^^  Les  figures  mystiques 
du  riche  et  precieux  Cabinet  des  Dames,"  apparently  a 
moral  work.  In  his  twenty-third  year  he  began  a  transla^ 
tion  of  Juvenal^  which  he  published  with  notes,  in  1607. 
This  is  a  work  of  very  rare  occurrence.  In  1609  be  pub- 
lished ^' Antiquitez  et  Recherches  de  la  gi*andeQr  et  ma« 

t  Biog.  BriU-^Nichols's  Bowyer,  in  which  are  some  additional  particulars. 

C  H  E  S  N  E. '        '  2*3-' 

jesti  cks  Rois  de  France/^  dedicated  to  Louis  XIII.  tlren 
dauphin.  In  1610  he  wrote  a  poem,  ^^  Chandelier  de 
Justice,^'  and  also  a  panegyrical  discourse  on  the  cere- 
BBonies  of  the  coronation  ot'  queen  Mary  of  Medicisj  with 
a  treatise  on  the  ampulla  and  ileur-de-lys,  &c.  but  owing 
to  the  assassination  of  the  king,  which  happened  after  this, 
cerenaony,  these  productions  were  lost.  The  same  year 
he  published  a  funeral  discourse  on  king  Henry  IV.  and 
the  first  edition  of  his  *^  Antiquitez  et  Recherches  des 
Villes  et  Chateaux  de  France,"  which  has  been  often  re- 
printed. In  1611,  appeared  his  translation  and  abridge* 
ineut  of  the  controversies  and  macrical  researches  of  Delrio, 
the  Jesuit,  -Svo.  In  1612  and  1613,  he  was  employed  on 
his  "  Histoire  d' Angleterre,"  the  first  edition  of  which  was 
published  in  1614  ;  and  the  same  year,  in  conjunction  with 
father  Marrier,  he  published  in  folio,  a  collection  of  the 
works  of  the  religious  of  Cluny,  under  the  title  "  Biblio* 
theca  Cluniacensis.^'  This  was  followed  in  1615,  liy  his 
^^  Histoire  des  Papes,''  fol.  reprinted  in  1645,  but  as  this 
last  edition  was  very  incorrect,  his  son  Francis  Du  Chesne 
published  anew  one  in  1653,.  enlarged  and  illustrated  with 
portraits.  In  1616  he  published  the  "  Works  of  Abelard,'* 
with  a  preface  and  notes,  which  are  rarely  found  to* 

In  1617  he  undertook  an  edition  of  the  "  Histoire  de 
k  Maison  de  Luxembourg,'*  written  in  1574,  by  Nicholas 
Viguier,  and  continued  it  to  the  year  1557.  He  was  also 
editor  this  year  of  the  works  of  Alain  Chartier,  and  of  Al- 
cuinus,  aud  at  the  same  time  projected  two  great  works; 
the  one,  "  A  Geographical  Description  of  France,"  which 
was  to  extend  to  many  volumes.  This  work,  of  which  he 
published  a  specimen,  was  begun  to  be  printed  in  Hol- 
land, but  was  not  continued ;  the  other  was  that  on  whioh 
his  fame  chiefly  rests,  his  collection  of  French  his« 
torians,  under  the  title  ^^  Historia  Brancorum  Seriptores 
cosetanei  ab  ipsius  gentis  origine  ad  nostra  usque  tempora.'* 
In  the  preface  to  his  eoUection  of  the  historians  of  Nor- 
mandy,  he  gives  some  account  of  the  plan,  which  may  be 
jseen  in  the  life  of  Bouquet,  in  this  Dictionary,  (vol.  Vi.) 
Peter  Pithou  and  Marquard  Freher  had  given  him  the  idea 
of  it,  and  he  undertook  it  by  order  of  Louis  XIII.  who 
encouraged  him,  by  a  pension  of  2400  livres,  which  he 
£ujoyed  till  his  death,  with  the  title  of  royal  geographer 
find  historiographer  in  ordinary.     As  a  preparation  for  this 

R  2 

244  C  H  IE  S  N  E. 

work,  he  published  in  1618,  his  ^^  Bibliotheque  des  Au-* 
teurs  qui  ont  ecrit  Histoire  et  Topographic  de  la  France,'' 
8vo,  which  is  now  superseded  by  the  more  extensive  work' 
of  Le  Long.  It  appears  that  in  forming  his  collections  for 
the  French  historians,  he  was  assisted  by  Peiresc,  who^  ex- 
amined the  church  and  monastic  libraries  for  him. 

in  1619,  be  published  his  ^^  Histoire  des  Rois,  Dues, 
et  Comtes  de  Burgogne,"  a  new  edition  of  the  "  Letters* 
of  Stephen  Pasquier,'*  and  his  */  Histories  Normannorum 
Scriptores  antiqui,'*  which  forms  the  first  volume  of  his 
collection  of  French  historians.  The  following  year  ap- 
peared his  ^^  Histoire  genealogique  de  la  Maison  de  Cbas- 
tillon-sur-Marne,  &c.''  As  his  intended  publication  of 
the  geographical  history  of  France  was  interrupted  in  Hol- 
land, he  published  an  abridgment  of  it  at  Paris,  under  the 
title  of  ^'  Antiquitez  et  Recherches  des  villes,  chateaux,  et 
places  remarkables  de  la  France  selon  Pordre  et  les  ressort 
des  parlemens,"  which  passed  through  several  editions,  as 
already  noticed ;  that  of  1647  was  edited  "and  improved  by 
his  son.  In  1621  was  printed  his  "  Histoire  genealogique 
de  la  Maison  de  Montmorency,'*  folio,  which  Le  Long 
thinks  a  capital  work  of  the  kind  ;  it  was  followed  in  1626 
by  a  similar  history  of  the  house  of  De  Vergy.  In  162* 
he  published  a  second  volume  of  the  history  of  Burgundy, 
under  the  title  of  **  Histoire  genealogique  des  Dues  de- 
Bourgogne,"  and  in  1631,  two  other  genealogieal  histories 
of  the  houses  of  Guines,  Ardres,  Dreux,  &c.  The  accu- 
racy of  these  family  histories  has  been  very  generally 
acknowledged,  but  it  is  unnecessary  to  specify  the- dates  of 
each  publication. 

With  respect  to  his  collection  of  French  historians,  he 
published  the  first  two  volumes  in  1636,  fol.  after  having 
two  years  before  issued  a  prospectus  of  the  whole,  and  the 
third  and  fourth  volumes  were  in  the  press,  when  on  May 
30,  1640,  he  MTSLS  crushed  to  death  by  a  cart,  as  he  was 
going  to  his  country-house  at  Verrieres.  He  was  at  this 
time  in  full  health,  and  bade  fair  for  long  life  and  useful- 
ness. The  two  Volumes,  then  in  the  press,  were  completed 
by  his  son,  and  .published  in  1641,  to  which  he  added  a 
fifth  volume  in  1649,  without  any  assistance  from  go- 
vernment, as  the  pension  granted  to  his  father,  and  con* 
tinned  to  him  on  his  death,  was  taken  from  him  about 
three  years  after  that  event.  Some  particulars  of  the  con- 
tinuation of  the  work  to  the  present  time  may  be  seeo  in 



C  H  E  S  N  E.  245 

our  life  of  Bouquet.  In  Du-Chesne's  "  Historiae  Nor- 
mannorum,''  is  the  '^Emmae  Anglorum  reginae  encomium,'* 
of  which  an  edition,  with  William  of  Poictier's  history  of 
William  the  Conqueror,  and  other  historical  documents, 
was -published,  or  rather  printed  for  private  distribution^ 
in  1783,  4to,  by  the  learned  Francis  Maseres,  esq.  F.  R.  S. 
cursitor-baron  of  the  court  of  exchequer. 
*  Extensive  as  Du  Chesne's  published  labours  were,  they 
give  but  a  faint  idea  of  his  immense  industry  in  collecting 
historical  materials,  and  of  the  works  which  might  have 
been  expected  from  him.  He  had  intended  to  confine  his 
collection  of  French  historians  to  24  folio  volumes;  but 
according  to  Le  Long,  forty  would  not  be  sufficient  to 
contain  the  manuscripts  worthy  of  publication,  and  which 
were  discovered  after  his  death  ;  and  he  had  himself 
written  with  his  own  hand  above  an  hundred  folio  volumes 
of  extracts,  transcripts,  observations,  genealogies,  &c.  most 
of  which  were  deposited,  for  the  use  of  his  successors,  in  the 
king's  library.  Du  Fresuoy  speaks  with  less  respect  of  Da 
Chesne's  labours  than  they  deserve.  In  collecting  so 
many  original  authorities,  and  producing  so  many  tran- 
scripts from  valuable  and  perishing  MSS.  he  has  surely 
proved  himslelf  a  great  benefactor  to  general  history ;  and 
it  is  much  to  his  honour  that  he  always  was  ready  to  com- 
municate his  discoveries  to  persons  engaged  in  the  same 
study,  but  .who  did  not  always  acknowledge  their  obli« 
gations. '    ' 

CHESNE  (Joseph  du),  called  also  Qusrcetanus,  lord 
of  La  Violette,  and  physician  to  the  French  king,  was  born 
at  Armagnac,  about  the  middle  of  the  sixteenth  century. 
After  having  passed  a  considerable  ^ime  in  Germany,  and 
being  admitted  to  the  decree  of  M.  D.  at  Basle,  1573, 
he  practised  his  art  in  Paris,  and  was  made  physician  to 
Henry  IV.  He  had  made  great  progress  in  the  study  of 
chemistry,  to  which  he  was  particularly  devoted.  The 
success  that  attended  his  practice  in  this. science,  excited 
the  spleen  of  the  rest  of  the  physicians,  and  especially 
that  of  Guy  Patin,  who  was  continualjy  venting  sarcasms 
and  satires  against  him,  but  experieoce  has  since  shewn 
that  Du  Chesne  was  better  acquainted  with  the  properties 
of  antimony  than  Patin  and  his  cdleagues.  This  learned 
ehemist,  who  is  called  Du  Quesne  by  Moreri,  died  at  Paris, 

1  Le  Long  Bibl.  Hitt'^-NiceroD,  ▼o).ViI,-.*^imOnoiaatt« 

JH4S  C  H  E  S  N  E. 

at  a  very  advanced  age,  in  160^.  He  wrote  in  Frehch 
verse,  «*  The  Folly  of  the  World,"  1583,  4to.  2.  «^  The 
great  Mirror  of  the  World,"'  1593,  Svo.  He  also  com- 
posed several  books  of  chemistry,  which  had  great  repu- 
tation once,  although  they  are  now  forgotten.  Haller  has 
given  the  titles  of  them,  and  analyses  of  the  principal  of 
their  contents.  The  most  celebrated  among  them,  which 
passed  through  the  greatest  number  of  editions,  is  his 
**  Pharmacopoeia  Dogmaticorum  restituta,  pretiosis,  selec- 
tisque  Hermeticorum  Floribus  illustrata,"  Giesse  Hess. 
1607.  This  is  said  to  have  been  recommended  by  Boer* 
haav£  to  his  pupils.  ^ 

CHETWOOD  (Knightly),  D.  D.  was  born  in  1652. 
fie  was  educated  at  Eton,  and  thence  removed  to  Cam- 
bridge, where  he  was  fellow  of  King's-coUege  in  1683, 
'when  he  contributed  the  life  of  Lycurgus  to  the  transla-^ 
tion  of  Plutarch's  Lives,  published  in  that  year.  He  was 
intimately  connected  with  Wentworth,  earl  of  Roscom^ 
mon,  whose  life,  written  by  him,  is  preserved  in  the 
public  library  of  Cambridge,  among  Baker's  MS  Col- 
lections, (vol.  XXXVI.)  and  furnished  Fenton  with  some 
of  the  anecdotes  concerning  that  nobleman,  which  are  found 
among  his  notes  on  Waller's  poems.  The  life  of  Virgil, 
and  the  preface  to  the  Pastorals,  prefixed  to  Dryden'$ 
Virgil,  were  written  by  Dr.  Chetwood,  for  whom  Dryden 
had  a  great  regard,  a  circumstance  very  necessary,  to  be 
mentioned,  as  that  life  has  always  been  ascribed  to  I)rydei\ 
himself.  ' 

.  Jacob  mentions  that  Dr.  Chetwood  had  a  claim  to  an 
ancient  English  barony,  which  was  fruitlessly  prosecuted 
by  his  son,  and  which  accounts  for  his  being  styled  ^^  a 
person  of  honour,"  in  a  translation  which  he  published  of 
some  of  St.  Evremont's  pieces.  By  the  favour  probably 
of  the  earl  of  Dartmouth,  he  was  nominated  to.tlie  see  of 
Bristol  by  king  James  H.  but  soon  after  his  nomination, 
the  king's  abdication  took  place.  In  April  1707,  he  waa 
installed  deau  of  Gloucester,  which  preferment  he  enjoyed 
till  his  death,  which  happened  AprU  tl,  1720,  at  Temps-* 
ford,  in  Bedfordshire,  where  be  h^d  an  estate,  and  where 
he  was  buried.  He  married  a  daughter  of  the  celebrated 
Samuel   Shute,    esq.  sheriff   of    London   in  the   time.  o§ 

Pharles  IL  by  whom. he  left  a  son,  John,  who  wa^  feltow 


).  M^rerl«*»I>ict«  Hist.— >Haller  ^nd  MangeU— -Gen,  PioK, 



of  Trinity-ball,  Cambridge^  and  died  in  17S5.  Tyiro  co- 
pies of  verses  by  Dr.  Chetwood,  one  in  English,  and  the 
other  in  La^in^  are  prefixed  to  lord  Roscommon's  ^^  Essay, 
on  translated  Verse,"  1685,  4to.  He  was  author  also  of 
several  poems,  some  of  which  are  preserved  iu*Dryden's* 
Miscellany,  and  in  Mr.  Nichols's  Collection.  He  likewise 
published  three  single  sermons,  and  ^^  A  Speech  to  tha 
Lower  House  pf  Convocation,  May  20,  1715,  against  the 
hte  riots." 

The  following  particulars  concerning  Dr.  Chetwood 
are  found  in  one  of  Baker's  MSS.  in  the  British  Museum^' 
(MS.  Harl.  7038),  *^  Knightley  Chetwode,  extraordinarie 
electus,  born  at  Coventry,  came  into  the  place  of  Tho. 
Brinley  [as  fellow  of  King's-coUege]  ;  chaplain  to  the  lord 
Dartmouth,  to  the  princess  of  Denmark,  and  to  king 
Jaines  II.;  prebend  of  Wells;  rector  of  Broad  Rissington^ 
Gloucestershire;  archdeacon  of  York;  nominated  bishop 
of  Bristol  by  king  James,  just  before  his  abdication  ;  went 
afterwards  chaplain  to  all  the,  English  fojrces  [sent]  intO' 
Holland  under  the  earl  of  Marlborough  1689 ;  commenced 
P,D.  1691;  dean  of  Gloucester."  * 

CHETWOOD  (WiLUAM  Rufus),  was  once  a  bookseller 
in  Covent-g?irden,  and  many  years  after  prompter  at  Drury- 
lane  Theatre,  g.nd  an  instructor  of  young  actors.  After 
passing  tl^rough  the  miserable  vicissitudes  of  inferior  drav 
^atic  rank,  he  died  poor,  March  1766.  He  wrote  some' 
pieces,  long  since  forgotten,  for  the  stages^  and  in  1749, 
published  *i  A  General  History  of  the  Stage,"  which  al- 
though undervalued  by  the  editors  pf  the  Biographia  Dra-. 
matica,  is  amusing,  and  contains  much  of  the  information, 
^ansferred  since  into  compilations  of  that  kind.  ^ 

CHETWYND  (Jo^JJ),  was  the  son  of  Dr.  Edward  Chet^^ 
wynd,  dean  of  Bristol,  \yho  published  some  single  sermons, 
^numerated  by  Wood,  and  died  in  1639.  His  n^other  was 
Helena,  daughter  of  the  celebrated  sir  Joh^  Harrington, 
author  of  the  "Nugae  Antiquce.'*  He  was  born  in  1623, 
Qt  Banwell  in  Somersetshire,  and  admitted  commoner  of 
"  Exeter  college,  Oxford,  in  1638,  where  he  took  one  degree 
iji^arts;  but  iii  1642  left  the  college.  Having  espoused 
the  c^qse  of  the  presbyterians,  he  returned  to  Oxford, 
when  the  parliamentary  visitors  had  possession  of  tl^e  u|u*) 

I  H>cbQU*s  Poemt,  iroh.  I.  andlll.— Atterbur^'ftCarrefpfBdence,  vol*  I.  |^ 
P,  430.~.Malon«'s  DrydcD,  ?ol.  IV.  p.  547.  *  Biog.  Dramatica. 

&4S  C  H  E  T  W  Y  N  D. 

Tersity,  And  in  1648  took  his  master's  degree.     He  was 
afterwards  one  of  the  joint«pastors  of  St.  Cuthbert  in  Wells, 
and  printed  some  occasional  sermons  preached  there,  or  in 
tiie  neighbourhood :  but  on  the  restoration  he  conformed, 
and  became  vicar  of  Temple  in  Bristol,  and  one  of  the  city- 
lecturers,  and  a  prebendary  of  the  cathedral.  He  was  much 
admired  as  a  preacher,  and  esteemed  a  man  of  great  piety. 
He  died  Dec.  30,  1692,  and  was  buried  in  the  chancel  of 
the  Temple  church.     Besides  the  "  Sermons"  already  no- 
licedy  he  published  a  curious  and  sc£Lrce  bookj  entitled 
**  Anthologia  Historica ;  containing  fourteen  centuries  of 
memorable  passages,  and  remarkable  occurrences,  &c." 
Lond.  1674,  8vo,  republished  in   1691,  with  the  title  of 
**  Collections  Historical,  Political,  Theological,  &c.'*     He 
was  also  editor  of  his  grandfather  sir  John  Harringtou^s 
**  Briefe  View  of  the  State  of  the  Church  of  England,  &c. 
being  a  character  and  history  of  the  Bishops,''  l6dS,  12mo.^^ 
CHEVALIER  (Antony  Ralph  le),  a  protestant  divine, 
was  born  at  Montchamps  near  Vire  in  Normandy,  in  1507. 
He  learned  Hebrew  under  Vatablus  at  Pa.ris,  and  having 
gone  to  England,  became  of  the  household  of  the  princess, 
afterwards  queen  Elizabeth,  whom  he  taught  French.    He 
then  went  to  Germany,  where  he  married  the  daughter  of 
Tremellius,  and  this  alliance  procured  him  the  assistance* 
of  Tremellius  in  his  Hebrew  studies,  in  which  he  made' 
▼ery  distinguished  progress,  and  became  one  of  the  first 
Hebrew  scholars  and  critics  of  his  age.     In  1559-  he  was 
invited  to  Strasburgb,  and  thence  went  to  Geneva,  where 
he  taught  Hebrew,  and  published  an  improved  edition  of 
)?agninus's  Dictionary  of  that  language.  His  love,  however, 
for  his  native  country  induced  him  to  return  to  Caen,  which 
the  civil  wars  soon  obliged  him  to  leave,  and  take  refuge  in 
England  :  he  again  returned  on  the  peace,  but  the  mas- 
sacre of  St.  Bartholomew's  day  obliged  him  to  escape  to 
the  island  of  Guernsey,    where  he  died  in   1572.     He 
translated  from  the  Syriac  into  Latin  the  *^  Targum  Hiero- 
solymitanum  j'*  and  two  years  after  his  death,  his  "  Rudi- 
menta  Hebraicae  linguae,'*  a  very  accurate  work,  was  pub- 
lished at  Wittemberg,  4to.     He  had  designed  to  publish 
an  edition  of  the  Bible  in  four  languages,  but  did  not  livQ 
to  accomplish  it.  ^ 

%  >ii(h.  Ox.  TOlt.  I.  and  11.  *  Mor«ri.-i»S8illet  Jugemeni. 

C  H  E  V  I  L  L  I  E  R.  249 

CHEVILLIER  (Andrew),  a  doctor  and  librarian  of  the 
Sorbonne,  was  born  at  Pontoise  in  the  isle  of  France  in 
1636,  of  poor  parents.  One  of  his  uncles,  a  clergyman  of 
Veaux  in  the  diocese  of  Rouen,  undertook  his  education, 
and  afterwards  sent  him  to  Paris,  where  he  took  his  degrees 
in  divinity,  and  he  was  received  uito  the  house  and  society 
of  the  Sorbonne  in  1658,  where  he  was  equally  admired 
for  learning,  piety,  and  charity,  often  stripping  himself  to 
clothe  the  poor,  and  even  selling  his  books  to  relieve  them, 
which,  all  book-collectors  will  agree,  was  no  small  stretch  of 
benevolence.  Having  been  appointed  librarian  to  the  Sor* 
bonne,  his  studies  in  that  collection  produced  a  valuable 
work,  well  known  to  bibliographers,  entitled  >^  Origine  de 
rimprimerie  de  Paris,  dissertation  historique  et  critique,** 
Paris,  1694,  4to.  Maittaire  frequently  quotes  from  this 
dissertation.  2.  A  translation,  or  rather  paraphrase  of  the 
"  Grand  Canon  de  I'Eglise  Grecque,"  written  by  Andrew  of 
Jerusalem,  archbishop  of  Candy,  Paris,  1699,  !2mo.  He 
also  published  in  1664,  a  Latin  dissertation  on  the  council 
of  Cbalcedon,  on  formularies  of  faith,  and  had  some  hand 
in  the  catalogue  of  prohibited  books  which  appeared  in 
1685.     Chevillier  died  Sept.  8,  1700.  * 

CHEVREAU  (Urban),  was  born  at  Loudun,  a  town  of 
Poitou  in  France,  May  12,  1613.  His  inclination  led  him 
to  the  study  of  the  belles  lettres,  in  which  he  made  so  con- 
siderable progress,  that  he  obtained  a  distinguished  rank 
among  the  learned.  His  application  to  letters,  however, 
did  not  unqualify  him  for  business ;  for  he  was  a  man  of 
great  address  and  knowledge  of  the  world,  and  on  that 
account  advanced  to  be  secretary  to  Christina  queen  of 
Sweden.  The  king  of  Denmark  engaged  him  also  at  his 
court.  Several  German  princes  entertained  him,  and 
among  the  rest  the  elector  palatine  Charles  Lewis,  father 
to  the  duchess  of  Orleans.  He  continued  for  some  time  at 
this  court,  sat  at  the  council-board,  and  helped  to  bring 
over  the  princess  just  mentioned  to  the  Romish  commu« 
nion.  At  bis  return  to  Paris,  he  was  made  preceptor  and 
afterwards  secretary  to  the  duke  of  Maine.  Then  he  re- 
tired to  Loudun,  where  he  had  built  an  elegant  habitation, 
for  the  repose  of  his  old  age  ;  and,  after  spending  there 
the  last  twenty  years  of  his  life  in  study  and  retirement,  he 
died  Feb.  15,  1701,  almost  88  years  of  age. 

1  Tloreri. 

250  C  HE  V  R  E  A  U. 

He  left  a  very  noble  library  bebind  him,  and  was  hiih« 
self  the  author  of  some  works  :  1.  *^  Le  Tableau  de  la  For<« 
tune,''  1651,  8vo,  in  which  he  relates  all  the  considerable 
revolutions  that  haye  happened  in  the  world.  It  was  re-r 
printed,  with  alterations,  under  the  title  of  ^^  Effets  de  la 
Fortune,"  a  romance,  16S6,  8vo.  2.  "  L'Histoire  du 
Mortde,"  1686,  frequently  repriuted ;  the  best  edition  is 
that  of  Paris,  1717,  $  vols,  l^mo,  with  additions  by  Bour« 
geois  de  Chastenet :  but  although  the  author  had  recourse 
Xq  original  information,  his  quotations  are  not  always  to 
be  depended  on^  He  often  mistakes  in  matters  of  fact, 
and  the  style  is  harsh  and  unpolished.  In  1697  were 
printed  at  the  Hague,  2  volumes  of  his  ^^  Oeuvres  melees,'* 
consisting  of  miscellaneous  letters  9nd  pieces  in  prose  and 
Terse.  He  wrote  also  notes  on  Petroniusi  and  Malherbe^ 
and  was  esteemed  a  good  critic.  Much  of  his  turn  of  mind 
and  sentiments  may  be  seen  in  the  "  Chevraeana,"  Paris^ 
1697  and  1700,  2  vols, » 

CHEYNE  (George),  a  physician  of  considerable  emi-i 
nence  and  singular  character,  was  descended  from  a  good 
fi^ily  in  Scotland,  where  he  was  born  in  1671.  He 
received  a  regular  and  liberal  education,  and  was  at  first 
intended  by  bis  parents  for  the  church,  though  that  design 
was  afterwards  laid  aside.  .  He  passed  his  youth,  as  he  him-^ 
self  informs  us,  in  close  study,  and  in  almost  continual  ap-p 
plication  to  the  ab.stracted  sciences  ;  and  in  these  pursuits. 
bis  chief  pleasure  consisted.  The  general  course  of  his. 
life,  therefore,  at  this  time,  was  extremely  temperatp  and 
sedentary ;  though  he  did  occasionally  admit  of  some  relax- 
ation, diverting  himself  with  work^  of  imagination,  and 
^*  roi)sing  nature  by  agreeable  comp$tny  and  good  cheer.'* 
But  upon  the  slightest  excesses  he  found  such  disagree-^ 
able  effects,  as  led  him  tp  conclude,  that  his  glands  were 
naturally  lax,  and  his  solids  feeble:  in  which  opinion  he 
wa&  confirmed,  by  an  e^rly  shaking  of  his  hands,  and  adisn 
position  to  be  easily  ruffled  on  a  surprize.  He  studied 
phytic  at  Edinburgh  under  the  celebrated  Qn  Pitcairne,  to. 
whom  he  was  much  attached,  and  whom  be  styles  ^^  his 
gre^t  master  and  generous  friend."  Having  taken  the 
degree  of  doctor  of  physic,  he  repaired  to  London  to  prac-* 
tise  as  a  physjqian,  when  b^  was  about  thirty  years  of  age. 
On  his  arrival  in  the  metropolis,  he  soon  quitted  the  regulac. 

1  Moreri.— Baillet  Jagemens  des  Sa?ai|S.v-GeUt  Diet.— Niceroui  vol.  XX^ 

C  H  E  Y  N  E.  6St 

tnd  temperate  matiDer  of  life  to  which  he  had  been  chiefly 
accustomed,  and  partly  from  inclination,  and  partly  from 
a  view  to  promote  his  practice,  he  passed  much  of  his  time 
in  company,  and  in  taverns.  Being  of  a  cheerful  temper, 
and  having  a  lively  imagination,  with  much  acquired 
knowledge,  he  soon  rendered  himself  very  agreeable  to 
those  who  lived  and  conversed  freely.  He  was,  as  he  says, 
much  caressed  by  them,  **  and  grew  daily  in  bulk,  and  in 
friendship  with  these  gay  gentlemen,  and  their  acquaint- 
ances." But,  in  a  few  years,  he  found  this  mode  of  living 
very  injurious  to  his  health  :  he  grew  excessively  fat,  short- 
breathed,  listless,  and  lethargic. 

But  before  his  health  was  in  this  unfavourable  state,  he 
had  published  a  medical  treatise,  in  8vo,  under  the  follow- 
ing title :  **  A  new  Theory  of  acute  and  slow-continued 
Fevers :  wherein,   besides  the  appearances  of  such,  and 
the  manner  of  their  cure,  occasionally  the  structure  of  the 
Glands,  and  the  manner  and  laws  of  Secretion,  the  opera- 
lion  of  purgative,  vomitive,  and  mercurial  medicines  are 
JBecfaanicaily  explained.''     To  this  he  prefixed  .^*An  essay 
concerning  the  Improvements  of  the  Theory  of  Medicine.*' 
This  treatise  on  fevers  was  drawn  up  by  Dr.  Cbeyne,  at  the 
(jesire  of  Dr.  Pitcairne ;  but  it  was  a  hasty  performance ; 
^nd  therefore,  though  it  seems  to  have  been  favourably 
recieived,  our  author  never  chose  to  prefi;^  his  name  to  it. 
His  next  publication  was  a  piece  on  abstracted  geometry 
and  algebra,  entitled  "  Fluxionum  Methodus  inversa;  sive 
quantitatum  fluentium  leges  generaliores."     He  afterwards 
puhlished  a  defence  of  this  performance,  although  he  never 
had  a  very  good  opinion  of  it,  against  Mr.  De  Moivre, 
VRder    the    following    title :    ^^  Rudimeiitorum    Method! 
fluxionum  inversae  Specimina,  adversus  Abr.  De  Moivre.'^ 
In  1705,  when  he  was  about  thirty- four  years  of  age,  at 
which  time  he  was  a  fellow  of  the  royal  society,  he  pub- 
lished, in  8vo,  "  Philosophical  Principles  of  Natural  Reli- 
gion :  containing  the  Elements  of  Natural  Philosophy,  and 
the  proofs  for  Natural  Religion  arising  from  them."     This 
pi^ce  be  dedicated  to  the  earl  of  Roxburgh,  at  whose  de« 
sire,  and  for  whose  instruction,  it  appears  to  have  been 
priginally  written. 

In  consequence  of  the  free  mode  of  living  in  which  our 
author  had  for  some  time  indulged  himself,  besides  the  ill 
consequiences  that  have  been  already  mentioned,  be  at 
length  brought  on  himself,  as  be  ini]C)rms  \xsj  an  autumnal 

tSS  C  H  E  Y  N  E. 

intermittent  fever ;  but  this  he  removed  in  a  few  weeks  by 
taking  the  bark.     He  afterwards  went  on  tolerably  well  for 
about  a  year,  though  neither  so  clear  in  his  faculties,  nor 
so  gay  in  his  temper,  as  he  had  formerly  been.     But  the 
following  autumn,  he  was  suddenly  seized  with  a  verti- 
ginous paroxysm,  so  alarming  in  its  nature,  as  to  approach 
nearly  to  a  fit  of  an  apoplexy.     By  degrees,  his  disorder 
turned  to  a  constant  violent  head-ach,  giddiness,  and  low« 
ness  of  spirits :  upon  which  he  entirely  left  off  suppersg^ 
which  he  never  resumed,  and  also  confined  himself  at  din- 
ner  to  a  small  quantity  of  animal  food,  drinking  but  very 
little  fermented  liquors."     The  decline  of  his  health  and 
spirits  occasioned  him^to  be  deserted  by  many  of  his  more 
airy  and  jovial  companions  ;  and  this  circumstance  contri- 
buted  to  the  increase  of  his  melancholy.     He  soon  after 
retired  into  the  country,  into  a  fine  air,  and  lived  very  low ; 
and  at  this  time  he  employed  himself  in  the  perusal  of  some 
of  the  most  valuable  theological  writers.     He  bad  never, 
even  in  hiis  freer  moments,  deserted  the  great  principles  of 
natural  religion  and  morality ;  but  in  his  present  retire-* 
ment  he  made  divine  revelation  the  more  immediate  ob- 
ject of  his  attention.     The  books  that  he  read  were  recom- 
mended to  him  by  a  worthy  and  learned  clergyman  of  the 
church  of  England,  whom  he  does  not  name,  but  whom  he 
represents  to  be.the  man,  that  of  all  his  numerous  acquaint- 
ance, he  the  most  wished  to  resemble. 
..  Dr.  Cheyne's  retirement  into  the  country,  and  low  regi- 
men, having  not  entirely  removed  his  complaints,  he  was 
persuaded  by  his  medical  and  other  friends,  to  try  the 
Bath  waters.     He  accordingly  went  to  Bath,  and  for  some 
time  found  considerable  relief  from  drinking  the  waters. 
But  he  afterwards  returned  to  London  for  the  winter  season, 
and  had  recourse  to  a  milk  diet,  from  which  he  derived  the 
most  salutary  consequences^     He  now  followed  the  busi- 
ness of  his  profession,  with  great  diligefnce  and  attention, 
in  summer  at  Bath,  and  in  the  winter  at  London,  applying 
himself  more  particularly  to  chronical,  and  especially  to 
l6w  and  nervous  cases :  and  at  this  period  of  his  life,  he 
generally  rode  on  horseback  ten  or  fifteen  miles  every  day, 
both  sufnmer   and  winter :  in  summer  on  the  Downs  at 
Bath,  and  in  winter  on  the  Oxford  road  from  London. 

After  our  author  had  found  his  health  to  be  tborbughly 
established,  be  again  made  a  change  in  his  regimen,  gra- 
dually lessening  the  quantity  of  his  milk  and  vegetableS| 

C  H  E  Y  N  E.  2SS 

mad  by  slow  diegress,  and  in  moderate  quantitiesy  living  on 
the  lightest  and  tenderest  animal  food.  This  he  did  for 
some  time,  and  at  last  gradually  went  into  the  common 
mode  of  living,  and  drinking  wine,  though  within  the 
bounds  of  temperance  ;  and  appears  to  have  enjoyed  good 
health  for  several  years.  But  his  mode  of  living,  though 
he  indulged  in  no  great  irregularities,  was  still  more  free 
dian  his  constitution  would  admit ;  and  at  length  produced 
very  ill  effects.  In  the  course  of  ten  or  twelve  years  he 
continued  to  increase  in  size,  and  at  length  weighed  more 
than  thirty-two  stone.  His  breath  became  so  short,  that 
upon  stepping  into  his  chariot  quickly,  and  with  some 
effort,  he  was  ready  to  faint  away,  and  his  face  would  turn 
black.  He  was  not  able  to  walk  up  above  one  pair  of  stairs 
at  a  time,  without  extreme  difficulty  ;  he  was  forced  to 
ride  from  door  to  door  in  a  chariot  even  at  Bath ;  and  if 
he  had  but  a  hundred  paces  to  walk,  he  was  obliged,  as  he 
informs  us  himself,  to  have  a  servant  following  him  with  a 
stool  to  rest  upon.  He  had  also  some  other  complaints; 
and  grew  extremely  lethargic;  and  at  Midsummcf  in  1723, 
i  ^  he  was  seized  with  a  severe  isymptomatic  fever,  which  ter-* 
I  minated  in  a  most  violent  erisipelas.  He  continued  to  be 
in  a  very  bad  state  of  hea  Ja  for  about  a  year  and  a  half, 
having  now  resided  for  a  considerable  time  almost  entirely 
at  Bath.  But  in  December  1725,*  he  went  to  London, 
where  be  had  the  advice  of  his  friend  Dr.  Arbuthnot,  Dr. 
Mead,  Dr.  Freind,  and  some  other  physicians.  From  no- 
thing, however,  did  he  6nd  so  much  relief  as  from  a  milk 
and  vegetable. diet ^  by  a  strict  adherence  to  which,  in 
somewhat  more  than  two  years,  his  health  was  at  length 
thoroughly  established;  and  he  almost  entirely  confined 
himself  to  this  regimen  during  the  remainder  of  his  life. 

Its  the  mean  time,  our  author  continued  to  publish  some 
other  medical  works  ;  particularly  ^^  An  essay  of  the  true 
nature  and  due  method  of  treating  the  Gout,  together  with 
an  account  of  the  nature  and  quality  of  Bath  Waters,  the 
manner  of  using  them,  and  the  diseases  in  which  they  are 
proper :  as  also  of  the  nature  and  cure  of  most  Chronical 
distempers.*'  This  passed  through  at  least  five  editions ; 
and  was  followed  by  "  An  essay  on  Health  and  Long  Life  ;'* 
which  was  well  received  by  the  public,  but  occasioned 
sundry  reflections  to  be  thrown  out  against  him  by  some 
persons  of  the  medical  profession.  In  1726,  he  published 
the  same  work  in  Latin,  enlarged,  under  the  following  title : 

«54  (5  H  E  Y  N.£? 

**  Georgii  Cheynsei  Tractatus  de  Infirmortim  Sartitafe 
tuenda,  Vitaque  producenda,  libro  ejusdem  argumenti  Ang-^ 
lice  edito  longe  auctior  et  limatior ;  huic  accessit  de  natura 
fibrae;  ejusque  laxse  sive  resolatss  morbis  tractatus  nunc  pri-» 
mum  editus."  In  1753,  he  published  a  piece  in  8vo,  under 
the  title  "  The  English  Malady  :  or,  a  treatise  of  Nervous^ 
diseases  of  all  kinds ;  as  Spleen,  Vapours,  Lowness  of 
Spirits,  Hypochondriacal  and  Hysterical  distempers,  &c/'' 
His  next  publication,  which  was  printed  in  1740,  was  en-' 
titled  "  An  essay  on  Regimen ;  together  with  five  dis- 
courses, medical,  moral,  and  philosophical :  serving  ta 
illustrate  the  principles  and  theory  of  philosophical  Medi- 
cine, and  point  out  some  of  its  moral  consequences.'*  The 
last  work  of  our  author,  which  he  dedicated  to  the  earl  of 
Chesterfield,  was  entitled  *^  The  natural  method  of  curing 
the  Diseases  of  the  Body,  and  the  Disorders  of  the  Mind 
depending  on  the  Pody ;  in  three  parts.  Part  I.  General 
reflections  on  the  oeconomy  of  nature  in  animal  Life; 
Part  II.  The  means  and  methods  for  preserving  Kfe  and 
faculties  ;*  and  also  concerning  the  nature  and  cure  of 
acute,  contagious,  and  cephalic  disorders.  Part  III.  Re-^ 
flections  on  the  nature  and  cure  of  particular  chronical 
distempers."  ^ 

Dr.  Cheynedied  at  Bath,  April  12,  1743,  in  the  seventy- 
second  year  of  his  age.  He  had  great  reputation  in  his  own 
time,  both  as  a  practitioner  and  as  a  writer ;  and  most  of 
his  pieces  passed  through  several  editions.  He  is  to  be 
ranked  among  those  physicians  who  have  accounted  for 
the  operations  of  medicine,  and  the  morbid  alteration? 
which  take  place  in  the  human  body,  upon  mechanical 
principles.  A  spirit  of  piety  and  of  benevolence,  and  an 
ardent  zeal  for  the  interests  of  virtue,  are  predominant 
throughout  his  writings.  An  amiable  candour  and  inge- 
nuousness are  also  discernible,  and  which  led  him  to  re-' 
tract  with-  readiness  whatever  appeared  to  him  'to  be 
censurable  in  what  he  had  formerly  advanced*.     Some  of 

*  Of  ibis  we  have  a  remarkable  in-  far  as  it  is  personal  or  peevish,  and  ask 

stance  iti  the  preface  to  bis  Essay  on  him  and  the  world  pardoa  for  it;  a$  ( 

Health  and  Long  Life,  in  which  is  the  do  for  the  defence  of  Dr.  Pitcairne's 

following  passage :   "  The  defence  of  Dissertations,  and  the  New  Theory  of 

that  book   (his  Methodus   Fluxionum  Fevers,  against  the  late  learned  and 

inversa)  against  the  learned  and  acute  ingenious    Dr.  Oliphant.      I  heartiljf 

Mr.  Abr.  de  Moivre,  being  written  in  a  condemn  and  detest  all  personal  reflec- 

spirit  of  levity  and  resentment,  I  most  tions,  all  malicioas  and  unmanoerlir 

sincerely  retract,  and  wish  undone,  so  •  terms,  and  all  false  and  unjust  rppre- 

C  H  fi  Y  N  E.  ^>55 

the  metaphysical  notions  which  he  has  introduced  into  bb 
books  may  perhaps  justly  be  thought  fanciful  and  ill- 
grounded  ;  but  there  is  an  agreeable  vivacity  iii  his  pro- 
ductions, together  with  much  openness  and  frankness,  and 
in  general  gteat  perspicuity. — Of  his  relations,  his  half- 
brother,  the  rev.  William  Cheyne,  vicar  of  Weston  near 
Bath,  died  Sept.  6,  1767,  and  his  son  the  rev.  John  Cheyne, 
vicar  of  Brigscock,  Northamptonshire,  died  August  il, 

CHEYNE  (Jameb)j  professor  of  philosophy,  and  rector 
of  the  Scotch  college  at  Doway  in  Flanders,  was  of  the  t.n* 
cient  family  of  Arnage,  or  Arnagie  in  Aberdeenshire, 
where  he  was  bom  in  the  early  part  of  the  sixteenth  cen- 
tury. After  studying  classical  and  philosophical  learning 
in  the  uhiverstty  of  Aberdeen,  he  applied  to  divinity  under 
Mr.  John  Henderson,  a  celebrated  divine  of  that  time ;  but 
on  the  establishment  of  the  reformation,  Cheyne  (as  well  ad 
bis  master)  went  over  to  France,  and  taught  philosophy  fot 
spQie  time  in  the  college  of  St.  Barbe  at  Paris.  From 
thence  he.  went  to  Doway,  where  he  taught  philosophy  for 
several  years,  and  was  made  rector  of  the  Scotch  college, 
and  canon  and  greatpenitentiary  of  the  cathedral  of  Tournay. 
He  died  in  1602,  and  was  buried  in  that  church  under  a 
marble  monument,' with  an  inscription.  The  authors  quoted 
by  Muchenzie  give  him  the  character  of  one  of  the  first 
mathematicians  and  philosophers  and  most  learned  men  of 
his  time.  He  wrote,  1.  "  Analysis  in  Philosophiam  Aristot.'* 
Duac.  (Doway),  1573,  1595,  8vo.  2.  "  De  sphaera  seu 
globi  coelestis  fabrica,"  ibid,  1675.  3.  "  De  Geographia, 
lib.  duo,'*  ibid.  1576,  8vo.  4.  **  Orationes  duo,  de  per- 
fecto  Philosopho,  &c."  ibid.  1577,  8vo.  5.  "  Analysis  et 
scholia  in  Aristot.  lib.  XIV.'*  ibid.  1578,  Svo.  * 

CHEYNELL  (Francis),  a  nonconformist  of  some  note, 
the  son  of  John  Cheynell  a  physician,  was  born  at  Oxford 
in  i>608 ;   and  after    he  had  been  educated  in  grammar 

seotationd,  as, unbecoming  gentlemen,  to  adhere:   <<  To  neglect  n.othing   to 

KCholars,  and  Christians;  and  disprove  secure  his  eternal  peace,    any  more 

and  undo  both  performances,  as  far  as  than  if  he  had  been  certified  he  should 

in  me  lies,  in  every  thing  that  does  not  die  within  the  day;  nor  to  mind  any 

strictly  and  barely  relate  to  the  argu-  thing  that  his  secular  obligations  and 

ment.^'    Another  of  Dr.  Cheyne's  reso*  duties  demanded  of  him  less,  than  if 

lutions  onght  never  to  be  forgotten,  he  had  been  insured  to  live  fifty  year» 

and  to  which  he  sincerely  endeavoured  more.*' 

}  Biog.  Brit. — Chesterfield**  Miscellanies. — Gent.  Mag.  see  Index. 

'  Machenzie*;>  Scotch  writers,  vol.  HI. — Ikmpjitec  Hist.  Eccles. — Tanner. 


256  C  Ji  E  y  N  E  L  L, 

learning,  became  a  tnember  of  the  university  there  io 
1623.  When  he  had  taken  the  degree  of  B.  A.  he  was, 
by  the  interest  of  his  mother,  at  that  time  the  widow  of 
Abboty  bishop  of  Salisbury^  elected  probations  fellow  of 
jMerton  college  in  1629.  Then  he  went  into  orders,  and 
officiated  in  Oxford  for  some  time ;  bat  when  the  church 
began  to  be  attacked  in  1640,  he  took  the  parliamentarian 
side,  and  became  an  enemy  to  bishops  and  ecclesiastical 
ceremonies.  He  embraced  the  covenant,  was  made  on6 
of  the  assembly  of  divines  in  1643,  and  was  frequently 
appointed  to  preach  before  the  members  of  parliaments 
He  was  one  of  those  who  were  sent  to  convert  the  university 
of  Oxford  in  1 646,  was  made  a  visitor  by  the  parliament 
in  1647,  and  tbe  year  after  took  possession  by  force  of  the 
Margaret  professorship  of  that  university,  and  of  tbe  pre^ 
sidentship  of  St.  John^s  college.  .  But  being  found  an 
improper  man  for  those  places,  he  was  forced  to  retire  to 
the  rectory  of  Petworth  in  Sussex,  to  which  be  had  been 
presented  about  1643,  where- he  continued  aa  useful  mem- 
ber to  his  party  till  the  time  of  the  restoration,  when  he 
was  ejected  from  that  rich  parsonage. 

Dr.  Cbeynell  (for  he  had  taken  his  doctor's  degree)  was 
a  man  of  considerable  parts  and  learning,  and  published  a 
great  many  sermons  and  other  works  i  but  now  he  is  chiefly 
memorable  for  his  conduct  to  the  celebrated  Chillingworth^ 
in  which  be  betrayed  a  degree  of  bigotry  that  has  not  been 
defended  by  any  of  the  nonconformist  biographers.  In 
1643,  when  Laud  was  a  prisoner  in  the  Tower,  there  was 
printed  by  authority  a  book  of  CheynelPs,  entitled  ^*  The 
rise,  growth,  and  danger  of  Socinianism,''  and  unques- 
tionably one  of  his  best  works.  This  came  out  about  six 
years  after  Cbillingworth's  more  famous  work  called  "  Tbe 
Religion  of  Protestants,"  &c.  and  was  written,  as  we  are 
told  in  the  title-page,  with  a  view  of  detecting  a  most 
horrid  plot  formed  by  the  archbishop  and  hb  adherents 
against  the  pure  Protestant  religion.  In  this  book  the 
archbishop,  Hales  of  Eton,  Chillingworth,  and  other  emi- 
nent divines  of  those  times,  were  strongly  charged  with 
Socinianism.  The  year  after,  1644,  when  Chillingworth 
was  dead,  there  came  out  another  piece  of  CheynelPs  with 
this  strange  title,  ^^  Cbillingworthi  Novissima ;  or,  the  sick- 
ness, heresy,  death  and  burial  of  William  Chillingworth." 
This  was  also  printed  by  authority ;  and  is,  as  the  writer 
of  Chillingworth's  life  truly  observes,   a  most  ludicrous 

■d  lA  E  ¥  N  E  L  t;  257 

65  well  as  melancholy  instance  of  fanaticism,  or  religious 
madness.     To  this  is  prefixed  a  dedication  to  Dr.  Bayly^ 
Dr.  Prideaux,  Dr.  Fell,  &c.  of  the  university  of  Oxford^ 
who  had  given  their  imprimatur  to  Chillingwbrth^s  book  J 
in  which  tbo^e  divines  are  abused  not  a  little,  for  giving 
«o  much  countenance  to  the  use  of  reason  in  religious' mat* 
ters,  as  they  had  given  by  their  approbation  of  Chilling^ 
Worth*s  book.     After  the  dedication  follows  the  relation 
itself;  in  which  Cheynell  gives  an  account^  hovjr  he  camd 
acquainted  with  this  man  of  reason,  as  he  calls  Chilling- 
worth  ;-  what  care  he  took  of  him ;  and  how,  as  his  illness 
increased,  "they  remembered  him  in  their  prayers,  and 
prayed  heartily  that  God  would  be  pleased  to  bestow  saving 
graces  as  well  as  excellent  gifts  upon  him ;  that  He  woula 
give  him  new  light  and  new  eyes,  that  he  might  see  aiad 
acknowledge,  and  recant  his  error ;  that  he  might  deny 
hb  carnal  reason,  and  submit  to  faith  :'^  in  all  which  he  i^ 
supposed  to  have  related  nothing  but  what  was  trae.     Foi* 
he  is  allowed  by  bishop  Hoadly  to  have  been  as  sincere,  ad 
honest,  and  as  charitable  as  his  religion  would  suffer  biiH 
to  be ;  and,  in  the  case  of  Chillingworth,  while  he  thought 
it  his  duty  to  consign  his  soul  to  hell,  was  led  by  his  hu- 
manity to  take  care  of  his  body.     Chillingworth  at  length 
died;  and  Cheynell,  though  he  refused,  as  he  tells  us,  to 
bury  his  body,  yet  concdi.ved  it  very  fitting  to  buryhii 
book.     For  this  purpose  be  met  Chillingworth*s  friends  at 
the  grave  with'  his  book  in  his  hand;  and,  after  a  short 
preamble  to  the  people,  in  which  he  assured  thtem  •*  hoW 
happy  it  wotild  be  for  the  kingdom,  if  this'  book   jind 
all  its  fellows  could  be  so  buried  that  they  might  tiever  rise 
more,  unless  it  were  for  a  confutation,"  be  exclaimed^ 
**  Get  thee  gone,  thou  cursed  book,  which  has  seduced  so 
many  precious  souls:  get  thee  gone,  thou  corrupt  rottert 
book,  earth  to  earth,  aufldust  to  dust:  get  thee  gone  into 
the  place  of  rottenness,*  that  thou  nxaye3t  rot  with  thy 
author,  and  6ee  cdrrup.tioh:"        '  *  ' 

*  Clieynell's  death  happened  in  J  665,  at  an  obscure  vil- 
lage called  Pir€iston,  in  Sussex,  wherie  he  had  purchased 
an  estate,  to  which  hfe  retired  upon  his  being  turned  out 
of  the  fiVmg  of  »PetWokh.  The  Warnith  of  his  ^eal,  in- 
creased by  thp  turbulence  of  th^e  tinaes  in  which  be  lived, 
amd  hy  the  opposition  to  which  tji«  unpopular  nature  of 
some  of. bis  jem^ployments  exposed  him,  was  at  last 'height* 
ened  to'distraction,  and  he  was  for  some  years  disordered 
Vol.  IX.  S 

258  C  H  E  Y  N  E  L  L. 

in  his  understanding.  Wood  thinks  that  a  tendency  to 
madness  was  discoverable  in  a  gireat  part  of  his  life ;  Ca« 
lamy,  that  it  was  only  transient  and  accidental,  tlmugh  be 

E leads  it  as  an  extenuation  of  that  fury  with  which  his 
indest  friends  confess  him  to  have  acted  on  some  occa- 
sions, particularly,  we  may  add,  at  Oxford,  when  one  of 
the  parliamentary  visitors,  where  his  behaviour  was  savage 
enough  to  justify  more  than  the  retaliation  inflicted  on  his 
party.'  Wood  declares  that  he  died  little  better  than  dts- 
tracted ;  but  Calamy,  that  he  was  perfectly  recovered  be- 
fore the  restoration.  He  had  many  good  qualities,  parti- 
cularly a  hospitable  disposition,  and  a  contempt  for  money ; 
but  his  extravagant  zeal  marred  his  usefulness,  and  re- 
flected no  honour  on  his  general  character,  or  on  his  party. 
With  regard,  however,  to  his  charging  Chilling^orth  with 
Socinianism,  that  is  now  universally  allowed. ' 

CHIABRERA  (Gabrielo),  an  Italian  poet,  was  bom  M 
Savone,  in  1 552.  He  went  to  study  at  Rome,  where  Aldus 
Manutius  and  Muretus  gave  him  their  friendship  and  advice^ 
and  pope  Urban  VHI.  and  the  princes  of  Italy  honoured  him 
with  many  public  marks  of  their  esteem.  In  1^24  Urbany 
himself  a  poet,  as  well  as  a  protector  of  poets,  invited  him 
to  Rome  for  the  holy  year ;  but  Chiabrera  excused  himself 
on  account  of  old  age  and  infirmities.  He  died  at  Sayone 
in  1638,  aged  eighty-six.  His  Lyric  Poems,  Rome,  17 18^ 
3  vols.  8vo,  and  <<  Amadeida,**  Napoli,  1635,  12mo,^re 
particularly  admired.  All  his  works  were  collected  ;at 
Venice,  1731,  4vols.  Svo.*  • 

CHIARAMONTI  (Scipio),  iii  Latin  Claramontios^ 
an  eminent  Italian  astronomer  and  philosopher,  was  born 
at  Cesena  in  the  province  of  Romagna  in  June  1565.  His 
father  was  a  physician  at  Cesena.  He  studied  at  P^rUgia 
and  Ferrara,  and  became  distinguishect  for  his  progress;,  in 
philosophy  and  mathematics;  the  former  of  wkicb  -he 
'  taught  for  some  time  at  Pisa.  He  passed,  however,  '^e 
greater  part  of  his  long  life  at  Cesena,  and  in  his  history 
of  that  place,  which  he  published  in  1641,  he  informs -vs^ 
that  for  fifty -nine  years  he  had  served  bis  country  in  apuhr 
lie  capacity.  He  was,  in  particular,  frequently  deputed  to 
Rome,  either  to  offer  obedience  to  the  pope  in  the  name 

"  •  .     * 

-  1  Fram  tli6,few  incidentt  of  hb  life  Dr.  Johnson  dr«w  out  mn  elegant  naiT%tiTe 
in  1751,  now  printed  in  big  worlu.    See  also,  Atb.  Ox.  vol.  II.— -Wood's  Ami* 
^uities  of  Oxford,  by  Gutcb.-^aiamy. — ^Neal's  Puritans,  &c. 
»  XUib)Hchi.?f']^aiUet  JttgeiiieBt4«*£rytbr«9l  ?iBii«otiiecfi.^lf«r^^      J; 

C  HI  ARAM  O  N  T  I.  2Sa 

of  his  countrymen,  or  on  other  afikirs.-    He  had  married  a 
-Jady  whom  be  calls  Virginia  de  Abbatibus,  but  becoming 
a  widower  at  the  age  of  eighty,  he  went  into  the  church, 
received  priest's  orders,  and  retired  with  the  priests  of  the 
congregation  of  the  oratory,  for  whom  he  built  a  church  at 
Cesena,  and  there  he  died  Oct.  3,  1652,  in  his  eighty* 
feyepth  year.    He  established  at  Cesena  the  academy  of 
jth^  Oifuscati,  over  which  he  presided  until  his  death.    His 
works,  written  partly  in  Italian  and  partly  in  Latin^  are 
very  numerous,  and  filled  a  considerable  space  in  the  li* 
tjOrary  history  of  his  time  :  1.  '^  Discorso  della  Cometa  po« 
gon«ure  deir  anno  1618>  &c»"  Venice,  1619,  4to,  in  which 
-  he  suggests .  that  comets  are  sublunary,  and  not  celestial 
bodies.    2.  ^^  Anti-Tycho,  in  quo  contra  Tychonem  Brabe, 
^et  nonnullos  alios,   &c.  demoustratur  Cometas  essesubki- 
nares,'*  Venice,  1621,  4to.    Kepler  on  this  occasion  stept 
forward  in  defence  of  Tycho  Brabe,  who  had  been  dead 
some, years.     3.  '^  De  conjectandis.cujusque  moribus  et 
^  latitantibus  animi  affectibos  semeiotice  moralis,  seu  de  sig- 
.  .nis  libri  decern,"  ibid.   1625,  4to,  reprinted  by  Herman 
Conringius,  who  calls  it  an  incomparable  work,  at  Helm* 
:8tadt,  in  1665,  4to.     MorhofF  also  praises,  it  highly.     M. 
.  Trichet  Dufresne  brought  a  copy  of  it  for  the  first  tim^ 
.  iuto  France,  and  M.  de  la  Cbambre  availed  himself  of  it 
in  his  work  on  the  passions.     4.  *<  Notae  in  moralem;Suam 
semeioticam>  seu  de  ^ignis,**  Cesena,  1625,  4to.     It  is, 
,  peihaps,.  unnecessary  to  inform  our  readers  that  physio- 
gnomy was  a  favourite  study  from  the  beginning  of  the 
^fteenth  to  the  end  of  the  sixteenth  century,  and  Chiara^ 
men ti  appears  to  have  made  as  much  progress  in  it  as  any 
.  «f  his  contemporaries.     5.  An  answer  to  Kepler,  under  the 
title  '^  Apologia  pro  Anti-Tycbone  suo  adversus  Hyperas- 
'piteaJoaanis  Kepieri,"  Venice,.  162 6,  4to.     6.  "De  tri- 
Jbu8  novis  stellis,  qufls  annis  1572,   1600,  et  1604,  com- 
:  pi^meie,"  Cesena,  1628,  4to.     Galileo  now  took  the  part 
,  of  Tycho  Brabe,  and  published,  in  Italian  a  work  against 
^  .Chiaramonti,  who  answered  it  in,   7.  ^^  Difesa  di  Scipioni 
Chiaramonti,^e/'  Florence,   1633^  4to.    8.  <<  Delia  ra« 
.  gione  di  statp  libri  tre»  nel  quale  trattato  da  primi  pnn« 
.  -cipii  dedotto  si  suo  pcona  la  natiira,  le  ms^sime,  e  le  specie 
de^  governi  buoni,  cattivi  e  mascherati,''  Florence,  1635, 
*   4tx>,  and  translated  into  Latin,  Hamburgh,  ,1679,  4to.     9. 
'^  Examen  ad  censuram  Joannir'Camilli  Gloriosi  in  libruni 
de  tiibut  novis  stellis,''  ibid.  1636^  4to*    10.  <<  De  sede 

3  ;2 

^60  C  H  I  A  R  A  M  O  N  T  L 

sublunari  dotnetftrum,  opuscula  tria/*  Amst.  1636^,  4to.  1 1^. 
*<  Castigatio  J»  CamiUi  Gloriosi  adversus  Clatamontium 
castigata  ab  ipso  Clavamontio/'  Gesena,  1638,  4to.  -^12: 
^*  De  inetbodo  ad  doctrinam  spectante,  Hbri  quatuor,  &c." 
abid.  1639,  4to.  IS.  ^^  Caesene  Historia  libris  sesdecim, 
ab  initio  civitatis  ad  h^e  teropora/*  with  a  sketch  of  the 
general  history  of  Italy  during  the  same  period,  Cesena, 
1'641,  4to,  14.  "  De  atrabile,  quoad  mores  attinet,"  Pa- 
ris, ^641,  6vo,  dedicated  to  Naud6,  but  in  the  licence  it 
H  erroneoosly  said  that  the  author  was  physician  to  the 
p>pe»  15.  **  Anti-Philolaus,  in  quo  Philolaus  redivivus  de 
tevrae  motu  et  solis  ac  fixarum  quiete  impugnalur,"  &c. 
Cesena>  1643,  4to.  This  was  written  against  BuUialdus's 
attempt  to  revive  the  system  of  Philolaus,  but  in  this  we 
doubt  whether  our  author  was  equal  to  his  antagonist.  16. 
^*  Defensio  ab  oppognationibus  Fortunii  Liceti  de  sede  Co- 
me tarum,''  Cesena,  1644,  4to.  17.  "  De  Universe,  libri 
sexdiecim/-  Cologne,  1644,  4to.  18.  One  of  his  best 
works,  ^*  De  altitudine  Caucasi  liber  iinuS|  cura  Gab.  Nau* 
diei  editus,"  Paris,  1649,  4to,  and  16»0,  4to.  19;  "  Pfai^ 
losophia  naturalis  methodo  resolutiva  tradita,  &c.^*  Cesena, 

1652,  4to,     20.  **  Oiniscula  varia  mathematica,"  Bologna, 

1653,  4to.  2 1 .  "  Commentaria  in  Aristotelem  de  iride, 
fcc'*  ibid,  1654,  4tQ.  22.  "  In  quatuor  meteortim  Aristo* 
telis  librum  commentaria,*'  Venice,  1668,  4to,  23.  "Delle 
scene,  e  tbeatri  opera  poschuma,^^  Cesena,  1675,  4to.  * 

CHICHELE  (Henry),  archbishop  of  Canterbury,  and 
founder  of  All  Souls  college,  Oxford,  was  born,  probably 
i»  1362,  at  Higham-Ferrars  in  Northamptonshire,  of  pa- 
rents who,  if  not  distinguished  by  their  opulence,  were  at 
least  enabled  to  place  their  children  in  situations  which 
c}ualified  them  for  promotion  in  civil  and  political  life. 
Their  sons,  Robert  and  Thomas,  rose  to  the  highest  dig- 
nities in  the  magistracy  ef  London ;  and  Henry,  the  sub*- 
ject  of  this  memoir,  was,  at  a  suitable  age,  placed  at  Win«> 
Chester  school,  and  •  thence  removed  to  New  coUegei 
where  be  studied  the  civil  and  canon  law.  Of  his  pro- 
ficiency here,  we  have  little  information,  but  the  progress 
ef  his  advancement  indicates  that  he  soon  acquired  distinct- 
tion,  and  conciliated  the  affection  of  the  first  patrons  of 
the  age.  From  1392  to  1407,  he  can  be  traced  through 
•■  .        . 

1  Moreri. — Saxii  Onomast.  in  CUtranontioSj  and  Movboff  Polyhist.  in  tbt 
saii^e. — ^Nicer^n,  vol.  XXX, 

C  H  I  C  H  E  L  E,  861 

vsiriou^  ecclesiastical  preferments  and  dignities,  for  some 
at  least  of  which  he  was  indebted  to  j^ichard  Metford, 
bishop  of  Salisbury.  This  valuable  friend  be  had  the  mis- 
fortune to  lose  in  the  last  mentioned  year ;  but  bis  repu« 
tation  was  so  firmly  established,  that  king  Henry  IV. 
about  this  time  employed  him  on  an  embassy  to  pope  In- 
nocent VII.  on  another  to  the  court  of  France,  and  on  a 
third  to  pope  Gregory  XI L  who  was  so  much  pleased  with 
his  conduct  as  to  present  him  to  the  bishopric  of  St. 
David'S|  which  happened  to  become  vacant  during  his 
residence  at  the  apostolic  court  in  1408.  In  the  following 
year  he  was  deputed,  along  with  Hallum,  bishop  of  Salis- 
bury, and  Chillingdon,  prior  of  Canterbury,  to  represent 
England  in  the  council  of  Pisa,  which  was  convoked  tQ 
settle  the  disputed  pretensions  of  the  popes  Gregory  and 
Benedict,  both  of  whom  were  deposed,  and  Alexander  V, 
chosen  in  their  room,  who  b^^d  once  studied  at  Oxford. 
.  On  our  founder^s  return,  he  passed  some  months  in  dis- 
charging the  functions  of  his  diocese.  In  May  1410,  be 
was  again  sent  to  France,  with  other  negociators,  to  ob-« 
tain  a  renewal  of  the  truce  between  the  two  kingdoms; 
but  this  was  not  accomplished  until  the  year  following,  nor 
without  considerable  di65culties.  For  nearly  two  years 
after  this,  we  find  him  residing  on  his  diocese,  or  paying 
occasional  visits  to  the  metropolis,  which  his  high  charac- 
ter as  a  statesman  rendered  no  less  necessary  than  grateful 
to  bis  royal  master. 

On  the  accession  of  Henry  V.  he  was  again  consulted 
and  employed  in  many  political  measureQ,  and  appears  to 
have  completely  acquired  the  confidence  of  the  new  sove- 
reign, who  sent  him  a  third  time  into  France  on  the  sub- 
ject of  peace.  The  English  were  at  this  time  in  possessioa 
of  some  of  the  territories  of  that  country,  a  circumstance 
which  rendered  every  treaty  of  peace  insecure,  and  create4 
perpetual  jealousies  and  efforts  towards  emancipation  ou 
the  part  of  the  French. 

In  the  spring  of  1414,  Cbichele  succeeded  Arundel  as 
archbishop  af  Canterbury,  which  he  at  first  refused  in  de- 
ference to  the  pope ;  but  on  the  pontiff^s  acceding  to  the 
election  made  by  the  prior  and  monks,  he  was  put  in  com- 
plete possession,  and  soon  had  occasion  to  exert  the  whole 
of  his  talents  and  influenee  to  preserve  the  revenues  of  the 
church,  wbich  the  parliament  had  more  than  once  advised 
tlie  king  to  take  into  hi^  own  band$.    The  time  was  crit^* 

262  C  H  I  C  H  E  L  E. 

cal ;  the  king  had  made  demands  on  the  court  of  France^' 
which  promised  to  end  in  hostilities,  and  large  supplies 
were  wanted.  The  clergy,  alarmed  for  the  whole,  agreed 
to  give  up  a  part  of  their  possessions,  and  Chichele  under- 
took to  lay  their  offer  before  parliament,  and  as  far  as 
eloquence  could  go,  to  render  it  satisfactory  to  that  assem- 
bly. It  is  here  that  historians  have  taken  occasion  to  cen« 
sure  his  conduct,  and  to  represent  him  as  precipitating  the 
king  into  a  war  with  France,  in  order  to  divert  his  atten* 
tion  from  the  church.  But  while  it  is  certain  that  he 
strongly  recommended  the  recovery  of  Henry's  hereditary 
dominions  in  France,  and  the  vindication  of  his  title  to  that 
crown,  it  is  equally  certain  that  this  was  a  disposition 
which  he  rather  found  than  created  ^  and  in  what  manner 
he  could  have  thwarted  it,  if  such  is  to  be  supposed  the 
wiser  and  better  course,  cannot  be  determined  without  a 
more  intimate  knowledge  of  the  state  of  parties  than  is 
now  practicable.  The  war,  however,  was  eminently  suc- 
cessful, and  the  battle  of  Azincourt  gratified  the  utmost 
hopes  of  the  nation^  and  has  ever  since  been  a  proud  me- 
mento of  its  valour.  During  this  period,  besides  taking 
the  lead  in  political  and  ecclesiastical  measures  at  home| 
Chichele  twice  accompanied  the  king's  camp  in  France. 

After  the  death  of  Henry  V.'  in  1422,  and  the  appoints 
ment  of  Humphrey  duke  of  Gloucester  to  be  regent  during 
the  minority  of  Henry  VI.,  Chichele  retired  to  his  pro- 
vince, and  began  to  visit  the  several  dioceses  included  in 
it,  carefully  inquiring  into  the  state  of  morals  and  relig^ion. 
Tlie  principles  of  Wickliffe  h^  made  considerable  p/o- 
grress,  and  it  was  to  them  chiefly  that  the  indifference  of 
the  public  towards  the  established  clergy,  and  the  efforts 
which  had  been  made  to^  alienate  their  revenues,  were 
attributed.  Officially,  tberefojis^,  we  are  not  to  wonder  that 
Chichele,  educated  in  all  the  prejudices  of  the  times,  en- 
deavoured to  che^k  the  growing  heresy,  as  it  was  csdled ; 
but  from  the  silence  of  Fox  on  the  subject,  there  is  reason 
to  hope  that  his  personal  interference  was  far  more  gentle 
than  that  of  his  predecessor  Arundel.  On  the  other  hand, 
history  has  done  ample  justice  to  the  spirit  with  which  be 
resisted  the  assumed  power  of  the  pope  in  the  disposition 
of  ecclesiastical  preferments,  and  asserted  the  privileges 
pf  the  English  church.  In  all  this  he  was  supported  by 
the  nation  at  large,  by  a  majority  of  the  bishops,  and  by 
the  university  of  Oxford,  nor  at  this  time  was  more  zeal 

C  H  I  C  H  E  L  E.  363 


sbbwn  against  the  Lollards,  or  first  protestaDts,  than  against 
the  capricious  and  degrading  encroachments  of  the  court 
of  Rome.  Among  the  vindications  of  Chichele's  character 
from  the  imputations  thrown  upon  it  by  the  agents  of  the 
pope,  that  of  the  university  of  Oxford  must  not  be  omitted. 
They  told  the  pope,  that  ^  Chichele  stood  in  the  sanctu* 
ary  of  God  as  a  firm  wall  that  heresy  could  not  shake,  nor 
simony  undermine,  and  that  he  was  the  darling  of  the 
people,  and  the  foster  parent  of  the  clergy."  These  re- 
monstrances, however,  were  unsatisfactory  to  the  proud 
and  restless  spirit  of  Martin  V.  but  after  he  had  for  some 
time  kept  the  terrors  of  an  interdict  hanging  over  the  na« 
tion,  the  dispute  was  dropped  without  concessions  on  either 
side,  and  the  death  of  this  pope,  soon  after,  relieved  the 
archbishop  from  farther  vexation. 

^  He  was  now  advancing  in  years,  and  while  he  employed 
his  time  in  promoting  the  interests  of  his  province,  he 
eonceived  the  plan  of  founding  a  college  in  Oxford,  which 
he  lived  to  accomplish  on  a  very  magnificent  scale.  One 
benefit  he  conferred,  about  the  same  time,  of  a  more  gene« 
ral  importance  to  both  universities.  Puring  the  sitting  of 
one  of  the  convocations  in  14^38,  the  universities  presented 
a  remonstrs^nce,  stating  the  grievances  they  laboured  under 
from  wars,  want  of  revenues,  and  th^  neglect  of  their 
'inembers  in  the  disposal  of  church  livings.  Chichele  im- 
mediately procured  a  decree  that  all  ecclesiastical  patrons 
should,  for  ten  years  to  come,  confer  the  benefices  in  their 
^ift  on  members  of  either  university  exclusively ;  aqd  that 
vicars  general,  commissaries  and  officials,  should  be  chosen 
.otkt  of  the  graduates  in  civil  and  common  law. 

He  had  now  held  eighteen  synods,  in  all  of  which  he 
distinguished  himself  as  the  guardian  of  the  church,  and 
was  eminently  successful  in  conciliating  the  parliament 
and  nation,  by  such  grants  on  the  part  of  the  clergy  as 
showed  a  readiness,  proportioned  to  their  ability,  to  siip- 
port  the  interests  of  the  crown  and  people.  The  most 
noted  of  his  constitutions  were  those  which  enjoined  ^e 
celebration  of  festivals ;  regulated  the  probates  of  wills ; 
provided  against  false  weights;  and  augmented  the, sti- 
pends of  vicars.  That  which  is  most  to  be  regretted  wiete, 
hi^  instituting  a  kind  of  inquisition  against  LoUardism.     i 

In  1442,  he  applied  to  pope  Eugenius  for  an  indulgence 

to  resign  his  office  into  more  able  hands,  beiiig  now  nearly 

eighty  years  old,  and,  as  he  pathetically  urges,  <^  heavy 


C  H  I  C  H  E  L  E. 

iadfen,  aged,  infirm,  and  w^ak  beyond  measure.'*  He  io-* 
treats  that  be  may  be  released  from  a  burthen  which  he 
was  no  longer  able  to  support  either  with  ease  to .  himself, 
or  advantage  to  others.  He  died,  however,  before  the 
issue  of  this  application  could  be  known,  on  the  12th  of 
April  1443,  and  was  interred  with  great  solemnity  in  the 
pathedral  of  Canterbury,  under  a  monument  of  exquisite 
workmanship  built  by  himself.  As  a  farther  mark  of  re- 
spect, the  prior  and  monks  decreed  that  no  person  .should 
be  buried  in  that  part  of  the  church  where  his  remains 
were  deposited^ 

His  character,  when  assimilated  to  that  of  the  age  in 
which  he  lived,  is  not  without  a  portion  of  the  dark  senti« 
ment,  and  barbarous  spirit  of  persecution,  which  obstructed 
the  reformation ;  but  on  every  occasion  where  be  dared  to 
fxert  his  native  talents  and  superior  powers  of  thinking, 
ye  discover  the  measures  of  an  enlightened  statesman,  and 
that  liberal  and  benevolent  disposition  which  would  confer 
pelebrity  in  the  brightest  periods  of  our  history. 

The  founclatipn  of  AH  Souls  college  is  not  the  6rst  in- 
stance of  his  munificent  spirit.  In  1422,  he  founded  a 
collegiate  church  at  his  native  place,  Higham-Ferrars,  so 
amply  endowed,  that  on  its  dissolution  by  Henry  VIII.  its 
revenues  were  valued  at  1^6^.  This. college  consisted  of  a 
quadrangular  buildings  of  which  the  church  only  now  re« . 
mains,  and  is  used  sls  a  parish  church.  .  To  this  he  attached 
^n  hospital  for  the  poor,  and  both  these  institutions  were 
long  supported  by  th^  legacies  (^  his  brothers  Robert  and 
William,  aldermen  of  London  *,  He  also  expended  large 
sums  in  adorning  the  catl^efiral  of  Canterbury,  founding  a 
library  there^  and  in  adding  to  the  buildings  of  Lambeth 
palace  t,  Croydon  churcbj  and  Rochester-bridge. 

His  first  intentipHs  with  respect  to  Oxford  ended  in  the 
erection  oif  a  house  for  the  schplar^  of  the  Cistercian  order, 
who  at  that  time  had  no  settled  habitatiqn  at  Oxford.  This 
mansion,  which  wa&  called  St.  Bernard's  College,  wasi  afteri 

^  Robert  Chichele,  citizen  and  gro- 
cer, served  the  oAoe  of  fheriff  id  1409> 
and  that  of  lord  mayor  twice,  in:14U 
and  1422.  He  died  without  issue. 
William  served  the  office  of  sheriff  in 
1409,  and  his  spn,  John,  was  cfaam- 
berlaia  of  London.  He  had  a  very 
Dumeroos  issue. 

f  He.boiit  the  great  tewer  at  the 
vest  end  of  th^  chapel,  called  the  Lol- 

lard*s  ToWer,  at  the  top  of  which  is  a 
prison  room.  Before  the  rtfbrmation, 
the  archbishops  had  prisons  for  eeele* 
siastical  offenders,  who,  if  persons  of 
rank,  were  kept  in  separate  apartments, 
and  used  to  eat  at  the  archbishop's 
table,  Lysoas's  Environs,  ait.  Lah- 
BETH,  and  Churton's  Lives  of  the  Fouih; 
ders,  p.  189,  et  seqq. 

C  H  r  C  H  E  L  E.  265 

awards- alienated  to  sir  Thomas  White,  and  formed  part  of 
St.  John's  college.  The  foundation  of  All  Souls,  however, 
is  that  which  has  conveyed  his  memory  to  our  times  with 
the  highest  claims  of  veneration.  Like  his  predecessor 
and  friend  Wykeham,  he  had  amassed  considerable  wealth, 
and  determined  to  expend  it  in  facilitating  the  purposes  of 
education,  which,  notwithstanding  the  erection  of  the  pre- 
ceding colleges,  continued  to  be  much  obstructed  during 
those  reigns,  the  turbulence  of  which  rendered  property 
insecure,  and  interrupted  the  quiet  progress  of  learning 
and  civilization. 

At  wiiat  time  he  first  conceived  this  plan  is  not  recorded. 
It  appears,  however,  to  have  been  in  his  old  age,  whep  be 
obtained  a  release  from  interference  in  publiq  measures. 
The  purchases  he  made  for  his  college  consisted  chiefly,  of 
Berford  hall,  or  Cherleton's  Inn,  St.  Thomas's  hall,  Tinge^ 
wick  hall^  and  Godknave  hall,  comprising  a  space  of  one 
hundred  and  seventy-two  feet  in  length  in  the  High  street, 
and  one  hundred  and  sixty*two  in  breadth  in  Cat,  or  Cathe^ 
rine  street,  which  runs  between  the  High  street  and .  Hert-* 
ford  college :  to  these  additions  were  afterwards  made,  which 
enlarged  the  front  in  the  High  street.  The  foundatioti 
stone  was  laid  with  great  solemnity,  Feb.  10,  1437.  John 
Druell,  archdeacon  of  Exeter,  and  Roger  Keyes,  both 
afterwards  fellows  of  the  college,  were  the  principal  archir 
tects,  and  the  charter  was  obtained  of  the  king  in  1438, 
and  confirmed  by  the  pope  in  the  following  year.  In  th^ 
charter,  the  king,  Henry  VI.  assumed  the  title  of  foun^lei^ 
at  the  archbishop's  solicitation,  who  appears  to  have  paid 
him  this  compliment  to  secure  his  patronage  for  the  ii^sti- 
tution,  while  the  full  exercise  of  legislative,  authority  vffi.% 
reserved  to  Chichele  as  co-founder. 

According  to  this  charter,  the  society  was  to  consist  of  a 
warden  and  twenty  fellows,  with  power  in  the  warden  to 
increase  their  number  to  forty,  and  to  be  called  The  war- 
den and  college  of  the  souls  of  all  the  faithful  deceased^ 
Collegium  Omnium  jinimarum  Fidelium  defunciorum  de 
Oxan.  The  precise  meaning  of  this  may  be  understood 
from  the  ol)ligation  imposed  on  the  society  to  pray  for  the 
good  estate  of  Henry  VL  and  the  archbishop  during  their 
lives,  and  for  their  souls  after  their  decease  ;  also  for  th6 
aouls  of  Henry  V.  and  the  duke  of  Clarence,  together  with 
those  of  all  the  dukes,  earls,  barons,  knights,  esquires^ 
and  other  subjects  of  the  crown  of  England,  who  had  fallen 


C  H  I  C  H  E  L  E. 

in  the  war  with  France ;  and  for  the  souls  of  all  die  faithful:/ 

Sixteen  of  the  fellows  were  to  study  the  civil  and  canon 
laws,*  and  the  rest,  philosophy  and  the  arts,  and  theology* 
But  the  most  remarkable  clause  in  this  charter,  when  com- 
pared to  former  foundations,  is  that  which  gives  the  society 
leave  to  purchase  lands  to  the  yearly  value  of  300/.  a  sum 
very  far  exceeding  what  we  read  of  in  any  previous  foun- 
dation, and  which  has  more  recently  been  increased  to 
1050/.  by  charters  from  Charles  I.  and  George  II.  Ano- 
ther diarter  of  very  extensive  privileges  was  granted  soon' 
after  the  foundation  by  Henry  VI. ;  and  this,  and  the  char- 
ter of  foundation,  were  confirmed  by  an  act  of  parliament 
14  Henry  VII,  1499. 

It  was  not  till  within  a  few  days  of  his  death  that  the 
archbishop  gave  a  body  of  statutes  for  th&  regulation  of  his^ 
college,  modelled  after  the  statutes  of  his  iUustrious  pre- 
cursor Wykeham.  After  the  appointment  of  the  number 
of  fellows,  already  noticed,  he  ordains  that  they  should  be 
born  in  lawful  wedlock,  in  the  province  of  Qanterbury^ 
with  a  preference  to  the  next  of  kin,  descended  from  his 
brothers  Robert  and  William  Chichele  *.  To  the  society 
were  also  added  chaplains,  clerks,  and  choristers,  who 
appear  to  have  been  included  in  the  foundation,  although 
they  are  not  mentioned  in  the  charter. 
•  For  the  more  ample  endowment  of  this  college,  the 
founder  purchased  and  bestowed  on  it  the  manor  of  Wedon 
jtnd  Weston,  or  Wedon  Pinkeney  in  Northamptpnshire. 
King^s  college,  Cambridge,  became  afterwards  possessed 
of  a  pah  of  it,  bqt  All  Souls  has,  besides  the  advowson  of 
the  churches  belonging  to  it,  the  largest  estate,  and  thi^ 
lordship  of  the  waste.  The  founder  also  gave  them  the 
4nanors  of  Horsham,  and  Scotney^  or  Bletching-court  in 
Kent,  and  certain  lands  called  the  ThriiFs  or  Friths  in 

.*  This  part  of  the  fouDder's  statutes 
lias  occasioned  much  litigation,  as  the 
'farther  the  time  is  remored  from>  bis 
age,  the  difficulty  of  ascertftiniog  con- 
iiaDguinity  becomes  almost  iosupera- 
ble.     According  to  the    **  Stemmata 

^tticbeleatta,"  published  in  1765,  the 
collateral  descendants  of  our  founder 
were  then  to  be  traced  through  nearly 
Iweke  hundred  families;  but  this, 
which  seems  at  first  to  Administer  iaci- 

'  IKj*  M  in  tact  the  soarce  of  many  dis* 

puted  and  disputable  claims.  In  ITtS, 
on  an  application  to  CornwalUs,  areh^ 
bishop  of  Canterbury)  as  visitor,  he 
decreed  that  the  number  of  fellows  to 
be  admitted  on  claim  of  kindred  should 
be  limited  to  twenty.  In  1792,  on  the 
dain  of  kindred  by  s  person,  when  the 
nuai)'«r  of  twenty:  happened  to  be  QOfls- 
plete,  the  matter  was  re-he«fd,  and  th^ 
former  archbishop's  decree  ratified  and 

C  H  I  C  H  E  L  E.  «67 

Wapenbain,  Northamptonshire ;  with  the  suppressed  alien 
priories  of  Romney  in  Kent ;  the  rectory  of  Upchurch ; 
the  priory  of  New  Abbey  near  Abberbury,  in  Shropshire ; 
of  St.  Clare  in  Carmarthenshire,  and  of  Llangenith  in 
Glamorganshire.  Wood  says,  that  king  Edward  IV.  took 
into  his  hands  all  the  revenues  of  this  college  and  these 
priories,  because  the  society  had  "sided  with  Henry  VL 
against  him ;  but  it  appears  by  the  college  archives,  that 
the  king  took  only  these  alien  priories,  and  soon  restored 
them,  probably  because  he  considered  it  as  an  act  of  jus** 
tice  to  rest(Mre  what  had  been  purchased  from,  and  not 
given,  by  the  crown.  Besides  these  possessions,  the  trus- 
tees of  the  founder  purchased  the  manors  of  Edgware, 
Kingsbury,  and  Malories,  in  Middlesex,  &c*;  and  Hebe* 
queathed  the  sums  of  lZ4l.  6s,  Sd.  and««  thousand  marks, 
to  be  banked  for  the  use  of  the  college  *. 

These  transactions  passed -i^iefly  during  the  building  of 
the  college,  which  the  aged  founder  often  inspected.  -  In 
14<42,  it  was  capable  of  receiving  the  warden  and  felldws^- 
who  had  hitherto  been  lodged  at  the  archbishop*s  expenses 
in  a  hall  and  chambers  hired  for  that  purpose.  The  cha« 
pel  was  consecrated,  early  in  the  same  year,  by  the 
founder,  assisted  by  the  bishops  of  Lincoln  (Alnwick)^ 
Worcester  (Bourchier),  Norwich  (Brown),  and  others  who 
were  suffragans.  The  whole  of  the  college  was  not  iinisheil 
before  the  latter  end  of  1444,  and  the  expense  of  buildings 
according  to  the  accounts  of  'Druell  and  Keys,  may  be 
estimated  at  4156/.  6s.  3ld.  The  purchases  of  ground^ 
books,  chapel  furniture,  &c.  amounted  to  4302/.  5s,  %(k 
The  subsequent  history  of  this  college  is  amply  detailed  in 
t>ur  authorities.  ^ 

CHICOYNEAU  (Francis),  counsellor  of  state,  and 
first  physician  to  the  French  king,  was  born  at  Montpellief 
in  1 6f  2.  Having  obtained  his  doctor's  degree,  though  no 
more  than  twenty  years  old,  he  was  sent  to  stop  the  pro- 
gress .of  the  plague  then  raging  at  Marseilles,  by  the  duke 
of  Orleans,  regent  of  the  kingdom.  The  boldness  and 
confidence  with  whicEi  he  entered  that  city,  where  every 

.  #  He  gmve  ajio  1*23/.  .6*.  $d,  to  New    to  Um  iaenilM!i9»  end  fabMribedLUifeljr 
eollege,  and  the  Mine  f  urn  to  Uie  uni-     to.Uie  publie  library, 
Ternty  cbest,  ai  a  food  for  imall  kians 

1  Chalniert's  Hitt.  of  Oiford.— Life  of  Chichele  by  Duck,  an^  a  better  cbe 
by  Spenser,  1783,  Sto, — ^BM)g.Brit-^ Wood's  Colleges  apd  ^alU,  and  Auoals,^ 
^ateite  Vte,  p.  1. 

268  C  H  I  C  O  Y  N  E  A  U. 

■  •  • 

one  seemed  only  waiting  for  death,  had  a  striking  effect  on 
their  fears.  He  encouraged  the  inhabitants^  and  quieted 
their  alarms  by  his  presence  ;  and  his  success  was  beyond 
expectation.  His  services  were  rewarded  by  marks  of 
honour  and  a  pension  from  the  king.  In  1731  he  was 
called  to  court  physician  to  the  royal  children,  by 
the  interest  of  Chirac,  whose  daughter  he  had  married; 
and  after  whose  death  he  was  made  first  physician  to  the 
king,  counsellor  of  state,  and  superintendant  of  the  mine- 
xal  waters  of  the  kingdom.  He  died  at  Versailles  in  1752, 
aged  near  80.  The  most  curious  o^  his  works  is  that 
wherein  he  maintains  that  the  plagu<^  is  not  contagious, 
entitled  ^^  Observations  et  reflexions  touchant  la  nature, 
les  evenements,  et  le  traitement  de  la  Peste  de  Marseilles," 
Paris,  1721,  12mor  He  published  also  a  valuable  collec- 
tion of  facts  relative  to  the  plague,  under  the  title  of 
•*  Traits  des  causes,  &c.  de  la  Peste,"  Paris,  1744,  4to.  * 

CHICOYNEAU  (Aime  Francis),  born  at  Montpellier 
in  1702,  was  brought  up  under  his  father,  the  subject  of 
the  foregoing  article.  The  famous  Chirac  afterwards 
taught  him  the  elements  of  physic,  and  he  was  instructed 
in  anatomy  by  Du  Vernay  and  Winslow,  and  botany  by 
Yaillant,  under  whom  he  made  great  progress.  The  de- 
monstration of  the  virtues  of  plants  was  his  first  function  in 
the  university  of  Montpellier,  which  he  executed  with 
great  success,  and  the  royal  garden  of  that  town,  the  most 
ancient  in  the  kingdom,  the  work  of  Henry  IV.  was  en- 
tirely renewed  in  a  very  short  time.  He  died  in  1740,  at 
t}ie  age  of  38,  professor  and  chancellor  of  the  university  of 
Montpellier,  being  the  fifth  of  his  family  that  had  enjoyed 
that  dignity. ' 

CHJFFLET  (John  James),  a  physician  and  politician, 
was  born  at  Besan9on,  a  town  of  Franche  Cpmt^,  in  1588. 
H<e  was  descended  from  a  fao^ily  distinguished  by  literary 
merit,  as  well  as  by  the  services  it  bad  done  its  country* 
He  was  educated  at  Besan^on,  and  then  travelled  through 
several  parts  of  Europe,  where  he  became  acquainted  with 
all  the  men  of  letters,  and  in  every  place  made  his  way 
into  the  cabinets  of  the  curious.  At  his  return  he  applied 
himself  to  the  practice  of  physic ;  but  being  sent  by  the 
town  of  Besangon,  where  he  had  been  consul,  on  an  em4 
bassy  to  Elizabeth  Clara  Eugenia,  archduchess  of  the  Low 

t  Moreri.-*X>ict  Hist.  >  Ibid, 

C  H  I  P  F  L  E  T.  S6f 

Countries,  thiat  princess  was  so  pleased  with  him,  that  she 
prevailed  with  him  to  continue  with  ber  in  quality  of  phy- 
sician in  ordinary.  Afterwards  be  became  physician  to 
Philip  IV*  of  Spain,  who  honoured  him  very  highly,  pnd 
treated  bim  with  great  kindness-.  ChifBet  imagined,  that 
these  bounties  and  honours  obliged  him  to  take  up  arms 
against  all  who  were  at  variance  with  his  master ;  and  ac*> 
cordingly  wrote  his  book  entitled  "  Vindioise  Hispanicae," 
against  the  French.  He  wrote  several  pieces  in  Latin, 
which  were  both  ingenious  and  learned,  and  were  collected 
and  published  at  Antwerp,  1659,  fol. 

His  medical  works  were,  **  Singulares  ex  curationibns 
et  cadaverum  sectionibus  observationes,^'  Paris,  1611,  8vo, 
in  which  he  is  weak  enough  to  suppose  many  diseases  to 
be  produced  by  the  influence  of  the  stars,  but  there  are 
nevertheless  some  useful  and  valuable  observations  in  this 
volume.  *^  Pulvis  febrifugus  orbis  American!  ventilatus,*' 
Lorain,  16^3,  4to.  Intermittents  that  had' been  stopped 
by  taking  the  J  Peruvian  bark^  frequently,  he  says,  returnr, 
and  with  increased  violence ;  he  therefore  dissuades  from 
using  it. 

Chifflet  died  in  1660,  leaving  a  son,  John  Chifflet,  who 
afterwards  made  a  figure  in  the  republic  of  letters,  parti- 
cularly for  his  knowledge  of  the  Hebrew.  He  had  another 
son,  called  Julius  Chifflet,  well*  skilled  in  languages  and 
in  the  civil  law,  and  who  bad  the  honour  to  be  invited  to 
Madrid  by  the  king  of  Spain  in  164S,  where  he  was  made 
chancellor  of  the  order  of  the  golden  fleece:  He  published 
the  ^<  Hist,  du  Chevalier  Jaq.  de  Lalain,'*'  Brussds,  163^^, 
4to;  "  G6nealogie  de  la  Maison  de  Rye,"  1644,  folio; 
*^  G6\\63iogie  de  la  Maisdn  de  Tassis,''  1645;  fol;  His^- 
toria  Velleris  Aurei,"  Ant?  1653,  4to.  Tbete  was  als6 
Philip  Chifflet^  canon,  of  Befian^on,  &c.  ^  Laurence  and 
Peter  Francis  Chifflet,  Jesuits,  who  were  all  men  of  high 
reputation  \p  the^learned  world.  The  last-mentioned,  who 
died  May  II,  1682,  aged  ninety^two,  left  various  woAs t 
among  the  rest,^^^  L*Histoire  de  I'Abbaye'  de  Tournus," 
1664,  4to ;  ^>  Lettre  sur  Beatrix- Comtesse  de  Champagne/^ 
There  hav^  been  other  learned  men  of  this  name,  as  may 
be  seen  in  Moreri,  who  is  rather prblit  on  this  family.^ 

CHILD  (Wiluam),  Mus.  D.  was  a  native  of  Bristol 
anc^  a  disciple  of  Elway  fievifi.    In  1 63 1,  being  then  oF 

I  Moreri.— H«n«r  BiU.  M4d.-*SakU  Onoduut 

270  CHI  LD.      ' 

Christ- church  <iollege,  Oxfori),  he  took  bis  degree  of  btf* 
chelor  in  music ;  and  in  1636,  was  appointed  one  of  the 
organists  of  St  George's  chapel  at  Windsor,  in  the  roeHn 
of  l>r.  John  Munday,  and  soon  after  one  of  the  organists 
of  the  royal  chapel  at  White-hali.  After  the  restoration 
be  was  appointed  chanter  of  the  king's  chapel,  and  one  of 
the  chamber  musicians  to  Charles  II.  In.  166 3,  the  uni- 
versity of  Oxford  conferred  on  him  the  degree  of  do<^or 
in  music,  at  an  act  celebrated  in  St.  Mary's  church.  Dn 
Child,  after  having  been  organist  of  Windsor  chapel  sixty* 
five  years,  died  in  that  town  1697,  at  ninety  years  of  age*. 
In  tbe  inscription  on  his  grav^^stone,  in  the  same,  chapel, 
it  is  recorded  that  he  paved  the  body  of  that  choir  at.his 
,own  expense;  he  likewise  gave  20L  towards  building 
the  town -hall  at  Windsor,  and  50L  to  the  corporation  to 
be  disposed  of  in  charitable  uses,  at  their  discretion.  His 
works  are '^^  Psalms  for  Three  Voices,"  &c.  with,  a  con- 
.tinued  base  either  for  the  organ  or  theorbo^  composed 
after  the  Italian  way,  London,  1639.  ^  Catches,  Rounds, 
and  Canons,"  published  in  Hilton's  <'  Catch  that  C&tch 
can,"  1652.  <<  Divine  Anthems  and  Compositions  to  se« 
veral  Pieces  of  Poetry,"  some  of  which  were  written  by 
Dr.  Thomas  Pierce,  of  Oxford.  ,  Someof  his  secular  com- 
positions likewise  appeared  in  a  book  entitled  ^^  Court 
Ayres,"  printed  1655.  But  his  priucipal  productions  are 
his  services  and  full  anthems,  printed  in  Dr.  Boyce's  col- 
lection. His  style  was  so  remarkably  easy  aiui  natural^ 
compared  with  that  to  which  choirmen  had  been  accus* 
tomed,  that  it  was  frequently  treated  by  them  with  de- 
rision. Indeed,  his  modulation,  at  present,  is  so  nearly 
modern,  as  not  to  produce  that  solemn  and  seemingly  new 
effect  on  our  ears,  which  we  now  experience  from  the 
productions  of  the  siocteenth  century.  There  are  several 
inedited  and  valuable  compositions  by  Dr.  Child  preserved 
in  Dr.  Tudway's  manuscript  ^^  Collection  of  Engli^  Church 

Music,"  in  the  British  Museum.^ 

•  CHILDREY  (Joshua),  .  a  divine  and  Mtural  philoso- 
pher, was  bom  in  1623,  and  educated,  at  Rochester, 
.whence  he  removed  to  Magdalen^^coUege,  Oxford,  io 
164^,  and  became  one  of  the  clerks  of  the  house,  but  ap- 
pears to  haye  left  the  university  on  the  iMreakiug  out^of 
the  rebellion*    When  Oxford  was  surrendered  to  the  par-^ 

1  Buniey  sad  Hswkiai^  Hitt  of  Mttiic« 

c  H  1  L  D  R  E  Y.  an 

liameDtary  forces,  he  returned  and  took  his  bachelox's 
degree,  but  two  years  after  was  expelled  by  the  parlia- 
mentary visitors.  He  then  subsisted  by  teaching .  sbhool 
at  FeversbaiDy  in  Kent,  although  not  without  interruption 
from  the  republican  party ;  but  on  the  restoration,  he  was 
made  chaplain,  to  Henry  lord  Herbert,  was  created  D.  D. 
and  bad  the  rectory- of.  Upway,  in  Dorsetshire,  bestowed 
upon  him.  In  Jan.  1663,  be  was  collated  to  the  arch* 
deaconry  of  Salisbury,  and  in  June  1664  to  the- prebend 
of  Yatmittster  prim^  in  the  same  church,  by  bishop  Earle, 
who  valued  him  as  a  learned  and  pious  divine,  and  a  great 
virtuoso.  He  died  at  Upway,  Aug,  .26,  1670,  and  was 
buried  in  the  Cancel  of  Us  cbarcb.  He  published,  1.  a 
pamphlet  entitled  <^  Indago  Astrologica,''  1652,  4to.  2. 
'^  Syzygiasticon  instauratum,<  or  an  Epheroeris  of  the  places 
and  aspects  of  .the  Planets,  &c«"  Lond.  1653,  8 vo.  In 
both  these  is  socpexvhat  too  much  leaning  to  the  then 
fashionable  reveries  of  astrology ;  but  it  appears  by  his 
correspondence  with  the  secretary  of  the  royal  society,  that 
he  had. made  large  collections  for  a  more*  sound  pursuit  .of 
the  subjects  usually  investigated  by  that  learned  body, 
particularly  of  > jiatural  curiosities.  His  other  publication 
was  entitled  ^^,  Britannia  Baconioa,-or  the  natural  raritiesv 
of  England,  Scotland,  and  Wales,  historically  related,  ac- 
cording to  the  precepts  of  lord  Bacon,"  &c."  Lond.  16dJ, 
8vo.  It  was  this  work  which  first  suggested  to  Dr.  Plot  his 
^VNatural  History  of  Oxfordshire/^    . 

CHILLINGWORTH  (WiLUAM*),  adivinoofthechucch 

^f  .England,'  celebrated  for  ius  coiutroversial  talents,  .was 

>the  soa of  William  ChiUingworth,  citizen,  afterwards «mayor 

of  Q:i|fi>rd,  and  bom.  these.  Oetobec .  ]  602^    He  was  bap« 

tizedon  the.  last  of  that  months.  Laud^  archbishop  of  Can* 

terbary,.  but  then  fellow,  of  St*  John's-ccilege^  i>eing  his 

godfather.:.  A&e(r   he  had  biaen  educated  io  grammar 

learnii^  ^  &  prinato  school  in  thatieity,  he  was  adibitted 

H  scholar  of  Trinity-college^.  June  2,  161(8;,  and  elected 

r  felloNflf  Juna  <^ip,:  I62^.;ra£ter  h^vin^«  t^kea  his  .degrees  of 

B.  A«  arid  M.  A«un  tby^;  regular  way.  .  He  did :  not  confine 

.fai3  studies  (0  divinity:  be  applied  himself  ivitk  gceatsuc* 

ceas  tq;inf^tbematics;  nand,  1  whit  ^howwtbe^  extent  of-  his 

genius,,  he  wastaUo  aQoou^vted^a  good.^aet:,  ^  Accordingly, 

1 1 

"  '   '  *  AUip  Ox,  vqI.  iLr^^aikeW  ^u^Bnifs  of  the  cUrgy, 

J72  C  H  I  L  L  I  N  G  W  O  R  T  tt 

sit  John  Suckling  has  mentiotied  him  in  his  Session  of  the 
Poets :  ' 

"  There  was  Seldeti,  and  be  set  hard  by  the  chair ; 
Wainman  not  &r  off,  which  was  very  hat. 
Sands  with  Townshend,  tor  tfaey  kept  no  order^ 
Pigby  and  ChiUingsworth  a  little  further/' 

The  conrersation  and  study  of  the  uhiirersity  scholars,  in 
his  time,  turned  chiefly  upon  the  controversies  between 
the  church  of  England  and  the  church  of  Ronrfe,  occa- 
sioned by  the  uncommoti  liberty  allowed  the  Romish  priests 
by  James  I.  and  Charles  I.  Several  of  them  lived  at  or 
near  Oxford,  and  made  frequent  attempts  upon  theyodng 
acholars ;  some  of  whom  they  deluded  to  the  Romish  re- 
ligion^ and  afterwards  conveyed  to  the  English  seminaries 
beyond  sea.  Among  these  there  was  the  famous  Jesuit:, 
John  Fisher,  alias  John  Perse,  for  that  was  his  true  name, 
who  was  then  muoh  at  Oxfbrd ;  and  Cbiiiingworth ''  being 
accounted  a  very  ingenious  man,  Fisher  used  ^11  possible 
means  of  being  acquainted  with  hiin.  Their  (Conversation 
$oon  turned  upon  the  points  controverted  between  the  two 
chiinches,  but  particularly  on  the  necessity  of  an  infeillible 
living  judg^  in  matters  of  faitli.  Chiltingwortfa  found  him* 
self  unable  to  answer  >tbe  arguments  of  tlie  Jesuit  on  this, 
head;  and  being  convinced  of  the*  necessity  of  such  a 
judge,  he  was  easily  brought  to  believe  that  this  judge 
was.  to  be  found  in  the  church  of  Rome ;  that  therefore  the 
church  of  Rome  must  be  the  true  ^  church,  and  the  only 
dburch  in  which  men  could  be  saved.  Upon  thiahe  for- 
sook ^he  communion  of  the  church  of  England,  and  cor- 
dially embraced  the  Romish  religion. 
"  In  order  to  secure  his  conquest,  Fisher  persuaded  hini 
to  go  over  to  the  college  of  the  Jesuits  at  Doway ;  and  he 
was  desired  to  set  down  in  writing  the'niotives  or  reasons 
which  had  engaged  hint  to  embrace  the  Romish  religion. 
But  his  godfttther,  Laud,  who  was  then  bishop  of  London, 
hearing  of  this  afiair,  and  being  extremely  concerned  at 
it,  wrote  to. him;  and  Chiliihgworth*s  answer  expressing 
much  moderation,  candour,  and.  iihparjtiality,  that  prelate 
continued  to  correspond  with  him,  and  to  press'  hinni  with 
several  argutiaent^  against  ihe  doctrine  and  practice  of  the 
Bbmafnists.  '^\s  set  him  dpon  a  new  inquiry,  ^hicb  had 
the  desired  effect.  But  the  place  where  he  was  not  being 
suitable  to  the  state  of  a  free  and  impartial  inquirer,  he 
resolved  to  come  back  to  England^  and  left  Doway  ia 

CHILLI  N  G  W  O  R  T  B^  ^S^ 

i^Sly  after  a  short  stay  there.  Upon  bis  return,  h^  was' 
received  with  great  kindness  and  affection  by  bishop  Laud», 
who  approved  bis  design  of  retiring  to  Oxford,  of  which' 
tiniversity  that  prelate  was  then  chancellor,  in  order  to 
complete  the  important  work  he  was  then  upon,  **  A  free 
Enquiry-  into  Religion."  At  last,  after  a  thorough  ex*ami* 
nation,  the  protestant  principles  appearing  to  him  the  most 
agreeable  to  holy  scripture  and  reason,  he  declared  for 
them;  and  having  fully  discovered  the  sophistty  of  the 
motives  which  had  induced  him  to  go  over  to  the  church 
of  Rome,  he  wrote  a  paper  about  1634  to  confute  them, 
but  did  not  think  proper  to  publish  it.  This  paper  is  no\r 
lost;  for  though  we  have  a. paper  of  his  upon  the  same 
subject,  which  was  first  published  in  1 687,  among  bis  ad« 
ditional  discourses^  yet  it  seems  to  have  been  written  on 
some  other  occasion,  probably  at  the  desire  of  some  of 
bis  friends.  That  his  return  to  the  church  of  England  was 
owing,  to  bishop  Laud,  appears  from  that  prelate's  appeal- 
to  the  letters  which  passed,  between  them  ;  which  appeal 
was  made  in  his  speech  before  the  lords  at  his  trial,  in  order 
to  vindicate  himself  from  the  charge  of  popery.  ' 

As,  in  forsaking  the  chutxsh  of  England,  as  well  as  in 
returning. to  it,  he  was  solely  influenced  by  a  love  of  truths 
so,  upon  the  same  principles,  even  after  his  return  toprO'- 
testantism,  he  thought  ijt  incumbent  upon  him  to  re^exa«- 
mine  the  grounds  of  it.  This  appears  from  a  letter  he 
wrote  to  Sheldon,  containing  some  scruples  he  had  about 
leaving  the  church  of  Rome,  and  returning  to  the  church 
of  England ;  and  these  scruples,  which  be  declared  in« 
genuously  to  his  friends,,  seemed  to  have  occasioned  a  re^ 
port  that  he  had  turned  papist  a  second  time,  and  then 
prot^stant  i^ain.  It  would  have  been  more  just,  perhaps^ 
to  conclude  that  his  principles  were  still  unsettled,  but,  as 
his  retuni  to  the .  protestant  religion  made  much  noise,  he 
became  engaged  in  several  disputes  with  those  of  the 
Romish  ;  and  particularly  with  John  Lewgar,  John  Floyd 
a  Jeauit,  who  went  under  the  name  of  Daniel,  of  Dan.  a' 
Jesu,  and  White.  Lewgar,  a  great  zealot  for  tl>e  church 
of  Rome,  and  one  who  had  been  an  intiniate  friend  of  our 
author, .  as  soon  as  he  heard  of  his  return  to  the  church  of 
England^  sent  him  a  very  angry  andabosive  letter;  to  which 
ChilliBgworth  returned  so  mild  and  affectionate  an  answer, 
that  Lewgar  could  not  help  being  touched  with  it^  and  ' 
desired  to  see  his  old  friend  again.     They  bad  a  eonference 

Vol.  IX.  T 


f76  C  H  I  L  L  I  N  G  W  O  R  T  H. 

notice  of  at  the  bottom  of  each  page^  with  the  word*  OxC 
or  Lond.  after  them.  The  tenth  and  last  edition  is  of  the 
year  1742,  with  the  "Life  of  Mr.  CbilUngworth/*  by  Dr.  Bircb^ 
lyhich  life  was  copied  into  the  General  Dictionary^  10  vols. 
fol.  The  Jesuit  Knotty  as  well  as  Floyd  and  Lacy^  Jesuits^ 
wrote  against  Chillingworth  $  but  their  answers  were  soon 

In  the  mean  time  he  had  refused  preferment,  Which  wa9 
offered  him  by  sir  Thomas  Coventry,  keeper  cS  the  great 
seal,  because  his  consciei?ce  would  net  allow  mm  to  sub-> 
scribe  the  thirty-nine  arilqlea.     Con«derin^  that^  by,sub« 
scribing  the  articles^  he  must  qot  only  declare^  willingly^ 
and  €x  animOf  that  every  one  of  the  sinticles  is  agreeable 
to  the  word  of  God,  mxt  also  that  the  book  of  commoir 
prayer  ebntained  nothing  contrary  to  the  word  of.  God  ^ 
th^t  it  might  lawfully  be  used  ;  and  that  he  himself  would 
ilse  it :  and  conceiving  at  the  same  time  that,  both  in  the' 
articles  and  in  -the  book  of  common  prayer,  there  were 
siome  things  repugnant  to  the  scripture,   or  which  were 
not  lawful  to.f»e  used,  be  fully  resolved  to  lose  for  ever  all 
hopes:  Q^;  preferment,   rather  tbapi  comply  with  &e  sub-^ 
scriptiofls  required.     One  of  his  chief  objections  to  the 
common,  prayer  related  to  the   Athan^si^n  creed,    ther 
daiQuatpry  clauses  of  which  he  looked  upon  as  contrary  to 
the  wprd  of  Gp^*    Another  objection  qoncemed  the  fourtb 
<;pmniandmeDt^   which,    by  the  prayer   subjoined,  to   it^ 
*^  Lord,  have  merdy  upon  us,^^  &c.  appeared  t^  him  to  be 
n^de  a  part  of  the  Christian  lawy  and  corvsequently  to  bind 
Christians  to  the  observation  of  the  Jewish  sabbath. .  These 
scruples  of  oc^  author,  about  subscribing  the  articles,  fur- 
liished  his  antagonist  Knott  with  an  ob^ctioh  against  hioo^ 
ajT  ai^  improper  champion  for  the  protestant*  cause.     Tor 
which  he  answers  in  the  close  of  his  preface  to  the  *^  Re- 
ligion' of  Protestants.*''     He  expresses'  here  not  only  bi9 
readiness  to  subscribe,  but  also  what  he  conceives  to  be 
the  sense  and,ii>tent  of  such  a  subscription ;,  a  sub-' 
scription  of  peace  or  union,  and  not  of  belief  or  assent,  as 
he  formerly  thought  it  was.     This  was  also  the  sense  of 
archbishop  Laud,  with  whiph  he  could  not  then  be  unac- 
quainted ;   and  of  his  friend  Sheldon^  who  laboured  to 
convince  hin»  of  it,  md  was„  no  doubt,  the  person  that 
brought  him  at^  last  into  it.     For  there  is  in  Des  Maiseaux^st 
a^comit,  a  letter  which  he  wrote  to  Sheldon  upon  this  oc- 
casion ;  and  it  seems  tliere  passed  several  letters  betweefk 


them  upon  ^is  subject.    Such  at  least  is  the  apology  wbieli 
tkis  biographers  have  o^ered  for  his  ready  subscriptioiii 
'  after  it  bad  appeared  to  every  impartial  person  that  hisob* 
Jections  were  insurmountable.    The  apology  we  think  as 
weak,  as  bis  subscription  was  strong  and  decisive,  runnkig 
in  the  usual  language,  ^^  omnibus  hisce  articulis  et  singtiUs 
In  lisdeto  amtentis  volen;},  et  e^  animQ .  s.iibscriboy  et  c^<» 
^nsum  mtum  iisdem  pr^sb^o.''    The  distinction,  after  sueh 
a  declaratljion,  between  pe^ce  and  union,  afid  belief  and 
assent,  is,  we  fear,  too  subtle  for  conotmon  understaodiogi*. 
When,  by  whatever  means,  he  bad  got  the  better  of  Mi 
scruples,  he  was  promoted  to  the  chanc^Uorsbip  of  Sali9* 
bury,  with  .the  prebend  of  Bri|f:worth,  in  Northampto{)$hin8^ 
annexed;  and^  |ks  appears  from  the  subscription-book  of 
the  church  of  ^lisbury,  upon  Ji^ly  20,  16S8,  C!OQi||>Hdd 
fvith  the  usual  subscription,  in  the  map^u^r  just  relsited;' 
About  the  same  time  he  was  appointed  mastin:  Qf  Wigston*^ 
hospital,  in  t<^icestershire ;    ^^  both  which,"  s^ya  Wood^ 
^^  and  {)erbaps  some  other  preferHQents,  k^  kept  to  bis 
flying  day/'     In  1640  he  was  deputed  by  the  chapter  of 
Salisbury  th^eir  proctor  in  ocHivocation. .  He  was  likewise 
deput/^  to  ^e  cQnvocation  which  ti^et  the  same  year  with 
the  new  parliament,  and  was  opened  Nov.  4,     In  1^42  b« 
was  put  into  the  roll  with  some  others  by  bis  majesty,  1^ 
be  created  D.  D. ;  but  the  pivil  war  bt^^fiy  o^ti  he  never 
received  it.     He  w^s  zealously  attached  to.  tb^  royal  paM;y) 
latnd  at  the  siege  of  Gloucester,,  begun  Attg>  10,  tQ43,  wm 
present  in  {the  king^s  army,  where  he  a4y^d  »ad  directed 
the  making  certain,  engines,  for  ^ssau}ting  th^  town,  aft^ 
^he  manner  of  ^e  Roman  tcstudin^s  cum  pl^Aw^  but  whidi 
tihe  success  of  the  enemy  pr^v^nted  bim  itam  .e9»|>loying^ 
jSoon  aft^r,  having  accompanied  the  lofd  ilopton,  geneml 
of  the  king's  foixes  in  the  west,  to  Arundel  castle,,  iq  Su^SeK^ 
^nd  choosing  to  repose  himself  in  tfafit  garrison,  on  accottnt 
of  an  indisposition,  opcaaioned  by  the  severity  of  the  seit't 
son,. he  was  taken  prisoner  Dec.  9,  .164$,  by  the  pltr^ 
ment  forces  under  the  cojQAmand  of  sir  WUlian^  Waller^ 
when  the  cjastle  surrendered*    £ut  bi^  liUn^sa  increasing^ 
and  not  being  able  to  go  to  London  witb  the  gfurrisan^  Jmt 
obtained  leave  to  be  couvewd  to  (>hiche)ster<;  wbem  bei 
was  lodged  in  the  bishop's  p^ace^  ai^  where,  after  a  sh^nrt 
illness,,  be  died.    We  h^ve  ^  )^ery  particular  It^^count  o£ 
his  sickqe^$  and*  death,  written  by  bis  ^reat  adversary, .  Mr.> 
Cheynell,  in  bis  ^^  Chillingwortbi  Novissima,  or  the  sick- 


C  H  I  L  L  I  N  G  W  O  R  T  H. 

ness,  heresy,    death,    and  burial,    of   William   Chilling-' 
worth,  &c/*  London,  1644,  4to.      Cheynell  accidentally 
xnet  him  at  Arundel  castle,  and  frequently  visited  him  at 
Chichester,  till  he  died.     It  v^s  indeed  at  the  request  of 
this  gentleman,  tliat  our  author  was  removed  to  Chichester; 
where  Cheynell  attended  him  constantly,  and  behaved  to 
him  with  as  much  compassion  and  charity  as  his  bigotted 
and  uncharitable  principles  would  suffer  him.     There  is  na 
reason^  however,  to  doubt  the  truth  of  CheynelPs  account, 
as  to  the  most  material  circumstances,  which  prove  that 
Chillingworth  was  attended  during  his  sickness,  and  pro- 
Tided  with  all  necessaries,  by  one  lieutenant  GoUedge, 
and  his  wife  Christobel,  at  the  command  of  the  governor 
of  Chichester;  that  at  first  he  refused  the  assistance  of  sir 
William  Walier^s  physician,  but  afterwards  was  persuaded 
%to  admit  his  visits,  though  there  were  no  hopes  of  his  re*' 
coTery ;  that  his  indisposition  was  increased  by  the  abusive 
treatment  he  met  with  from  most  of  the  officers  who  were 
taken  prisoners  with  him  in  Arundel  castle,  and  who  looked 
upon  him  as  a  spy  set  over,  them  and  their  proceedings ; 
and  that  during  bis  whole  illness  he  was  often  teased  by 
Cheynell  himself,  and  by  an  officer  of  the  garrison  of  Chi* 
Chester,  with  impertinent  questions  and  disputes.  ^  And  on 
the  8an>e  ahtbority  we  may  conclude  that  lord  Clarendon 
was  misinformed  of  the  particulars  of  his^  death ;  for,  after 
having  observed  that  he  was  taken  prisoner  in  Arundel 
castle,  he  adds  :  ^^  As  soon  as  his  person  was  known,  which 
would  have  drawn  reverence  from  any  noble  enemy,  thq 
clergy  that  attended  that  army  prosecuted  him  with  all 
the  inhumanity  imaginable ;  so  that  by  thair  barbarous 
usage,  he  died  withiii  a  few  days,  to  the  grief  of  all  that 
hnew'him,  and  of  many  who  knew  him  not,  but  by  his 
hook^    and   the  reputation  he  had  with  learned   men.'* 
From  this  it  appears  that  the  noble  historian  did  npt  know, 
or  bad  forgot,  that  he  was  sent  to  Chichester,  but  believed 
that  he  died  in  Arundel  castle,  and  within  a  few  days  after 
the  taking  of  it  by  sir  William  Waller.     Wood  tells  us 
alsOy  that  the  royal  party  in  Chichester  looked  upon  the 
hBpertinemt  discourses  of  Cheynell.  to  our  author,  as  a 
ahortening  of  his  days.     He  is'  supposed  to  have  died  Jan.- 
30^-  tBbugh  'the  day  is  not  precisely  known,  and  was  bu- 
lied,  acoording  to  hi$  own  desire, '  in  the  cathedral  church, 
pf  Chich^st^.    Cheynell  appeared  at  bts  funeral^  and  gav^ 

C  H  I  L  L  I  N  G  W  O  R  T  H.  27S 

:43iat  instance  of  bigotry  and  bufibonery  which  we  have  related 
'already  under  bi$  article. 

For  his  character  Wood  has  given  the  following:  **  He 
was  a  most  noted  philosopher  and  orator,  and,  without 
doubt,  a  poet  also ;  and  had  such  an  admirable  faculty  in 
reclainiing  schismatics  and  confuting  papists,  that  none  in 
his  time  went  beyond  him.  He  had  also  very  great  skill 
in  mathematics. — He  was  a  subtle  and  quick  disputant,  and 
would  several  times  put  the  king's  professor  to  a  push. 
Hobbes  of  Malmesbury  would  often  say,  that  he  was  like 
a  lusty  fighting  fellow,  that  did  drive  his  enemies  before 
hitn,  but  would  often  give  bis  own  party  smart  back-blows^ 
and  it  was  the  current  opinion  of  the  university^  that  he 
and  Lucius  lord  Falkland,''  who  by  the  way  was  his  most 
iutimate  friend,  ^'  l>ad  such  extraordinary  clear  reason, 
that,  if  the  great  Turk  or  devil  were  to  be  converted,  they 
were  able  to  do  it  He  was  a  man  of  little  stature,  but  of 
great  soul:  which,  if  times  had  been  serene,  and  life 
spared,  might  have  don« incomparable  services  to  the  church 
of  England."  Archbishop  Tillotson  has  sf^oken  of  him  in 
the  highest  terms  :^^  I  know  not  how  it  comes  to  pass,!' 
Stays  that  eminent  prelate,  ^'  but  so  it  is,  that  every  on^ 
that  offers  to  give  a  reasonable  account  of  his  £aith,  and  to 
establish  religion  upon  rational  principles,,  is  presently- 
branded  for  a  Socinian  ;  of  which  we  have  a  sad  instance 
in  that  incomparable  person  Mr.  Chillingwortb,  the  glory 
of  this  age  and  nation:  who,  for  no  other  cause  that  I 
know  of,  but  his  worthy  and  successful  attempts  to  make  the 
Christian  religion  reasonable,  and  to  discover  those  firm 
and  solid  foundations  upon  which  our  faith  is  built,  has 
been  requited  with  this  black  and  odious  character.  (But, 
if  this  be  Socinianism,  for  a  man  to  inquire  "into  the"* 
grounds  and  reasons  of  Christian  religion,  and  to  endea)^ 
vour  to  give  a  satisfactory  account  why  he  believes  it,  I 
know  no  way,  but  that  all  considerate  and  inquisitive  men, 
that  are  above  fancy  and  enthusiasm,  must  be  either  Soci>> 
nians  or  atheists."  Mr.  Locke  has  also  spoken  of  Chilling^ 
worth  with  equal  commendation.  In  a  small  tract,  coob 
taining  ^'  Some  thoughts  concerning  reading  and  study  for 
a  gentleman,"  after  having  observed  that  the  art  of  speaks- 
ing  well  consists  chiefly  in  two  things,  .namely,  perspicuity 
and  right  reasoning,  and  proposed  Dr^  Tillotson  as.a  pat* 
I  tern  for  the  attainment  of  the  art  of  speaking  clearly,  he 
adds :    *^  Besides  perspicuity,    thejce  miist  be  also  right 

2tO  ,C  H  I  L  L  I  N  O  W  O  R  T  a 

tm^oning,  Brilhout  wbich,  perspicuitv  sevros  but  t6  ttacfiMiB 
the  speaker^  And  for  attaining  of  .tbts,  I  should  {nrotloapttiid 
'.Gon9t2^iH  Beading  oif  ChiUingwortb,  who,  by  bia  ekample, 
^ili  .teacb  both  perspicuity  and  the  way  of  tight  reasoniiig^ 
rbetter  than  a^y  book  that  I  know  i  and  thetadbre  will  de* 
:SiSirv»  to  .be  jr^d  lupoD  thait  acoouoi  cnrer  «nd  jover  agaiii ; 
jHOt  to  say  any  /thing  of  his  m^ument.*^ 

LcMrd  Clarendon^s  ^aracter  of  him,  -however,  appeam 
jraperior  to  any  given  by  those  wbo  had  no  pcsrsoiud  know- 
ledge of  ChiUingwortb.  **  Mr.  Obiliingworth,^*  sa3its  that 
fudjaoirable  portrait-painter,  ^^  was  of  a  statuiie  little  sup^if 
•rioMT  to  Mr.  Hales,  (and  it  was  an  agpe  in  wiucb  there  •wei« 
many  great  and  wonderful 4asen  of  that  size)'  ami  a  inaKof 
MO  great  a  subtilty  of  uhdeni^ndifig,  and  so  rare  a  tempei^ 
in  debate,  that  as  it  was  impossible  topxiovoke  him  inisqp 
any  passion,  so  it  was  very  diffieult  to  keep  a  man^s  •self 
irom  being  a  little  ^scomposed  by  his  sharpness.  Mi 
quidmess  of  argument,  and  instances;  in  which  he  had  ^ 
jrare. facility,  and  a  great  advantage  over  all  the  qo^n  I  «veif 
knew.  He  bad  spent  all  his  younger  tioie  in  4ispu4^oti  i 
^jul  bad  arrived  to  so  great  a  mastery,  as  he  was  inferioii 
to  no  man  in  those  skirmisrties ;  but  be  had,  witb  bi^-n^^tt- 
ble  perfection  in  this  exercise,  eontraoted  such  an  irreso* 
lutioQ,  and  h^bit  of  dpubtkig,  thftt  iby^  "degiees  he  gr6«^ 
confident  of  nothing,  and  a  sceptic  at  least,  in  tbe  greatest 
ipy^teries  of  faith. 

.  >^This  inade  him  from  first  wavering  it|  religion,  an^ 
indulging  to  scruj^les,  to  reconcile  bi0self  too  soon,  am) 
too  easily  to  the  church  of  Rome ;  and  carrying  still  bii 
9wn  ipquisitiveness  about  him,  without  any  resignation  t<> 
their  authority  (which  is  the  only  temper  can  makq 
that  cbvircb  spre  of  its  proselytes)  having  made  a  journey 
to  St  Om^s  (Doway),  purely  to  perfect  his  oonvevsion, 
by  the  conversation  of  those  who  ha4  the  greditest  name,, 
be  fouod  as  little  satisfaction  there,  and  returned  with  as 
much  baste  from  them;  with  a  belief  that  an  entire  e)^- 
^mption  from  error  was  neither  inherent  in,  nor  necessary' 
to  any  church  :<  which  occasioned  that  war,  which  was  car-? 
vied  on  by  the  Jesuits  with  so  great  asperity  and  re« 
proaches  against  him,  and  ^  in  which  he  defende'd  himself 
by  such  an  admirable  eloquence  pf  language,  and  clear, 
and  incom^parable  power  of  reason,  that  be  qot  only  made 
tbem  i^pear  unequal  adversaries,  but.  carried  tbe  war  ioto' 
|bpir  awn  quarters ;  and  mad^  tbe  pope^s  infallibility  to  be 

JD  H  I  L  L  I  N  O  W  O  It  T  H.  Ml 

^imooh  Aludcen,  »iid  dedioed  by  theit  own  doctors  (and 
as  great  an  acrimouy  amonggt  themselves  upon  that  subjeci^ 
aad  to  be  4U  least  as  much  doubted,  as  in  the  schools  of 
the  reformed  or  pi»testaiit;  and  forced  tbem  since^  to 
defend  and  maintain  those  unhappy  controversies  in  reti- 
gion,  with  arms  and  weapons  of  another  iiatnre,  than  werb 
used)  or  known  in  the  church  of  Rome,  whenBellarmine 
died ;  and  which  probably  will  i&  time  undermine  the  very 
iiattudation  that  supports  it. 

'*  Such  a  levity  and  propensity  to  change  is  commonly 
attended  with  great  infirmities  in,  and  no  less  reproach 
and  prqudioe  to  the  person ;  but  the  sincerity  of  his  heart 
was  so  conspicuous  and  without  the  least  temptation  of  any 
comipt  end,  and  the  innocence  and  candour  in  Us  nature 
#0  evident  and  without  any  perverseness ;  that  all  who 
ifjkew  him,  clearly  discerned,  that  all  those  restless  motions 
and  fluctuations  proceeded  only  fmm  the  warmth  and  jea* 
Ipttsy  of  bis  own  tbonghts,  in  a  too  nice  inquisition  for 
truth.  Neither  the  books  of  the  lidversary,  nor  any  of 
their  persons,  though  he  was  acquainted  with  the  best  of 
both,  had  ever  made  groat  impression  upon  him :  all  hh 
dosibts  gr^w  out  of  himself,  when  he  assisted  his  scruples 
with  all  the  strength  of  his  own  reason,  and  was  then  tab 
})ard  for  himself;  but  finding  as  little  quiet  and  repose  in 
Itfaose  victories,  he  quickly  recovered,  by  a  new  appeal  tb 
bis  own  judgoient;  so  that  he  was  in  truth,  upon  the  mat- 
ter,  in  all  his  sallies,  and  retreats,  his  own  convert ;  though 
be  was  not  so  totally  divested  of  all  thoughts  of  this  world, 
but  that  when  be  was  ready  ibr  it,  he  admitted  some  greiit 
and  considerable  churchmen  to  be  sharers  with  him  in  his 
public  oonversion. 

^*  He  did  readily  believe  all  war  to  be  unlawfiit ;  and 
did  not  tbiffk  that  the  parliament  (whose  proceedings  he 
|>erfectly  abhorred)  did  in  truth  intend  to  involve  the  na- 
tion in  a  civil  war,  till  after  the  battle  of  Edgehilt ;  and 
then  he  thought  any  expedient,  or  stratagem  that  was  like 
fo  put  a  speedy  end  to  it,  to  be  the  most  commendable.   ' 

*^  He  was  a  man  of  excellent  parts,  and  of  a  cfaeerfaf 
disposition;  void  of  all  kind  of  vice,  and  endiked  With 
fnany  notable  virtues ;  of  a  very  public  heart,  knd' an 'in- 
defatigable desire  to  do  good ;  bis  ^nly  unbappiness  pro** 
oeeded  from  his  sleeping  too  little,  and  thinking  too  much ; 
whjch  sometimes  threw  him  into  violent  fevers.'*  < 

sm  CHILLING  WO  R  T  tt 

With  respect  to  his  inclination  to  Socinian  tenets,  that 
pdint  has  heen  so  clearly  demonstrated  by  the.  late  Mr* 
Whitaker,  in  his  <'  Origin  of  Arianism  disclosed/'  p.  482-r- 
.492^  as  to  admit  of  no  doubt.  Dr.  Kippis,  in  the  last 
edition  of  the  3iograpbia  Britannica,  acknowledged  him- 
self to  be  convinced  by  Mr.  Whitaker's  testimonies  and 
reasonings,  and  therefore  retracted  what  he  had  said  on  the 
subject,  in  a  preceding  volume. 

Besides  the  works  already  noticed,  there  are  extant  of 
Mr.  ChilUngworth's,  ^^  Nine  Sernions  on  occasional  sub- 
jects,'' 1664^,  4to;  and  a  tract  called  ^^  The  Apostolical 
Institution  of  Episcopacy,"  1644,  4to«  It  was  also  added 
to  an  edition  of  a  tract  on  the  same  subject,  by  Dr.  Morton, 
bishop  of  Durhaqa,  entitled  ^^  Confessions  and  proofs  of 
protestant  divines,"  1644,  4to.  A  volume. of  bis  manu- 
script tracts,  chiefly  of  the  controversial  kind,  is  among 
the  manuscripts  in  the  Lambeth  library,  which. archbishop 
Teuison  purchased  of  Mr.  I^enry  Wharton.  Mr.  Chilling- 
worth  left  his  relations  residuary  legatees  to  his  property, 
after  a  few  trifling  legacies,  and  the  sum  of  400/.  to  the 
corporation  of  Oxford  for  charitable  purpoaies.  ^  . 

CHILMEAD  (Edward),  an  excellent  Greek  and  Latin 
scholar  and  mathematician,  was  born  in  1610  at  Siow  in 
the  Wold,  in  Gloucestershire,  and  became  one  of  the  clerb 
of  Magdalen  college,  Oxford;  and  in  1632,  one  of  the  petty 
carions  or  chaplains  of  Christ  church.  Being  ejected  from 
this  by  the  parliamentary  visitors  in  1648,  he  came  to 
London  in  great  necessity,  and  took  lodgings  in  the  bouse 
of  Thomas  Est,  a  musician  and  music  pripter,  in  Alders^ 
^gate  street.  There  being  a  large  ropm  in  this  house,  Chil- 
mead  made  use  of  it  for  a  weekly  music  meeting,  from  the 
profits  of  which  he  derived  a  slender  subsistence,.  aQ4  Pro- 
bably improved  it  by  being  employed  as  translator.  He 
died  in  1653,  having  for  some  years  received  relief  from 
Hdward  Bysshe,  esq.  garter  kipg  at. arms,  and  sir  Henry 
Holbrook,  the  translator  of  Procopius.  He  was  interred  in 
the  church  of  St.  Botolph  without  Aldersgate*  Among 
bis  works,  qur  musical  historians  notice  his  tract  ^' De 
musica  antiqua  Gra&ca,''  printed  in  1672,  at  the  end  of  the 
Oxford  edition  of  Aratus:  he  abo  wrote  annotations  on 
three  odes  of  Dionysius,  in  the  same  volume,  with  the 

•-  • 

'  Life  by  Des  Malzeauz,  London,  1725,  8vo. — Gen.  DicJt. — Biog.  Brit-^ 
Cheyneil's  ChilliDsworthi  No^issima.— Clarendon's  Life, — Ath.  Ox.  vol.  IL 

C  H  I  L  M  E  A  D.  ass 

anicient  Greek  musical  characters,  which  Chilmead  ren-^ 
dered  in  the  notes  of  Guido*s  scale*  His  other  works  are, 
1.  *^  Versio  Latina  et  Annotationes  in  Joan.  Malaise  Chro- 
Bographiam/*  Oxf.  1691,  8vo.  2.  A  translation,  from  the 
French  of  Ferrand,  of  **  A  Treatise  on  Love,  or  Erotic 
Melancholy,*'  1640,  Svo.  3.  Gaffarel's  *«  Unheard-of  Cu^ 
liosities/'  4.  Campanella's  **  Discourse  touching  the 
Spanish  monarchy,"  which  not  seiling,  Prynne  prefixed  aa 
epistle  and  a  new  title,  *^  Thomas  Campanella's  advice  ta 
the  king  of  Spain,  for  obtaining  the  universal  monarchy  of 
the  world,"  Lond.  1659,  4to.  5.  Hues'  ^•'Treatise  of  the 
Globes,"  ibid.  1639  and  1659;  and  6.  Modena's  <<  History 
of  the  Rites,  Customs,  &c.  of  the  Jews,"  ibid*  1650.  He 
also  compiled  the  ^*  Catalogus  MSS.  Gseecorum  in  BibL 
Bodl/*  1636,  a  manuscript  for  the  use  of  the  Bodleian, 
and  the  most  complete  of  its  time.  ^ 

CHILO,  one  of  the -wise  men  of  Greece,  as  they  arc 
called,  flourished  about  the  first  year  of  the  fifty-sixth^ 
Olympiad,  or  556  B.  C.  Diogenes  Laertius,  however^ 
think?  he  was  an  old  man  in  the  fifty -second  olympiad.' 
Fenelon,  with  his  usual  respect  for  the  ancient  philoso** 
phers,  asserts  that  he  was  a  perfect  model  of  virtue.  About 
the  fifty-fifth  olympiad,  he  was  made  one  of  the  ephprt 
at  Lacedsmon,  a  dignity  ^which  counterbalanced  the  au« 
thority  6f  the  kings.  He  appears  to  have  been  supersti* 
tiously  attached  to  divination,  and  stories  are  told  of  his' 
fi^retelling  future  events,  which  he  contended  might  be 
done  by  the  human  intellectl  He  died  at  Pisa^  through 
excess  of  joy,  when  embracing  his  son,  who  had  retomed 
ffom  the  Olympic  games,  crowned  as  victor.  He  executed 
the  offices  of  magistracy  with  so  much  uprightness,  that  in 
bis  old  age,  he  said,  that  he  recollected  nothing  in  his  public 
eonduct  which  gave  him  uneasiness,  except  that,  in  onein*^' 
fttance,  be  bad  endeavoured  to  screen  a  firiend  from  punish-:* 
menti  He  held,  however,  the  selfish  maxim  of  Pittacus^ 
that  ^^  we  ought  to  love  as  if  we  were  one  day  to  hate,  and 
bate,  ad  if  we  were  one  day  to  love.'*  The  more  valuable 
of  hu  precepts  and  maxims,  were  :< — ^Three  things  are  dif** 
ficult:  to  keep  a  secret,*  to  bear  an  injury  patiently,  and 
to  spend  leisure  well.-^Visit  your  fviend  in  misfortune 
rather  than  in  prosperity. — Never  ridicule  the  unfortunate. 
<v!r>Think  befbfre  you  speak.-^— Do  not  desire  impossibilities*. 

\  Ath.  0;|.  wl.  ll.«*9awkini's  Hisfc.  of  Musk:. 

2011  C  H  I  S  H  U  L  L. 

a  sennon,  on  the  23d  of  November,  at  SeijeftntViitil 
^hapel,  in  Chancery'laney  which  was  published  in  the 
beginning  of  1708,  and  was  entitled,  *^  The  great  Danger 
and  Mistake  of  all  new. uninspired  Prophecies  relating  to 
the  End  of  the  World,''  with  an  appendix  of  historical 
collections  applicable  to  subject.  On  the  1st  of  SepteoA- 
ber,  in  the  same  year,  he  was  presented  to  the  vicarage  of 
Walthamstow,  in  Essex;  and  in  1711,  he  had  the  honour 
of  being  appointed  one  of  the  chaplains  in  ordinary  to  the 
^ueen.  About  the  same  time,  he  pubHshed  a  visitation 
Mid,  a  few  other  occasional  sermons,  preached  on  public 
occasions,  all  which  were  favourably  received.  But  he^ 
soon  became,  more  distinguished  for  his  researches  in  an- 
cient literature  and  history* 

One  of  his  first  publications  in  these  sciences  appeared  in* 
1721,  and  was  entitled, .  <^  Inscriptio  Sigsea  antiquissin&a 
BOT£TPO$HAON  exarata.     Commentario  earn  Historico- 
Grammatico-Critico  illustravit  Edmundus  Chishuil,  S.T.B* 
'  retgiae  majestati  a  sacris,''  folio.     This  was  followed   by' 
^VNotarum  ad  inscriptionem  Sigaeam  appendicula ;  addit& 
a  Sigaeo  alter^  Antiochi  Soteris  in^criptione,''  folio,  in 
fifteen  pages,  without  a  date.    Both  these  pieces  were 
afterwards  incorporated  in  his  <<  Antiquitates  Asiaticae.** 
When  Dr.  Mead,  in  1724,  published  his  Harveian  oration^ 
delivered  in  the   preceding  year  at  the  royal  college  of 
physicians,  Mr.  Chishuil  added  to  it,  by  way  of  appendix^- 
*^  Dissertatio  de  Nummis  quibusdam  k  Smyrnseis  in  Medi- 
corum  honorem  percussis,^'  which  gave  rise  to  a  contro-» 
versy  very  interesting  to  the  professors  of  the  medical  art, 
and  amusing  to  the  learned  world  in  general.    The  ques* 
tion  was,  whether  the  physicians  of  ancient  Rome  were  not 
usually  vile  and  despicable  slaves,  or  whether  there  were 
not  some,  at  least,  among  them,  who  enjoyed  the  privileges 
of  a  free  condition,  and  the  respect  due  to  their  services. ' 
The  history  of  this  controversy  will  be  found  in  the  articles  of 
Mead  and  Middleton ;  but  Mr.  Chishuil  has  not  been  deemed 
happy  in  all  his  explanations  of  the  Smyrnsean  inscriptions* 
In  1728    appeared  in  folio,    his  great  work,    '^Antiqui- 
tates Asiatics^  Obristianam  JEram  autecedentes ;  ex  pri- 
mariis  Monumentis  Grsecis  descriptse,  Latine  v^sse,  Notis-^ 
que  et  Comquentariis  illustrates.     Accedit  Monumentum 
Latinum  Ancyranum.''      Dr.  Mead  contributed  fifty-one 
guineas.  Dr.  William  Sherard  twenty,  and*  Dr.  Lisle  five 
guineas  towards  this  book^  which  was  published  by  sub- 

CHISfiULL.  S37 

ittriptioQ,  afc  on&  goitiea  the  common  copy,  and  twa  gui«^ 
peas  the  .royal  paper.    The  work  contains  a  collection  of^ 
ioscriptions  made  by  consul  Sherard,  Dr.  Picenini,  and 
Dr.  Lisle,  afterwards  bishop  of  St.  Asaph,  which  was  de- 
posited in  the  earl  of  Oxford's  library,  and  is  now  in  the 
British  Museum.     Mr.  CbishaU  added  to  the  ^^  Antiquitate» 
Asiatics^''  two  small  pieces  which  be  had  before  published^ 
mz,  ^^ConjectaneadeNummoCKIini  inscripto/'  and  ^^  Iter 
AsisB  Poeticum,''  addressed  to  the  rev.  John  Horn.    Our 
author  not  having  succeeded  in  his  explication  of  an  in* 
jvcription  to  Jupiter  Ourios, '  afterwards  cancelled  it,  and 
substituted  a  different  interpretation  by  Dr.  Ashton,  which 
was  more  satisfactory;  but  our  author  did- not  submit  in 
ihis  case  with  so  good  a  grace  as  might  have  been  wished^ 
^d  was  reasonably  to  be  expected.     He  added  also,  at  the 
saoae  time,  anoth^  half  sheet,  with  the  head  of  Homer,  of 
which  only  fifty  copies  were  printed.     He  had  formed  the 
design  of  publishing  a  second  volume,  under  the  title  of 
'^  Antiquitates  Asiaticae ;    pars  altera  diversa,  diversarum 
Urbium  inscripta  Marmora  complectens,*'  and  the  printing 
was  begun  ;  but  the  author's  death  put  a  stop  to  the  pro- 
gress of  it,  and  the  manuscript  was  purchased  at  Dr.  As- 
I^ew'ssale  in  1785  for  the  British  Museum,  for  about  601. 
It  is  to  be  regretted  that  the  learned  Thomas  T3nrwhitt  de- 
clined being  the  editor  of  this  second  volume.     Mr.  Chi- : 
shuirs  printed  books  were  sold  by  a  marked  catalogue  by 
lyhiston  in  17^5.     In  1731,  Mr.  Chishull  was  presented 
to  the  rectory  of  South-church  in  Essex.     This  preferment 
he  did  ^ot  long  live  to  enjoy ;  for  he  departed  the  present 
life  at  Waltliamstow,  on  the  18th  of  May,    1733.     Mn 
Clarke,  of  Chichester,  writing  to  Mr.  Bowyer,  says,  '^  I  was 
viery  sorry  for  Mr^  ChishuU's  death  as  a  public  loss."    That  - 
our  author  sustained  an  excellent  character,  as  a  clergy- 
man and  a  divine,  cannot  be  doubted.     Two  letters,  writ- 
ten  by  him  to  bis  friend  Mr.  Bowyer,    and  which  Mr. 
Nichols  has  preserved,  are  evident  proofs  both  of  the  piety 
and  benevolence  of  his  disposition.     With  respect  to  hi^ 
literary  abilities,  Dr^  Taylor  styles  him  "  Vir  celeberrimus 
iBgenii  acumine  et  ^terarum  peritta,    quibus   excellebat' 
maxime ;''  and  Dr.  Mead  has  bestowed  a  high  encomium 
i:q»on  him,  in  the.preface  which  introduces  Mr.  ChishuU^s. 
Dissertation  on  the  Smyrnaean  Coins.     The  same  eminent 
pbjrsician  testified  his  regard  to  the  memory  of  his  learned 
friend,  by  publishing  in  1747  our  author's  "Travels  in 



Turkey,  and  back  to  England/'  fol.  They  were  originally 
poblisbed  at  a  guinea,  in  sheets,,  and  in  1759,  the  remain^- 
ing  copies,  which  were  numerous,  were  advertised  by  tbo 
proprietors  at  fourteen. shillings  bound.' 

CHISI,  or  CHIGI,  or  GHISI  (Agostixi),  a  merchant 
at  Rome,  and  a  patron  of  literature  and  the  artst  was  a  na*^ 
tive  of  Siena,  in  the  fifteenth  and  sixteenth:  centuries,  who- 
having  frequent  occasion,  in  his  mercantile  coaeernB,  to 
lesort  to  Rome,  at  length  fixed  his  abode  there,  and  erects 
ed  for  himself  a  splendid  mansion  in  theTmnstevere,  which 
he  decorated  with  works  in  painting  and  sculpture  by  ther 
greatest  artists  of  the  time.     He  had  long  been  considered 
as  the  wealthiest  merchant  in  Italy  ;  and  on  the  expeditiait 
of  Charles  VIIL  against  the  kingdom  of  Naples^  had  ad-^t 
vaiiced  for  the  use  of  that  monarch  a  considerable  sum  of 
moneyy  which  it  is  thought  he  never  recovered;  His  wealtla 
be  employed  in  encouraging  pahiting,  sculpture,  and  every 
branch  of  the  fine  arts,  and  likewise  devoted  himself  tothcr 
restoration  of  ancient  learning.    Among  the  learned  meii 
whom  he  distingoisbed  by  his  particular  favour,  was  Cor« 
nelio  Benigno  of  Viterboy  who  united  to  a  sound  critical" 
judgment  an  intimate  acquaintance  with  the  Greek  tongue^ 
and  had  before  joined  with  a  few  other  eminent  «cholarsia 
revising  and  correcting  the  geographical  work*  of  Pt(4o« 
ssseus,  which  was  published  at  Rome  in  1507.     Under  the 
patronage  of  Chisi,  Comelio  produced  atZaccaria  Callier«» 
go's  press,  the  fine  edition  of  the  works  of  Pindar,  1515^ 
4to,  the  first  Greek  book  printed  at  Rome ;  and  from  the 
same  press  issued  the  correct  edition  of  the  Idyilia  and 
Epigrams  of  Theocritus,  1516.    It  is.  said  that  it  was  not 
only  in  his  patronage  of  letters  and  of  the  arts  that  Chisi 
emulated  the  Roman  pontif!s,  but  vied  with  them  also  i» 
the  luxury  of  his  table,  and  the  costly  and  ostentatious  ex -^^ 
travagance  of  bis  feasts.  His  death  is  said  to  have  oecurred 
in  1520.    After  this  event,  his  family  were  driven  froat 
Rome  by  Paul  III.  who  seized  upon  their  mansioft  in  the 
Transrevere,  and  converted  it  into  a  sort  of  aqipendage  to 
the  Famese  palace,  whence  it  has  since  been  called  the 
Farnesina.      But  in  the  ensuing  century,  the  family  of 
Chisi,  or  Chigi,  rose  to  pontifical  honours  in  the  person  of 
Alexander  VII.  Fabio  Chigi ;  who  established  it :  in  great 

- 1  Biog;  Brit,  from  infornuticm  chieSy  in  Kichok-s  BoirfeP|  whsm  Me 
curioas  letters  of  Mr.  CiMihull.'-Atik  Ov^o^*  II* 

C  H  I  S  I.  S89 

«i^t^  witifaout,  however,  restoring  to  it  the  family  mao^ 
sion,  which  has  descended  with  the  possessions  of  the  Far* 
Bese  to  the  king  of  Naples,  to  whom  it  now  belongs.  ^ 

CHOISI  (Francis  TiMOLEON  de),  dean  of  the  cathedral 
at  Bayeax,  and  one  of  the  members  of  the  French  aca-  ' 
demy,  was  born  April  16,  1644,  at  Paris.     He  was  sent  to 
the  king  of  Siam,  with  the  chevalier  de  Chauimont  in  1685, 
and  ordained  priest  in  the  Indies  by  the  apostolical  vicar. 
He  died  October  2,  1724,  at  Paris,  aged  Hi.    Although  his 
life  in  our  authorities  is  very  prolix,  he  seems  entitled  to 
very  little  notice  or  respect.    His  youth  was  very  iVregular. 
Disguised  as  a  woman,  under  the  name  of  comtesse  dea 
BarreSj  he  abandoned  himself  to  the  libertinism  which  su<^ 
a  disguise  encouraged  ;  but  we  are  told  that  he  did  not  act 
thus  at  the  time  of  writing  his  ecclesiastical  history ;  though 
sudi  a  report  might  probably  arise  from  his  having  been  so 
accustomed  from  his  youth  to  dress  in  woman^s  clothes,  to 
please  Monsieur,  brother  of  Louis  XIV.  who  liked  such 
amusements,  that  be  wore  petticoats  at  his  house  as  long  as 
iie  lived,  equally  a  disgrace  to  himself  and  his  patron.  The 
principal  of  his  works  are,   1 .  ^'  Quatre  Dialogues  sur  I'lm^ 
mortality  de  TAme,"  &c ;  which  he  wrote  with  M.  Dan-» 
geau,  f2mo.     2.  "Relation  du  Voyage  de  Siam,"  12mo.; 
S.  **HistDijres  de  Piet6  et  de  Morale,"  2  vols.  12mo.     4. 
^^  Hist.  Ecclesiastique,''  11  vols,  in  4to,  and  in  12mo.     3: 
**  LaVie  de  David,  avec  une  Interpretation  des  Pseisiumes,^* 
4to.     6.  <*The  Lives  of  Solomon  j  of  St.  L6uis,  4to;  of 
Philip  de  Valois,  and  of  king  John,  4to ;  of  Charles  V.  4to; 
of  Charles  VL  4tp ;  and  of  Mad.  de  Miramion,  12mo;  his 
Memoirs,  12mo.     These  are  all  superficial  works,  and  have 
found  readers  only  from  their  being  written  in  that  free  and 
natural  style  which  amuses  the  atteotion.     What  he  wrote 
on  the  French  history  has  been  printed  in  4  vols.  12mo. 
His  Ufe  was  published  at  Geneva,  1748,  8vo,  supposed  to 
be  written  by  the  abb6  d'Olivet,  who  has  inserted  in  it  the 
Historyof  la  comtesse  des  Barres,  1736,  small  12mo,  written 
by  tfae^bb^  Choisi  himself/' 

'  CHOKIER  (John  Ernest  de),  the  brothear  of  Erasmus 
de  Surl^,  lord  of  Chokier  (one  of  the  ablest  lawyers  of  his 
time,  who  died  in  1625),  was  born  at  Liege  Jan.  14,  157]> 
of  .an  ancient  and  noble  family^  *  He  studied  lai#  at  the 
university  of  Lova^ne,  and  especially  the  Roman  history 

*  Roscoe's  Leo.— Gen.  Diet*  art  Chi^i. 

^  D'Alembert's  Hist,  de  Pacad.  Franc. — Moreri. 

Vol.  IX.  U 

290  C  H  O  K  I  E  R. 

and  antiquities  under  Lipsius.     After  taking  the  degree  of 
doctor  in  canon  and  civil  law  at  Orleans,  he  went  to  Rome, 
and  was  introduced  to  pope  Paul  V.     On  hij  return  to 
Liege,  he  received  some  promotion  in  the  church ;  and 
Ferdinand  of  Bavaria,  bishop  and  prince  of  Liege,  made 
him  vicar-general  of  his  diocese,  and  one  of  his  cbunsel- 
lors.     Chokier.was  not  more  esteemed  for  his  learning  than 
for  his  benevolence,  which  led  him  to  found  two  hospitals, 
one  for  poor  incurables,  and  the  other  for  female  penitents. 
He  died  at  Liege,  either  in  1650  or  1651;  but  his  bio* 
graphers  have  not  specified  the  particular  time,  although 
they  notice  that  he  was  buried  in  the  cathedral  of  Liege, 
under  a   magnificent   tomb.     Among  his  works,    are,    1. 
**  Notae  in  Seneca^  libellum  de  tranquillitate  animi,"  Leige, 
1607,   Svo.      2.  "  Thesaurus  aphorismorum    politicorum, 
sen  commentarius  in  Justi-Lipsii  politica,  cum  exemplis, 
notis  et  monitis,"  Rome,  1610,  Mentz,  161^,  4to,  and  with 
corrections  and  the  addition  of  some  other  treatises,  at 
Liege,   1642,   folio.     Andrew  Heidemann  translated   this 
wbrk  into  German,  but  with  so  little  fidelity,  as  to  oblige 
the  author  to  publish  against  it  in  a  volume  entitled  '^  Spe- 
cimen candoris  Heidemanni,'' Liege,  1625,  Svo.  3. "Notae 
et  dissertationes  in  Onosandri  strategicum,"  Gr.  and  Lat. 
1610,   4t6,    and   inserted    in    the  latter   editions  of   his 
*^  Aphorismi."     4.  "  Tractatus  de  permutationibus  bene- 
ficiorum',"  1616,  8vo,  and  afterwiirds  Rome,  1700,  folio, 
with  other  treatises  on  the  same  subject.     5.  "  De  re  num- 
maiia  prisci  sevi,  collata  ad  sestimationem  monetas  presen- 
tis,"  Cologne,  1620,  Svo,  Liege,  1649.  .  Another  title  of 
this  work  we  have  seen  is  **  Monetae  antiques   diversarum 
gentium  maxime  Romanae  copsideratio  et  ad  nostram  ho-> 
diernam  reductio."     He  published  some  other  works  on 
law  subjects  and  antiquities  of  the  courts  of  chancery,  the 
office  of  ambassador,  &c. ;  and  some  of  controversy  against 
the  protestants,  and  one  against  the  learned  Samuel  Ma- 
rets,    entitled    "  Apologeticus   adversus   Samuel   MaresU 
librum,  cui  titulus,  Candela  sub  modio  posita  per  clerum 
Romanum,*'  1635,  4to ;  but  he  had  not  complete  success 
in  proving  that  the  Roman  catholic  clergy  at  that  time 
did  not  ^<  hide  their  candle  under  a  bushel.*'  * 

CHOMEL  (James  Francis),  a  French  physician,  was 
the  son  of  Noel  Chomel,  an  agriculturist,  and  the  author  of 

1  Moreri.«^Foppeb  Bibl»  Belg.-^Saxii  Onomast. 

C  H  O  M  £  L.  291 

the  **  Dictionnaire  oeconomique,"  of  which  we  have  an 
English  translation  by  Bradley ,  1725,  2  vols,  folio*    He  was 
born  at  Paris  towards  the  end  of  the  seventeenth  century, 
and  studied  medicine  at  Montpellier,  where  he  took  his 
degree  of  doctor,  in  1708.     Returning  to  his  native  city, 
he   was  appointed  physician  and  counsellor  to  the  king. 
The  following  year  he  published  "  Universae  Medicines 
Theoricae  pars  prima,  seu  Physiologia,  ad  usum  scholae  ac- 
commodata,"   Montpellier,    1709,    12mo ;    and   in    1734, 
*^Traite  des  Eaux  Minerales,  Baines  et  Douches  de  Vichi,** 
1734,  12mo,  and  various  subsequent  editions.     To  that  of 
the  year  1738  the  author  added  a  preliminary  discourse  on 
mineral  waters  in  general,   with  accounts  of  the  principal 
medicinal  waters  found  in  France.      His  elder    brother, 
Peter  John  Baptiste,  studied  medicine  at  Paris,  and  was 
admitted  to  the  degree  of  doctor  there  in  .1697.    Applying 
himself  more  particularly  to  the  study  of  botany,  while 
making  his  collection,  he  sent  his  observations  to  the  royal 
academy  of  sciences,  who  elected  him  one  of  their  mem- 
bers.    He  was  also  chosen,  in  November   1738,  dean  of 
the  faculty  of  medicine,  and  the  following  year  was  re- 
elected, but  died  in  June  1740.     Besides  his  "Memoirs** 
sent  to  the  academy  of  sciences,  and  his  '^  Defence  of 
Tournefort,'*  published  in  the  Journal  des  Savans,  he  pub- 
lished **  Abrege  de  PHistoire  des  Plantes  usuelles,"  Paris^ 
1712,  12mo.     This  was  in  1715  increased  to  two,  and  in 
1730,  to  three  volumes  in  12mo,  and  is  esteemed  an  useful 
manual.  His  son,  John  Baptiste  Lewis,  was  educated  also 
at  Paris,    and  took  his  degree  of  doctor  in  medicine  in 
1732.     He  was  several  years  physician  in  ordinary  to  the 
king,    and  in  November  1754  was  chosen   dean  of  the 
faculty.    He  died  in  1765.    He  published  in  1745,  1.-  "  An 
account  of  the  disease  then  epidemic  among  cattle,**  and 
boasts  of  great  success  in  the  cure,  which  was  effected,  he 
says,  by  using  setons,  imbued  with  white  hellebore.     2, 
^^  Dissertation  historique  sur   la  Mai  de  Gorge  Gangre^ 
neaux,  qui  a  regne  parmi  les  enfans,  en  1748:**  the  ma- 
lignant sore  throat,  first  treated  of  in  this  country  by  Dr. 
Fothergill,  about  ten  years  later  than  this  period.    3.  ^^  £s- 
sai  historique  sur  la  Medicine  en  France,*'   1762,  12mo. 
He  also  wrote,  ^*  Vie  de.M.  Morin,*'  and  ^^Eloge  hbtorique 
de  M.  Louis  Duret,**  1765.' 

1  Diet.  Hist— Haller  Bibl.  Med.  et  Bibl.  Botaq. 

U   2 

292  e  H  O  P  I  N. 

CHOPIN  (Rene),  an  eminent  lawyer,  born  1557,  at 
Bailleul  in  Anjou,    was  counsellor  to  the  parliament  of 
Paris,  in  which  situation  he  pleaded  with  great  reputation 
a  long  time,  and  afterwards,  confining  himself  to  his  study, 
composed  a  considerable  number  of  works,,  printed  in  1663, 
5  vols,  folio  ;  and  there  is  a  Latin  edition  of  them  in  4  vols. 
He  was  consulted  from  all  parts,  and  was  ennobled  by  Henry 
III.  in  1578,  for  his  treatise  '*  De  Domanio.''     What  he 
wrote  on  the  custom  of  Anjou,  is  esteemed  his  best  work, 
and  gained  him  the  title  and  honours  of  sheriff  of  the  city 
of  Angers.     His  books  ^^  De  sacr^  Politic  Monastica,''  and 
*^  De  Privilegiis  Rusticorum,"  are  also  much  valued.    Cho* 
pin's  attachment  to  the  league  drew  upon  him  a  macaronic 
satire,  entitled  <*  Anti-Chopinus,''  1592,  4to,  attributed  to 
John  de  Villiers  Hohnan ;  but  the  burlesque  style  of  this 
piece  being  unsuitable  to  the  subject,  it  was  burned  by  a 
decree  of  council*    The  occasion  of  its  being  written  was, 
*^  Oratio  de  Pontificio  Gregorii  XIV.  ad  Grallos  Diplpmate 
a  criticis  notis  vindicato,'' Paris,  1591,  4to,  which  is  not 
among  Chopin's  works.     On  the  day  that  the  king  entered 
Paris,  Chopin's  wife  lost  her  senses,  and  he  received  orders 
to  leave  the  city ;  but  remained  there  through  the  interest 
of  his  friends,  upon  which  he  wrote  the  eulogy  of  Henry  IV. 
in  Latin,  1594,  8vo,  which  is  also  omitted  in  his  works,  as 
well  as  <'  Bellum  Sacrum  Gallicum,  Poema,^'  1562,  4to. 
He  died  at  Parisian.  30,  1606,  under  the  hands  of  the  sur- 
geon, who  was  cutting  him  for  the  stone.  ^ 

CHOUET  (John  Robert),  a  learned  philosopher,  and 
one  of  the  most  eminent  magistrates  of  Geneva,  was  bom 
there  in  1642.     He  was  the  first  who  taught  the  philosophy 
of  Descartes  at  Saumur.    In  1669,  he  was  recalled  to  Ge» 
neva,  and  gave  lectures  there  with  great  applause.    Chouet 
became  afterwards  counsellor  and  secretary  of  state  at  Ge- 
neva, and  wrote  a  history  of  that  republic.     He  died  Sep- 
tember 17,   1731,  aged  89.     His  publications  are,  <^An 
Introduction  to  Logic,"  in  Latin,  1672,  8 vo;  ^^  Theses 
Physic8B  de  varia  Astrorum  luce,''  1674,  4to;  ^^Memoire 
succinct  sur  la  Reformation,"  1694;  ^^  Reponses  si  des  - 
Questions  de  Milord  Townsend  sur  Geneve  ancienne  fiaites,  . 
en  1696,  et  publi^es  en  1774."     Besides  these,  he  left  in  , 
MS.  in  3  vols,  folio,  a  work,  entitled  ^<  Diverges  Recbercbes  ~ 

t  Diet,  L*A4Tocat.—]Xct.  Hilt,— Moreri. 

C  H  O  U  L.  293 

sur  PHist.  de  Geneve,  sur  son  Gouvernement  et  sa  Con- 

CHOUL  (William  pu),  a  gentleman  of  Lyons,  of  the 
sixteenth  century,  bailiff  of  the  mountains  of  Dauphiny, 
travelled  over  Italy  to  improve  himself  in  the  knowledge 
of  antiquity ;  and  is  principally  known  by  a  scarce  and  ex- 
cellent treatise  of  the  '^  Religion  and  Castrametatidn  of  the 
ancient  Romans/*  folio,  Lyons,  1556,  1569,  4to,  and  1580, 
4to.  This  singular  work  of  antiquities  is  remarkable,  espe- 
cially for  its  second  part,  which  treats  of  the  manner  of 
pitching  and  fortifying  the  camps  used  by  the  Romans,  of 
their  discipline  and  their  military  exercises.  It  has  been 
translated  into  Latin,  Italian,  and  Spanish:  the  Latin, 
Amst.  1685,  4 to,  the  Italian,  Lyons,  1559,  folio;  both  edi- 
tions are  scarce,  but  less  so  than  the  French  original, 
though  not  so  well  executed.  He  has  the  honour  of  being 
one  o£  the  earUest  French  antiquaries,  but  his  countrymen 
have  {freserved  no  memorials  of  his  personal  history.  The 
last  edition  of  the  French  Diet.  Hist,  attributes  to  him  two 
other  treatises,  "Promptuaire  des  Medailles,*'  and  "Trait6 
des  Bains  des  Grecs  et  des  Romains,**  but  we  suspect  this 
last  is  included  in  the  larger  work  above  mentioned. ' 

CHRETIEN  (Florent),  or  as  he  was  called  Quintus 
Septimus  Florens  Christianus,  a  French  poet,  was  born  at 
Orleans  Jan.  26,  1541.  He  was  called  Quintus,  because 
he  was  his  father*s  fifth  child,  and  Septimus,  because  he 
was  born  in  the  seventh  month  of  his  mother*s  pregnancy* 
He  was  well  skilled  in  languages  and  in  the  belles  lettres ; 
and  was  tutor  to  Henry  IV.  whom  he  educated  in  the  re- 
formed religion;  but  he  himself  returned  to  the  Roman 
catholic  church  before  his  death,  which  happened  in  1596. 
He  was  author  of  some  satires  against  Ronsard,  tinder  the 
name  of  '^  La  Bisironnie,**  1564,  dvo;  poems,  printed  scr 
parately  in  8vo,  and  some  translations ;  the  principal  of 
which  is  that  of  Oppian,  4to.  He  had  a  part  in  the  Satyrs 
Menipeee.  Notwithstanding  his  disposition  to  satire,  he 
preserved  the  attachment  of  his  friends,  and  the  genei*al 
esteem  of  the  public.  Wjilliam  his  father,  physician  to 
Francis  I.  and  Henry  II.  translated  some  medical  works  into 

t  Momi.— •«!•  t.  Lit.  de  O^neTe.        *  Mbrnl'^-Diet  Hi«t«9>8uii  Onontit 
!  Moreri-^IKct.  Hist«— >Baillet  Juf  enens  dtt  Satsbs,  / 

294  '  CHRISTIE. 

CHRISTIE  (Thomas),  aa  ingenious  writer,  was  the  son 
of  a  merchant  of  Montrose  in  Scotland,  where  be  was  born 
in  October  1761 ;  and  after  a  good  school  education,  was 
placed  in  the  counting-house  by  his  father,  whose  opinion 
was,  that  whatever  course  of  life  the  young  man  might 
adopt,  a  system  of  mercantile  arrangement  would  greatly 
facilitate  hb  pursuits.  It  is  probable  that  he  went  through 
the  routine  of  counting-house  business  with  due  attention, 
especially  under  the  guidance  of  his  father ;  but  his  leisure 
hours  were  devoted  to  the  cultivatiofi  of  general  literature 
with  such  assiduity,  that  at  a  very  early  age  he  was  qualified 
to  embrace  any  of  the  learned  professions  with  every  pro- 
mise of  arriving  at  distinction.  *  His  inclination  appears  to 
have  led  him  at  first  to  the  study  of  medicine,  and  this 
brought  him  to  London  in  1787,  where  he  entered  himself 
at  the  Westminster  Dispensary,  as  a  pupil  to  Dr.  SiI^Qlons, 
for  whom  he  ever  after  expressed  the  highest  esteem.  At 
this  time  Mr.  Christie  possessed  an  uncomaM>n  fund  of  ge- 
neral knowledge,  evidently  accumulated  in  a  long  course 
of  reading,  and  knew  literary  history  as  well  as  most  vete- 
rans. While  he  never  neglected  his  medical  pursuits,  and 
to  all  appearance  had  nothing  else  in  view,  his  mind  con- 
stantly ran  on  topics  of  classical,  theological,  and  philoso- 
phical literature.  He  had  carefully  perused  the  best  of 
the  foreign  literary  journals,  and  could  refer  with  ease  to 
their  contents ;  and  be  loved  the  society  in  which  subjecte 
of  literary  history  and  criticism  were  discussed.  The  writer 
of  this  article,  somewhat  his  senior  in  years,  and  not  wholly 
inattentive  to  such  pursuits,  had  often  occasion  to  be  sur- 
prized at  the  extent  of  his  acquirements.  It  was  this  ac- 
cumulation of  knowledge  which  suggested  to  Mr.  Christie 
the  first  outline  of  a  review  of  books  upon  the  analytical 
plan ;  and  finding  in  the  late  Mr.  Johnson  of  St«  PauPs 
Church-yard,  a  corresponding  spirit  of  liberality  and  enter- 
prise, the  "Analytical  Review"  was  begun  in  May  1788; 
and,  if  we  mistake  not,  the  preface  was  from  Mn  Christie's 
.  pen,  who,  at  the  same  time,  and  long  afterwards  contributed 
many  ingenious  letters  to  the  Gentleman's  Magazine,  with 
the  editor  of  which  (Mr.  I^ichols)  he  long  lived  in  habits  of 

Having  studied  medicine  for  some  time,  under  Dr.  Sim- 
mons, he  spent  two  winters,  attending  the  medical  classes 
at  Edinburgh,  and  afterwards  travelled,  in  search  of  general 
knowledge,  to  almost  every  considerable  town  in  the  king^ 


dooQi.  where  bis  letters  of  recommendation^  his  insatiable 
thirst  for  ioformation,  and  above  ali^  his  pleasing  manners, 
and  interesting  juvenile  figure^  procured  him  admission  to 
all  who  were  distinguished  for  science,  and  by  many  of  the 
most  eminent  literary,  characters  he  was  .  welcomed  and 
encouraged  as  a  young  man  of  extraordinary  talents.  He 
then  went  to  the  continent  for  further  improvement; 
and  while  he  was  at  Paris,  some  advantageous  offers  from 
a  mercantile  house  in.  London,  induced  him  to  resume  his 
original  pursuit,  and  to  become  a  partner  in  that  house* 
This  journey  to  Paris,  however,  prodiiced  another  effect, 
not  quite  so  favourable  to  his  future  happiness.  Becoming 
acquainted  with  mauy  of  the  literati  of  France,  and  among 
them,  with  many  of  the  founders  of  the  French  revolution^ 
he  espoused  their  principles,  was  an  enthusiast  in  their  cause, 
and  seemed  to  devote  more  attention,  more  stretch  of  mind, 
to  the  study  and  support  of  the  revolutionary  measures 
adopted  in  that  country,  than  was  consistent  with  the  sober 
pursuits  of  commerce.  This  enthusiasm,  in  which  it  must 
be  confessed  he  was  at  that  time  not  singular,  produced  in 
1790^  "A  Sketch  of  the  New  Constitution  of  France,"  in 
two  folio  sheets  ;  and  in  1791,  he  enlisted  himself  among 
the  answerers  of  Mr.  Burke's  celebrated  "  Reflections,"  in 
**  Letters  on  the  Revolution  of  France,  and  the  new  Con- 
stitution established  by  the  National  Assembly,'*  a  large 
8vo  volume,  which  was  to  have  been  followed  by  a  second  y. 
but  the  destruction  of  that  constitution,  the  anarchy  which 
followed,  and  the  disapppintment  of  his,  and  the  hopes  of 
all  the  friend^  of  liberty,  probably  prevented  his  prose- 
cuting the  subject.  In  1792,  havi'ig  dissolved  partnership 
with  the  mercantile-house  above  alluded. to,  he  became  a 
partner  in  the  carpet-manufactory  of  Messrs.  Moore  audi 
Co.  in  Finsbury-square ;  but  in  1796,  some  necessary  ar- 
rangements of  trade  induced  him  to  take  a  voyage  to  Suri- 
nam^ where  he  died  in  the  prime  of  life  in  October  of  that 

The  materials  Mr.  Christie  had  collected  for  his  Thesis, 
when  intending  to  take  a  medical  degree,  were  afterwards 
published  in  the  *^  London  Medical  Journal''  in  a  letter  to 
Dr.  Simmpns.  l^ut  his  most  valuable  publication,  although 
much  less  known  the^n  it  deserves,  was  a  first  volume  of 
^*  Miscellanies,  philosophical,  medical,  and  moral,"  1789, 
a  thick  crown  8vo,  containing  1.  Observations  on  the  lite- 
rature of  the  primitive  Christian  writers  i  being  an  attempt 


to  vindicate  them  from  the  imputation  of  RcMisseau  and 
Gibbon,  that  they  were  enemies  to  philosophjr  and  human 
learning,  originally  read  in  the  Society  of  Antiquaries  of 
Scotland.  At  the  time  be  wrote  this,  his  mind  was  much 
occupied  by  theological  inquiries.  2.  Reflections  sug- 
gested   by    the    character    of  Pamphilus    of   Csesarea. 

3.  Hints  respecting  the  state  and  education  of  the  people. 

4.  Thoughts  on  the  origin  of  human  knowledge,  and  on  the 
antiquity  of  the  world.  5.  Remarks  on  professor  M einers's 
History  of  ancient  opinions  respecting  the  Deity.  6.  Ac- 
count of  Dr.  Ellis's  work  on  the  origin  of  sacred  knowledge. 
Most,  if  not  all  these  were  prepared  for  the  press  berore 
he  had  reached  his  twenty*fifth  year,  and  afford  such  an 
instance  of  extensive  reading  and  thinking  as  rarely  occurs 
at  that  age. ' 

CHRISTIE  (Wiluam),  M.  A.  probably  a  relation  of 
the  preceding,  was  born  near  Montrose  in  1730,  and  edu- 
cated in  King's  college,  Aberdeen,  where  he  took  his  de- 
grees, and  was  licensed  to  preach  as  a  probationer ;  but 
not  having  interest  to  procure  a  living  in  the  church,  he 
accepted  of  the  place  of  master  of  the  grammar-school  of 
Montrose,  where  he  was  greatly  celebrated  for  his  easy 
and  expeditious  method  of  teaching  the  classics.  He  wrote 
a  ^^  Latin  Grammar,''  and  an  "  Introduction  to  the  making 
of  Latin,"  both  of  which  are  well  esteemed.  He  died  at 
Montrose  in  1774,  aged  44.  ^ 

CHRISTINA^  queen  of  Sweden,  one  of  the  few  sove- 
reigns whose  history  is  entirely  personal,  was  the  only  child 
of  the  great  Gustavus  Adolphus,  by  Maria  Eleonora  of 
Brandenburg.  She  was  bom  Dec.  18,  1626,  and  succeed- 
ed to  the  throne  of  her  father  when  she  was  only  five  years 
of  age.  During  her  minority,  the  long  war  with  the  Ger- 
man empire,  in  consequence  of  the  inviaision  of  Gustavus, 
as  supporter  of  the  protestant  league,  was  carried  on  by 
able  men,  and  particularly  Oxentiem.  Her  education  was 
conducted  upon  a  very  liberal  plan,  and  she  possessed  a 
strong  understanding,  and  was  early  capable  of  reading  the 
Greek  historians.  Thucydides,  Polybius,  and  Tacitus,  were 
her  favourite  authors ;  but  she  as  early  manifested  a  dis- 
taste for  the  society  and  occupations  of  her  sex^  and  de- 
lighted in  manly  sports  and  exercises.    She  aflfected  Kke* 

<  Gent.  Mag.  1797. — Personal  knowledge.  ^         ^ 

I  From  iho  last  edition  of  tbii  Pictionarj. 

C  HT  R  I  S  T  I  N  A.  '  297 

wise  an  extraordinary  love  of  letters,  and  even  for  abstract 
speculations.     When  at  the  age  of  eighteen  she  assumed 
the  reins  of  government,    she  was    courted  by  several 
princes  of  Europe,  but  rejedted  their  proposals  from  various 
motives,  of  which  the  true  one  appears  to  have,  been  a  con- 
ceited sense  of  superiority,  and  a  desire  to  rule  uncon- 
trouled*     Among  her  suitors  were  the.printe  of  Denmark, 
the  elector  Palatine,  the   elector  of  Brandenburgh,   the 
kings  of  Portugal  and  Spain,  the  king  of  the  Romans,  and 
Charles  Gustavus,  duke  of  Deux  Ponts,  her  first  cousin. 
Him  the  people,  anxious  for  her  marriage,  recommended 
to  her ;  but  she  rejected  the  proposal,  and  to  prevent  its 
renevi'al,  she  solemnly  appointed  Gustavus  her  successor. 
In  1650,  when  she  was  crowned,  she  became  weary  and 
disgusted  with  public  affairs,  and  seemed  to  have  no  am- 
bition but  to  become  the  general  patroness  of  learning  and 
learned  men.    With  this  view,  she  invited  to  her  court  men 
of  the  first  reputation  in  various  studies  :  among  these  were 
Grotius,  Descartes,  Bocfaart,  Huet,  Vossius,  Paschal,  Sal* 
masios,  Naude,  Heinsius,  Meibom,  Scudery,  Menage,  Lu- 
cas, Holstenius,  Lambecius,  Bayle,  and  others,  who  did 
not  fail  to  celebrate  her  in  poems,  letters,  or  literary  pro- 
ductions of  some  other  kind,  the  greatest  part  of  which  are 
now  forgotten.     Her  choice  of  learned  men  seems  to  hav6 
been  directed  more  by  general  fame,  than  by  her  own 
judgment^  or  taste  for  their  several  excellencies,  and  she 
derived  no  great  credit  either  as  a  learned  lady,  or  as  a 
discriminating    patroness    of  literature.     She  was  much 
under  the  influence  of  Bourdelot  the  physician,  who  gained 
his  ascendancy  by  outrageous  flattery :  and  her  inattention 
to  the  high  duties  of  her  station  di^usted  her  subjects. 
She  was  a  collector  of  books,  manuscripts,  medals,  and 
paintings,  all  which  she  purchased  at  such  an  enormous 
expence  as  to  injure  her  treasury,  and  with  so  little  judg- 
ment, that  having  procured  some  paintings  of  Titian  at  a 
most  extravagant  price,  she  had  them  clipped  ta  fit  the 
pannels  of  her  gallery. 

In  1652  shfe  first  proposed  to  resign  in  favour  of  her 
successor,  but  the  remonstrances  of  the  States  delayed  this 
measure  until  1654,  when  she  solemnly  abdicated  the 
crown,  that  she  might  be  at  perfect  liberty  to  execute  a 
plan  of  life  which  vanity  and  folly  seem  to  have  presented 
to  her  imagination,  as  a  life  of  true  happiness,  the  royal 
oHum  cum  dignitaie.    Some  time  before  thb  step„  Anthony 

398  C  H  R  I  S  T  I  N  A, 

Macedo,  a  Jesuit,  was  chosen  by  John  IV.  king  of  Portugal, 
to  accompany  the  ambassador  he  sent  into  Sweden  to  queen 
Christina;  and  this  Jesuit  pleased  this  princess  so  highly, 
that  she  secretly  opened  to  him  the  design  she  had  of  chang- 
ing her  religion.     She '  sent  him  to  Rome  with  letters  to 
the  general  of  the  Jesuits ;  in  which  she  desired  that  two 
of  their  society  might  be  dispatched  to  her,  Italians  by 
nation,  and  learned  men,  who  should   take  another  habit 
that  she  might  confer  with  them  at  more  ease  upon  matters 
o# religion.    The  request  was  granted ;  and  two  Jesuits  Virere 
immediately  sent  to   her,  viz.  Francis   Malines,  divinity 
professor  at  Turin,  and  Paul  Casati,  professor  of  mathe- 
matics at  Rome,  who  easily  effected  what   Macedo,  the 
first  confidant  of  her  design,  had  begun.     Having   made 
her  abjuration  of  the  Lutheran  religion,  at  which  the  Roman 
catholics  triumphed,  and  the  protestants  were  discontented, 
both  without  much  reason,  she  began  her  capricious  tra- 
vels :  from  Brussels,  or  as  some  say,  Inspruck,  at  which 
she  played  the  farce  of  abjuration,  she  went  to  Rome, 
where  she  intended  to  fix  her  abode,  and  where  she  ac- 
tually remained  two  years,  and  met  w^th  such  a  reception 
as  suited  her  vanity.     But  some  disgust  came  at  last,  and 
she  determined  to  visit  France,  where  Louis  XIV.  received 
her  with  respect,  but  the  ladies  of  the  court  were  shocked 
at  her  masculine  appearance,  and  more  at  her  licentious 
conversation.    Here  she  courted  the  learned,  and  appointed 
Menage  her  master  of  ceremonies,  but  at  last  excited  general 
horror  by  an  action,  for  which,  in  perhaps  any  other  coun- 
try, she  would  have  been  punished  by  death.  This  was  tlje 
murder  of  an  Italian,  Moualdeschi,  her  master  of  the  horse, 
who  had  betrayed  some  secret  entrusted  to  him,    .He  was 
summoned  into  a  gallery  in  the  palace,  letters  were,  then 
shewn  to  him,  at  the  sight  of  which  he  turned  pale,  and 
intreated  for  mercy,  but  he  was  instantly  stabbi^d  .by  two 
of  her  own  domestics  in  an  apartment  adjoining  that  in 
which  she  herself  was.     The  French  court  w^s  justly  of- 
fended at  this  atrocious  deed,  yet  it  met  with  vindicators, 
among  whom  was  Leibnitz,  whose  name  was  disgraced  by 
the  cause   which  he  attempted  to  justify.     Christina  was 
sensible  that  she  was  now  regarded  with  horror  in  France, 
and  would  gladly  have  visited  England,  but. she  received 
no  encouragement  for  that  purpose  from  Cromwell :  she 
therefore,  in  1658,  returned  to  Rome,  and  resumed  her 
amrusements  in  the  arts  and  sciences.    But  Rome  had  dq 


permanent  charms,  and  in  1660^  on  the  death  of  Gustavus^ 
she,  took  a  journey  to  Sweden  for  the  purpose  of  recovering 
her  crown  and  dignity.  She  found,  however,  her  ancienc 
subjects  much  indisposed  against  her  and  her  new  religion. 
They  refused  to  confirm  her  revenues,  caused  her  chapel 
to  be  pulled  down,  banished  all  her  Italian  chaplains,  and, 
in  short,  rejected  her  claims.  She  submitted  to  a  second 
renunciation  of  the  throne,  after  which  she  returned  to 
Rome,  and  pretended  to  interest  herself  warmly,  first 
in  behalf  of  the  island  of  Candia,  then  besieged  by  the^ 
Turks,  and  afterwards  to  procure  supplies  of  men  and 
money  for  the  Venetians.  Some  diflFerences  with  the  pope 
made  her  resolve,  in  1662,  once  more  to  return  to  Sweden  ; 
but  the  conditions  annexed  by  the  senate  to  her  residence 
there,  were  now  so  mortifying,  that  she  proceeded  no  far- 
ther than  Hamburgh,  and  from  Hamburgh  again  to  Rome, 
where  she  died  in  1689,  leaving  a  character  in  which  there 
is  little  that  is  amiable.  Vanity,  caprice,  and  irresolution 
deformed  her  best  actions,  and  Sweden  had  reason  to  re- 
joice at  the  abdication  of  a  woman  who  could  play  the 
tyrant  with  so  little  feeling  when  she  had  given  up  the 
power.  She  left  some  maxims,  and  thoughts  and  reflec- 
tions on  the  life  of  Alexander  the  Great,  which  were  trans- 
lated and  published  in  England  in  1753  ;  but  several  let- 
ters attributed  to  her  are  said  to  be  spurious.  ^ 

CHRISTOPHERSON  (John),  a  learned  English  bishop, 
was  a  Lancashire  man  by  birth,  and  educated  in  St.  John's 
college,  Cambridge.  He  was  one  of  the  first  fellows  of 
Trinity  college  after  its  foundation  by  Henry  1546, 
and  shortly  after  became  master  of  it;  and  in  1554  was 
made  dean  of  Norwich.  In  the  reign  of  Edward  VI.  he^ 
lived  abroad  in  a  state  of  banishment,  in  which,  as  he  tells 
us  in  the  preface  to  his  translation  of  Philo  Judacus,  be 
was  all  the  while  supported  by  his  college ;  but  upon 
queen  Mary's  succeeding  to  the  crown,  returned,  and  was 
made  bishop  of  Chichester.  He  is  said  to  have  died  a 
little  before  this  queen  in  1558.  He  translated  Philo  Ju- 
daeus  into  Latin,  Antwerp,  1553,  4to,  and  also  the  eccle- 
siastical histories  of  Eusebius,  Socrates,  Sozomen,  Evagrius, 
and  Theodoret,  Louvain,  1570,  8vo;  Cologn,  1570,  fol. ; 
but   bis  translations  are  very  defective.     Valesius,  in  bis 

>  Lacomb'B  Life  of  Christina.-— Unitr.  History.— Wbitelocke'ft  Jourpal-  of  the 
Sv«difih  Embassy,  1772,  2  vols.  4to.— Coxe's  Trayels. 

300  C  H  R  I  S  T  O  P  H  E  R  S  O  N. 

preface  to  Eusebius,  says,  that  compared  with  Rufinus  and 
Musculus,  who  had  translated  these  historians  before  him^ 
he  may  be  reckoned  a  diligent  and  iearnea  man ;  but  yet 
that  he  is  very  far  from  deserving  the  character  oif  a  good 
translator :  that  his  style  is  impure,  and' full  of  barbarism  ; 
that  his  periods  are  long  and  perplexed  :  that  he  has  fre- 
quently acted  the  commentator,  rather  than  the  translator ; 
that  he  has  enlarged  and  retrenched  at  pleasure ;  that  he 
has  transposed  the  sense  oftimes,  and  has  not  always  pre* 
^served  the  distinction  even  of  chapters.  The  learned  Huet 
has  passed  the  same  censure  on  him,  in  his  book  ^<  De  In- 
terpretatione."  Hence  it  is  that  all  those  who  have  followed 
Christopherson  as  their  guide  in  ecclesiastical  antiquity, 
and  depended  implicitly  upon  his  versions,  have  often 
been  led  to  commit  great  faults ;  and  this  has  happened 
not  seldom  to  Baronius  among  others. 

Christopherson  wrote  also,  about  the  year  1546,  the 
tragedy  of  Jephtha,  both  in  Latin  and  Greek,  dedicated 
to  Henry  VIII.  which  was  most  probably  a  Christmas  play 
for  Trinity  college.  It  was  said  that  he  was  buried  iu  ^ 
Christ  Church,  London,  Dec.  28,  1558,  but  Tanner  thinks 
he  was  buried  in  Trinity  college  chapel,  as  in  his  will, 
proved  Feb.  9,  1562,  he  leaves  his  body  to  be  buried  on 
the  south  side  of  the  altar  of  that  chapel.  Strype,  how- 
ever, in  the  Introduction  to  his  Annals,  p.  31,  describes  his' 
pompous  funeral  at  Christ  Church.  It  is  more  certain  that 
he  joined  his  brethren  in  queen  Mary's  reign  in  the  naea- 
sures  adopted  to  check  the  reformation.^ 

CHRYSIPPUS,  a  celebrated  stoic  philosopher,  was  born 
at  Soli,  a  city  of  Cilicia,  afterwards  called  Pompeiopolis, 
and  was  not  the  disciple  of  Zeno,  as  some  have  said,  but{ 
of  Cleanthes,  Zeno's  successor.  He  had  a  very  acute 
genius,  and  wrote  a  great  many  books,  above  700,  as  we 
are  told,  several  of  which  belo)iged  to  logic ;  for  he  ap- 
plied himself  with  great  care  to  cultivate  that  part  of  phi- 
losophy. Val.  Maximus  relates,  that  he  began  bis  39th 
book  of  logic  when  he  was  eighty  years  old :  and  Lucian, 
who  sought  out  absurdities  in  order  to  laugh  at  them,  «ould 
not  forbear  ridiculing  the  logical  subtilties  of  this  philoso- 
pher. The  great  number  of  books  he  composed  will  not 
appear  so  surprising  if  it  be  considered  that  his  manner   .  | 

was  to  write  several  times  upon  the  same  subject }  to  set  .  | 


chrysip:pus,  301 

down  whatever  came  into  his  bead ;  to  take  little  pains  in 
correcting  his  works  ;  to  crowd  them  with  an  infinite  num« 
her  of  quotations :  add  to  all  these  circumstances,  that  he 
was  very  laborious,  and  lived  to  a  great  age.  Of  his  works 
nothing  remains  except  a  few  extracts  in  the  works  of 
Cicero,  Plutarch,  Seneca,  and  Aulus  Gelllus.  He  had  an 
unusual  portion  of  vanity,  and  often  said  to  Cleanthes, 
^'  Shew  me  but  the  doctrines^  that  is  sufficient  for  me,  and 
all  I  want;  I  shall  find  the  proofs* of  them  myself."  A 
person  asked  him  one  day  whom  he  should  choose  for  a 
tutor  to  his  son  ?  "  Me,"  answered  Chrysippus ;  "  for,  if 
I  knew  any  body  more  learned  than  myself  I  would  go  and 
study  under  him."  There  is  another  apophthegm  of  his 
preserved,  which  does  him  much  more  honour  than  either 
of  these ;  and  therefore  we  hope  it  is  not  spurious.  Being 
told  that  some  persons  spoke  ill  of  him,  ^^  It  is  no  matter," 
said  he,  "  I  will  live  so,  that  they  shall  not  be  believed." 

The  stoics  complained,  as  Cicero  relates,  that  Chrysip- 
pus had  coMec^ed  so  many  arguments  in  favour  of  the  scep-^ 
tical  hypothesis,  that  he  could  not  afterwards  answer  them 
bimself ;  and  had  thus  furnished  Carneades  their  antagonist 
with  weapons  against  them.     This  has  been  imputed  to  his 
vanity,  which  transported  him  to  such  a  degree,  that  he 
made  no  scruple  of  sacrificing  the  doctrines  of  his  sect  for 
the  sake  of  displaying  the  subtlety  of  his  own  conceits.  The 
glory  which  he  expected,  if  he  could  but  make  men  say 
that  he  had  improved  upon  Arcesilaus  himself,  and  had 
expressed  the  objections  of  the  academics  in   a  much 
stronger  manner  than  he,  was  his  only  aim.     Thus  most  of 
the  contradictions  and  absurd  paradoxes  which  Plutarch 
imputes  to  the  stoics,  and  for  which  he  is  very  severe  upon 
them,  are  taken  from  the  works  of  Chrysippus.    Plutarcb- 
charges  him  with  making  God  the  author  of  sin,  and  this 
probably  arises  from  his  definition  of  God,  as  it  is  preserved 
by  Cicero,  which  shews  that  he  did  not  distinguish  the 
deity  from  the  universe.     He  thought  the  gods  mortal,  and 
even  asserted  that  they  would  really  perish  in  the  confla«« 
gration  of  the  world :  and,  though  he  excepted  Jupiter, 
yet  he  thought  him  liable  to  change.     He  wrote  a  book 
concerning  the  amours  of  Jupiter  and  Juno,  which  abounded 
with  so  maioy  obscene  passages  that  it  was  loudly  exclaimed 
against,  but  Brucker  seems  to  be  of  opinion  that  what  he 
advanced  of  this  kind  was  merely  in  the  way  of  paradoxi- 
cal assertion,  thrown  out  ki  the  coiurse  of  disputation,  and 

302  C  H  R  Y  S  I  P  P  U  S. 

foi%  the  sake  of  displaying  his  ingenuity.     He  is  iuciiued 
likewise  to  think  that  he  is  not  justly  chargeable  with  any 
other  kind  of  impiety  than  may  be  charged  upon  the  sect 
which  he   supported.     It  is,  however,  easy  to  guess  that 
the  stoics   had  not  much  reason  to  be  pleased  with  his 
writings ;  for,  as  he  was  a  considerable  man  among  them, — 
so  considerable  as  to  establish  it  into  a  proverb,  that  *^  if 
it   had  not   been    for  Chrysippus,    the   porch   had   never 
been,". — it  gave  people  a  pretence  to  charge  the  whole 
body  with  the  errors  of  so  illustrious  a  member.     Accord* 
ingly  we  find  that  the  celebrated  authors  among  the  stoics, 
Seneca,  Epictetus,  Arrian,  though  they  speak  very  highly 
of  Chrysippus,  yet  do  it  in  such  a  manner  as  to  let  us  see 
that  they  did  not  at  the  bottom  cordially  esteem  him.  There 
does  not  appear  to  have  been  any  objection  brought  against 
his  morals,  and  he  was  sober  and  temperate^ 

Chrysippus  aimed  at  being  an  universal  scholar;  and 
wrote  upon  almost  every  subject,  and  even  condescended 
to  give  rules  for  the  education  of  children.  Quintilian  has 
preserved  some  of  his  maxims  upon  this  point.  He  ordered 
the  nurses  to  sing  a  certain  kind  of  songs,  and  advised 
them  to  choose  the  most  modest.  He  wished,  that,  if  it 
were  possible,  children  might  be  nui'sed  by  none  .but 
learned  women.  He  would  have  children  be  three  years 
under  the  care  of  their  nurses ;  and  that  the  nurses  should 
begin  to  instruct  them  without  waiting  till  they  were  older; 
for  he  was  not  of  the  opinion  of  those  who  thought  the  age 
of  seven  years  soon  enough  to  begin.  He  died  in  the 
143d  olympiad,  eighty-three  years  of  age,  B.  C,  208, 
and  had  a  monument  erected  to  him  among  those  of  the 
illustrious  Athenians.  His  statue  was  to  be  seen  in  the 
Ceramicus,  a  place  near  Athens,  whei'e  they  who  had  been 
killbd  in  the  war  were  buried  at  the  expence  of  the  public* 
He  accepted  the  freedom  of  the  city  of  Athens,  which, 
neither  Zeno  nor  Cleanthes  had  done ;  and  is  censured  for 
it^  but  without  much  reason,  by  Plutarch.  ^ 

CHRYSOLORAS  (Emanuel),  the  principal  of  those 
learned  men  who  brought  the  Greek  language  and  litera-* 
ture  into  the  West,  was  born  at  Constantinople,  as  it  is 
supposed,  about  1355.  He  was  of  considerable  rank,  and 
descended  from  so  ancient  a  family  that  his  ancestors  are 

1  Gen.  Dict,<— Brucker's  Hist,  of  Philosophy.— Diog.  Uertios,  fcc— Saxii 

C  H  R  Y  S  O  L  O  R  A  S.  303 

said  to  have  removed  with  Constantine  from  Rome  to  By- 
zantium.    He  was  sent  ambassador  to  the  sovereigns  of 
Europe  by  the  emperor  John  Palseologus  in  1387,  to  solicit 
assistance  against  the  Turks,  and  was  here  in  England  in 
the  reign  of  Richard  II.     In  an  epistle  which  he  wrote  at 
Rome  to  the  emperor,  containing  a  comparison  of  ancient 
and  modern  Rome,  he  says  that  he  was  two  years  before  at 
London  with  his  retinue.     When  he  had  finished  this  Em- 
bassy in  somewhat  more  than  three  years,  he  returned  to 
Constantinople ;  but  afterwards,  whether  through  fear  of 
the  Turks,  or  for  the  sake  of  propagating  the  Greek  learn- 
ing, left  it  again,  an4  came  back  into  Italy  about  1396,  by 
invitation  from  the  city  of  Florence,  with  t\ie  promise  of  a 
salary,  to  open  a  school  there  for  the  Greek  language. 
With  this  he  complied,  and  taught  there  for  three  years, 
and  had  Leonard  Aretin  for  his  scholar.     From  Florence  he 
went  to  Milan,  at  the  command  of  his  emperor,  who  was 
come  into  Italy,  and  resided  in  that  city ;  and  while  he 
was  here,  Galeazzo,  duke  of  Milah,  prevailed  with  him  to 
accept  the  Greek  professorship  in  the  university  of  Pavia, 
which  had  lately  been  founded  by  his  father.     This  he 
held  till  the  death  of  Galeazzo,  and  then  removed  to  Ve- 
nice on  account  of  the  wars  which  immediately  followed. 
Between  1406  and  1409  he  went  to  Rome  upon  an  invita- 
tion  from   Leonard  Aretin,  who  had  formerly  been  his 
scholar,  but  was  then  secretary  to  pope  Gregory  XII.     In 
this  city  his  talents  and  virtues  procured  him  the  honour  of 
being  sent,  in  1413,  into  Germany  by  pope  Martin  V.  as 
ambassador  to  the  emperor  Sigismund,  along  with  cardinal 
Zarabella,  in  order  to  fix  upon  a  place  for  holding  a  ge- 
neral council ;  and  Chrysoloras  and  the  cardinal  fixed  upon 
Constance.     Afterwards  he  returned  to  his  o^n  emperor  at 
Constantinople,  by  whom   he   was  sent  ambassador  with 
others  as  representatives  of  the  Greek  church,  to  the  coun- 
cil of  Constance;  but  a  few  days  after  the  opening  of  the 
council  he  died,  April  15,  1415.     He  was  buried  at  Con- 
stance; and  a  handsome  monument  was  erected  over  him, 
with  an  inscription  upon  it  by  Peter  Paul  Vergerio.     His 
scholar  Poggio  also  honoured  his  memory  with  an  elegant 
epitaph,  and  a  volume  of  eulogies  upon  him  lately  existed 
in  the  monastery  at  Camaldoli,  justly  due  to  one  who  con- 
tributed so  essentially  to  revive  Grecian  literature,  which 
had  lain   dormant  in  the  West  for  seven  hundred  years* 
Emanuel  had  a  nephew,  John  Chrysoloras,  who  likewise 

304  C  H  R  Y  S  O  L  Q  R,  A  S. 

taught   Greek  in  Ital ji  and  died  in  1425.     Emanuel^ , 
Greek  Grammar  was  published  soon  after  the  invention  of 
printing,  and  there  are  a  great  many  editions  from  1480 
to  1550,  4to  and  8vo,  almost  all  of  which  are  very  scarce.  * 

CHRYSOSTOM  (John),  one  of  the  most  learned  and 
eloquent  of  the  fathers,  was  born  at  Antioch,  of  a  noble  £ai^ 
mily,  about  the  year  354.  His  father,  Secundus,  dying  when, 
he  was  very  young,  the  care  of  his  education  was  left  tQ  ^ 
his  mother,  Anthusa.  He  was  designed  at  first  for  the  bar,^ 
aad  was  sent  to  learn  rhetoric  under  Libanius ;  who  had 
such  an  opinion  of  his  eloquence,  that  when  asked  who 
would  be  capable  of  succeeding  him  in  the  school,  be  an^ 
swered,  ^^  Johp*,  if  the, Christians  had  not  stolen  him  firomc 
us/*  He  soon,  hpwever,  quitted  all  thoughts  of  the  bar» 
and  being  instructed  in  the  principles  of  the  Ghristiao  re- 
ligion, was  afterwards  baptized  by  MeletiuSf  aud  ordained 
by  that  bishop  to  be  a  reader  in  the  church  of  Antioch, 
where  he  converted  his  two  friends,  I'heodorus  and  Mazi- 
nips.  While  he  was  yet  young,  he  formed  a  resolution  of 
entering  upon  a  mpnastic  life,  and  in  spite  of  all  remoii** 
strances  from  his  mother,  about  the  year  374,  he  betook  . 
himself  to  the  neighbouring  mountains,  where  he  lived  fouf 
years  with  an  ancient  hermit ;  then  retired  to  a  more  secret 
part  of  the  desert,  and  shut  himself  up  in  a  cave,  in  which 
situation  he  spent  two  whole  years  more ;  till  at  lengthy 
worn  out  almost  by  continual  watchings,  fastings,  and  other 
severities,  he  was  forced  to  return  to  Antioch,  to  his  old 
way  of  living. 

He  was  ordained  deacon  by  Meletius,  in  the  year  381, 
and  now  began  to  compose  and  publish  many  of  \i\&  works. 
Five  years  after,  he  was  ordained  a  priest  by  Flavian,  in 
which  ofBce  he  acquitted  himself  with  so  much  reputation, 
that,  upon  the  death  of  Nectarius,  bishop  of  Constanti* 
nople,  in  the  year  397,  he  was  unanimously  chosen  to  fiU 
that  see.  The  emperor  Arcadius,  however,  was  obliged 
to  employ  aJl  his  authority,  and  even  to  use  some  strata- 
gem,  before  he  could  seduce  Chrysostom  from  his  native 
Antioch,  where  he  was  held  in  so  much  admiration  and 
esteem.  He  sent  in  the  mean  time,  a  mandate  to  Tbeo* 
philus,  bishop  of  Alexandria,  to  consecrate  Chrysostooi 
bishop  of  Constantinople  \   which  was  done  in  llie  year 

1  Hody  de  Graec.  iliuitribus,— Bonier  de  Gnecis  Lit.  Graec*  in  Italia  iiiftau* 

C  H  R  Y  S  O  S  T  O  M.  30« 

39^9  notwithstanding  the  secret  and  envious  attempts  o^ 
Theopbilus  to  prevent  it  But  Chrj'sostom  was  no  sooner 
at  the  head  of  the  church  of  Constantinople,  than  that  zeal 
and  ardour,  for  which  he  was  afterwards  famous,  was  em* 
ployed  in  endeavouring  to  effect  a  general  reformation  of 
manners.  With  this  disposition,  he  began  with  the  clergy, 
and-  next  attacked  the  laity,  but  especially  the  courtiers, 
whom  he  soon  made  bis  enemies  ;  and  his  preaching  is  said 
to  have  been  eminently  successful  among  the  lower  classes^. 
Nor  was  his  zeal  confined  altogether  within  the  precincts  of 
Constantinople;  it  extended  to  foreign  parts,  as  appears 
from  his  causing  to  be  demolished  some  temples  and  sta« 
tues  in  Phoenicia;  but  all  writers  are  agreed  that  his  temper, 
even  in  his  best-  duties,  was  violent,  and  afforded  his  ene- 
mies many  advantages. 

In  the  year  400,  he  went  into  Asia,  at  the  request  of 
the  clergy  of  Epbesus ;  and  by  deposing  thirteen  bishops 
of  Lydia  and  Phrygia,  endeavoured  to  settle  some  disorders 
which  had  been  occasioned  in  that  church.  But  while  be 
was  here,  a  conspiracy  was  formed  against  him  at  home, 
by  Sieverian,  bishop  of  Gabala,  to  whom  Chrysostom  had 
committed  the  care  of  his  church  in  his  absence,  and  who 
endeavoured  to  insinuate  himself  into  the  favour  of  the  no* 
bility  and  people,  at  Chrysostom's  expence.  He  had  even 
formed  a  confederacy  against  him  with  his  old  adversary, 
Theopbilus  of  Alexandria,  which  the  empress  Eudoxia  en- 
couraged, for  the  sake  of  revenging  some  liberties  which 
Chrysostom  had  taken  in  reproving  her.  By  her  intrigues, 
chiefly,  the  emperor  was  prevailed  upon  to  call  Theophilus^ 
frodf)  Alexandria,  and  he,  who  wanted  an  opportunity  to 
ruin  Chrysostom,  ckme  immediately  to  Constantinople, 
and  brought  several  Egyptian  bishops  with  him.  Those  of 
Asia,  also,  whom  Chrysostom  had  deposed  for  the  tumults 
they  raised  at  Epbesus,  appeared  upon  this  occasion  at 
Constantinople  against  him.  7'heophilus  now  arrived,  but 
infltead  of  taking  up  his  quarters  with  his  brother  Chry* 
sostom,  as  was  usual,  be  had  apartmetits  in  the  empress's 
palace,  where  he  called  a  council,  and  appointed  judges. 
Chrysostom,  however,  with  much  spirit,  excepted  against 
the  judges,  and  refused  to  appear  before  the  council ;  de« 
daring  that  he  was  not  accountable  to  strangers  for  any 
supposed  misdemeanour,  but  only  to  the  bishops  of  his 
owti  and  the  neighbouring  provinces.  Notwithstanding 
this,  Theopbilus  held  a  synod  of  bishops,  to  which  he  sum* 

Vol.  IX.  X 

J0«  €  H  R  Y  S  O  S  T  O  M.' 


mdned  Chrysostom  to  appear,  and  answer  to  various^a^^ 
tides  of  accusation.  But  Chryso^tom  sent  three  bishops 
and  two  priests  to  acquaint  Theophilus  and  his  synod,  chat 
though  he  was  viery  t'eady  to  submit  himself  to  the  jadg* 
ment  of  those  who  should  be  regularly  assembled,  and  have 
a  legal  right  to  judge  him,  yet  he  absolutely  refused  to  be 
judged  by  him  and  his  synod  ;  and  having  persisted  in  this 
refusal  four  several  timc^,  he  wa^  in  consequence  ide- 
posed  in  the  beginning  of  the  year  403.  The  news  of  hjs 
deposition  was  no  sooner  spread* about  Constanthiople, 
than  all  the  city  was  in  ^  sin  uproar,  and  when  tli^  emperor 
ordered  him  to  be  banished,  the  people  determined  to 
detain  him  by  force.  In  three  days,  however,  to  preveiit 
aiiy  further  disturbance,  he  surrendered  him^lf'to  those 
who  had  orders  to  seize  him,  and  was  Conducted  by  tHeiii 
to  a  smalt  town  in  Bitliynia,  as  the  residence  of  his  oanisli- 
ment.  His  departure  made  the  people  more  outi^geoas 
than  ever :  they  prayed  the  emperor  thatt  he  might  be  te- 
called;  they  even  threatened  biiifi ;  add  Eudoxia  was  so 
frightened  with  the  tumult,  that  dhe  herself  solicited  for  it. 
A  numerous  synod,  assembled  at  Constantinople, 'now  re- 
tk;inded  all  former  proceedings,  and' Chrysdstom  was  re- 
tailed in  triumph  ;  but  his  troubles  Were  tioft  yet  at  an 
end.  The  empress  aboui  the  latter  end  of  this  year  had 
erected  her  own  statue  near  the  church ;  and  the'pedple, 
to  do  honour  to  her,  bad  celebrated  the  public  games  be- 
fore it.  This  Chrysostom  thought  indecent ;  and  the  fire 
of  his  zeal,  far  from  being  extinguished  by  his  late  mlsfbr* 
tunes,  urged  him  to  preach  againn  those  who  were  cbh-^ 
cerned  in  it.  His  discpurse  provoked  the  empress^  ii^fao 
still  retained  her  old  ietimity  to  him  ;  and  made  ber  resolv^ 
Once  more  to  have  him  deposed  from  his  bishopftic;  '  Me 
irritated  her  not  a  little,  as  soon  a^  he  was  apprized^^bf 'he^ 
tiiachinations  agaittst  him,  by  most  imprudently  bdgintjlng 
ibhe  of  bis  sermons  with  these  remarkable  Word^  :  ^^  Behbl4 
the  furious  Herodias,  insisting  to  have  the  bead  ofiKyhni 
Baptist  in  a  charger!"  We  are  not  to  wbndeir,  thcfrdbrfi^ 
t^at  a  syiiod  of  bishops  was  assibmbfed,  i^fio  iitihiediatfefy 
i^epos^d  hin(i,  alleging  that  he  stood  already  deposed, 'by 
virtue  of  the  former  setitence  given'sigainst  hitn  5  which^ 
they  said,  had  never  been  reverted,  nof  himself  re-^c?»ti- 
blisKed  in  his  see^  i:n  that  legal  and  orderly  manner  yfaiefai 
the  cations  V requited.  In  eonsequeoee  of  that  jiidg* 
^en^  ^  the '  i^mper^r  fbrbade:  him   to  enter  ~  the  -  cbu>ch[ 

C  H  R  Y  S  O  S  T  0  M.  307 

any  morei  and  ordered  bidi  to  b^  banished.     His  followers 
and  adherents  were  now  insulted  and  persecuted  by  the 
soldiery,  and  stigmatized  particularly  by  the  name  of  Jo- 
hannites*     He  bad,   indeed,   a  strong  party  among  the 
people,  who  would  now  have  armed  themselves  in  his  de- 
fence; but  he  chose  rather  to  spend  the  remainder  of  his 
clays  in  banishment,  than  be  the  unhappy  cause  of'  a  civil 
war  to  his  country ;  and  therefore  surrendered  himself  a 
second  time  to  those  who  were  to  have  the  care  of  him* 
He.  set  out  in  June  404,  under  a.  guard  of  soldiers,  to 
Nicca,  where  he  did  not  make  any  long  stay^  but  pursued 
iiis  journey  to  Cucusus,  the  destined  place  of  his  banish- 
ment)  at  which  he  arrived  in  September.     It  is  remarkaWe 
that  the  very  day  Chrysostom  left  Constantinople,    the 
great  church  was  set  on  fire  and  biirnt,  together  with  the 
palace,  which  almost  adjoined  to  it,  entirely  to  the  ground. 
irhe  same  year  there  fell  bail-stones  of  an  extradrdinary 
size,  that  did  considerable  damage  to  the  town ;  which 
calao^ity  was  also  followed  by  the  death  of  the  empress 
Eudoxia,  and  of  Cyrinus,  one  of  Cbrysostom's  chief  ene«* 
mies.  .  All  these  were  considered  by  the  partisans  of  Cbry^ 
sostom,    as  so  many  judgments  from   heaven    upOn  the. 
country  which  thus  persecuted  Chrysostom, 

Cucusus  was  a  city  of  Armenia^   whose  situation  was 
remsirkably  barren,  wild,  and  inhospitable ;  so  that  Chry« 
sostool  was  obliged  to  change  his  place  of  residence  fre- 
quently, on  account  of  the  incursions  which  were  made  by 
th^  barbarous  nations  around  him*     He  did  not,  however, 
neglect  his  episcopal  functions ;  but  sent  forth  priests  and 
ttllOnks  to  preach. the  gospel  to  the  Goths  and  Persians,  and 
to  take  care  of  the  churches  of  Armenia  and  Phcenicia. 
Tl^is  prqbably  .provoked,  his  enemies,  not  yet  satiated  with 
n^ve^gCf  to  molest  hini  even  in  this  situation,  wretched  as 
it  wasj  and  they  prevailed  with  the  emperor  to  have  him 
iGfea^Or  a  desert  region  of  Pontus,  upon  the  borders  of  the 
Euxinesea,.  .But  the  fatigue  of  travelling,  and  tlie  hard 
iil3ag^.he'met  with  from  the  soldiers,  who  were  conducting^ 
ifita  Un^tber^  had  suchaq  effect  upon  him,  that  he  was 
seized  with  a  violent  fever,  and  died  in  a  few  holkrs,  at 
C.oinanis,:ia  Armenia,  in  the  year  .407*     Afterwards,  th^ 
we&teqi  and  easterti  cburohes  were  divided  about  him ;  the 
^rmer.  bolting  him  id  great  veneration,  while  the  latter 
considered  him   as  a  bishop  excommunicated.     But  the 
death  of  j(ircadius,  happening  about  five  months  after>  the 

308  C  H  R  Y  S  O  S  T  O  M. 

eastern  churches  grew  softened  by  degrees ;  and  it  is  cer« 
tain,  that  about  thirty  years  after,  his  bones  were  removedl 
to  Constantinople,  and  deposited  in  the  temple  of  the  holy 
apostles,  with  all  pomp  and  solemnity.  It  was  from  his 
eloquence,  that  the  name  of  Cbrysostomus,  or  golden^ 
mouth,  was  given  to  him  after  his  death,  his  usual  name 
being  only  John. 

Chrysostoro  was  undoubtedly  one  of  the  most  distin- 
guished of  the  Greek  fathers,  and  one  of  the  most  eloquent 
preachers  of  his  time.  In  his  works  he  appears  to  have 
aimed  earnestly  at  reformation  of  manners,  and  much  of 
the  manners  of  the  times  may  be  gleaned  from  his  various 
-^^nritings.  We  have  seen  that  the  intemperance  of  his  zeal 
.sometimes  furnished  his  enemies  with  advantages  which 
.  they  would  have  sought  without  success  in  the  purity  of  his 
'  life.  He  is  said  to  have  been  from  his  youth  of  a  peevish 
und  morose  temper ;  but  he  was  open  and  sincere,  spoke 
what  he  thought,  and  was  regardless  of  toonsequencesr* 
The  machinations,  however,  of  his  enemies,  prevailed  ai 
last,  and  shortened  the  life  of  one  of  the  most  learned, 
eloquent,  pious,  and  charitable  men  of  his  age.  His 
language,  says  Dr<  Blair,  is  pure,  and  his  style  highly; 
figured.  He  is  copious,  smooth,  and  sometimes  pathetic. 
But  he  retains,  at  the  same  time,  much  of  that  character 
which  has  been  always. attributed  to  the  Asiatic  eloquence^ 
which  i^  diffuse  and  redundant  to  a  great  degree,  and  often 
Over-wrought  and  tumid.  He  may  be  read,  however^  with 
advantage,  for  the  eloquence  of  the  pulpit,  as  being  freer 
from  false  ornaments  than  the  Latin  fathers. 


The  editions  of  his  works  are  very  numerous.  We  shall 
mention  only  that  beautifully  printed  one  by  sir  Henry 
Saville,  Eton,  1613,  8  vols,  folio,  the  Greek  only;  and 
Montfaucon^s  in  Gr.  &  Lat.  1718— 1738^  1?  vols,  fol.* 

CHUBB  (Thomas),  once  a  noted  deistical  writer,  and 
the  idol  of  that  party,  was  born  at  East  Haroham,  a  small 
village  near  Salisbury,  Sept  29,  1679.  His  father,  a 
maltster,  dying  when  he  was  young,  and  the  widow  having 
three  more  children  to  maintain  by  her  labour,  he  receive4 
no  other  education  than  being  instructed  to  read  and  writQ 
an  ordinary-hand.  At  fifteen  he  was  put  apprentice  to  ai 
glover  in  Salisbury  ^  and  when  his  term  Was  eixpired,  coa« 

1  Dapin.— Life  by  £rataiat.-»Tillemoiit  and  '^Panaiia8.«»^Milner'f  Ciu  Bi<L 
▼Ol.  U.  p«  279. 

'•       -4       # 

C  H  U  B  B.  sod 

tusoed  for  a  time  to  serve  his  master  as  a  journeyman,  but 
this  trade  being  prejudicial  to  bis  eyesy  he  was  admitted 
by  a  tallow-chandler,  an  intimate  friend  of  his,  as  com- 
panion and  sharer  with  him  in  his  own  business.  Being 
endued  with  considerable  natural  parts,  and  fond  of  reading, 
he  employed  all  his  leisure  to  gain  such  knowledge  as 
could  be  acquired  from  English  books  ;  for  of  Latin, 
Greek,  or  any  of  the  learned  languages,  he  was  totally 
Ignorant :  by  dint  of  perseverance  he  also  acquired  a  smat-t 
taring  of  mathematics,  geography,  and  many  other  branched 
of  science. 

But'  divinity  was,  unfortunately  for  himself^  his  favourite 
study ;  and  it  is  said  that  a  little  society  was  formed  kt 
Salisbury,  under  the  management  and  direction  of  Chubby 
tor  the  sake  of  debating  upon  religious  subjects.  Here  the^ . 
scriptures  were  at  first  read,  under  the  guidance  of  some 
commentator ;  but  in  time  every  man  delivered  bis  8«nti« 
ments  freely,  and  without  reserve,  and  commentators  were, 
no  longer  in  favour,  the  ablest  disputant  being  the  man 
who  receded  most  from  established  opinions.  About  this 
time  the  controversy  upon  the  Trinity  was  carried  on  very 
wamdy  between  Clarke  and  Waterland ;  and  falling  under 
the  cognizance  of  this  theological  assembly,  Chubb,  at 
the  request  of  the  members,  drew  up  his  sentiments  about 
k,  in  a  kind  of  dissertation  ;  which,  after  it  had  undergone 
some  correction,  and  been  submitted  to  Whiston,  wha 
saw  pot  much  in  it  averse  to  his  own  opinions,  published 
it  under  the  titl^  of  ^^  The  Supremacy  of  the  Father  as- 
serted, &c."  A  litera]:y  production  from  one  of  a  mean 
^tid  illiberal  education  will  alwavs  create  wonder,  and  a 
tallow-^chandler  arbitrating  between  such  men  as  <])larke 
and  Waterland^  could  not  fail  to  excite  attention.  Those 
who  would  have  thought  nothing  of  the  work  had  it  come- 
txom  the  school  of  Clarke,  discovered  in  this  piece  of 
Chubb's,  great  talents  in  reasoning,  as  well  as  great  per*-, 
spicuity  and  correctness  in  writing;  so  that  he  began  to^ 
We  cdnsidered  as  one  much  above  the  ordinary  sizeof  maii«^' 
Hence  Pope,  in  a  letter  to  his  friend  Gay,  was  led  to  ask 
him  if  he  had  '^  seen  or  conversed  with  Mr.  Chubb,  whQ  i» 
k  wonderful  phenomenon  of  Wiltshire?"  and  says,  in  re* 
Ijatidn  to  a  quarto  volume  of  tracts,  which  were  printed 
^ft^strwards,  th%t  h^  had  *'  read  through  his  whole  volume 
with  admiration  of  the  writer,  though  not  always  with  ap-« 
probation  of  his  doctrine."    How  rar  Pope  was  a  judge  of 

•  10  C  H  U  B.B; 

controyersial  divinity  is  not  now  a  question,  but  the  friends 
of  Chubb  appear  to  have  brought  forward  his  evidence 
with  triumph. 

Chubb  had  no  sQoner  commenced  author,  than  his  suc- 
cess in  this  new  capacity  introduced  him  to  the  personal 
l^nowledge  of  several  gentlemen  of  eminence  and  letters, 
from  whose  generosity  he  received  occasionally  presents  of 
BQoney.  We  are  even  told  that  sir  Joseph  Jekyll,  master  of 
the  roU3>  took  him  into  his  family,  and  used,  at  his  hours  df 
i^etirement)  to  refresh  himself  from  the  fatigues  of  business 
with  his  conversation ;  but  the  value  of  this  patronage  is 
considerably  lesseoedf  when  it  is  added  thai;  sir  Joseph 
occasioually  employed  him  to  w^it  {it  table,  as  a  servant 
out  of  livery.  Chubb,  however^  as  what  is  called  an  un* 
jiaught  genius,  was  generally  caressed ;  for  nobody  sus« 
pected  as  yet,  to  what  prodigious  lengths  he  would  suffer, 
bis  reasoning  faculty  to  carry  him.  He  did  not  coptinue 
Baany  years  with  sir  Joseph  Jekyll,  though  it  is  said  he  wasi 
tempted  to  it  by  the  offer  of  a  genteel  allowance,  but  re** 
tired  to  hi$  friend  at  Salisbury,  where  he  spent  his  days  m 
reading  and  writing,  and  assisting  at  the  trade,  which,  by 
the  death  of  iiis  partner,  had  devolved  on  a  nephew,  and 
was  .to  the  last  period  of  his  Ufe  a  coadjutor  in  it.  Vet 
that  this  may  not  appear  a  degradation,  we  are  gravely 
udd  that  he  only  ^d  candles  by  weight  in  the  shop,  and 
did  not  actually  n^dAr^  tliem.  In  thi^  minced  employment 
he  passed  hjs  life,  and  died  suddenly  at  Salisbury,  Feb.  8^ 
174$-7,  in  the  sixty-eighth  year  of  bis  age. 

He  left  behind  him  two  volumes  of  posthumous  works, 
which  he  calls  f  *  A  Farewell  to  his  readers,'*  from  which  we 
may  fairly,  form  this  judgment  of  his  opinions:  '^  that  he 
bad  little  .or  np  belief  of  revelation ;  that  indeed  he  plainly 
rejects  the  Jewish  revelation,  and  consequently  the  Chris- 
ti^U)  which  is  founded  upon  it ;  that  be  disclaims  a  future 
judgcQ^Ot,  and  is  very  unqertain  as  to  any  future  state  of  ex* 
isteoce ;  that  a  particular  providence  is  not  deducible  from 
the .  phenomena  of  the  world,  and  Isherefore  that  pf ayer 
cannot  be  proved  a  duty,  &c» .  &c.!'  .  With  such  a  man  wc^ 
may  surely  part  without  reluctance.  The  wonder  is  that 
he  should  have  ever  drawn  any  considerable  portioa  of 
public  attention  to  the  reveries  id  ignorance,  presumption, 
and  disingenuous  sophistry..  Like  his  legitimate. successor, 
the  late  Thomas  Paine,  he  was  utterly  destitute  of  that 
learning  and  critical  skill  which  is  Qecessm-y  to  the  expta* 
nation  of  the  sacred  writings,  which,  however,  he  tortured 

C,H,  UBB.  311 


to  his  meaning  without  shame  and  candour,  frequently 
liringing  forward  the  sentiments  of   his  predecessors  in 
scepticism,  as  the  genuine  productions  of  his  own  unassisted 
powers  of  reasoning.     His  writings  are  now  indeed  probably 
little  read,  and  bis  memory  might  long  ago  have  been  con* 
sfcrned  to  oblivion;  had  not  the  editors  of  the  last  edition  of 
the  Biographia  Britannica  brought  forward  his  history  and 
writings  in  a  strain  of  prolix  and  laboured  panegyric.     By 
what  inducement  such  a  man  as  Dr.  Kippis  was  persuaded 
16  admit  this  article,  we  shall  not  now  inquire,  but  the 
perpetual  struggle  to  create  respect  for  Chubb  is  evidently 
as  impotent  as  it  is  inconsistent     While  compelled  to  admit 
bis  attacks  upon  all  that  the  majority  -of  Christians  hold 
sacred,  the  writer  tells  us  that'  *^  Chubb*s  views  were  nqt 
inconsistent  with  a  firm  belief  in  our  holy  religion,''  and  in 
another  place,  he  says  that  *^  Chubb  appears  to  have  bad 
Very  much' at  heart  the  interests  of  our  holy  religion."     Tq 
his  o\Vn  profound  respect  for  Chubb,  this  writer  also  unites 
the  ^  admiration'*  of  Dr.  Samuel  Clarke,  bishop  Hoadly^ 
Dr.  John  Hoadly,  archdeacon  RoUeston,  and  Mr.  Harris ; 
bnt  he  does  not  inform  us  in  what  wiay  the  admiration  of 
Uiese  eminent  characters  was  efxpressed ;  and  the  only  evi* 
deuce  lie  brings  is  surely  equivocal.      He '  tells  us  that 
'^  several  of  his  tracts,  when  in. manuscript,  were  seen  by 
these  gentlemen;  but  they  never  made  thb  least  correC'^ 
tion  in  them,  even  with  regard  to  orthography,  in  which 
Chubb  was  deficient.'^     Amidst  all  these  efforts  to  screen 
Chubb  from  contempt,  his  biographer  has  not  suppressed 
the  character  of  him  eiven  by  Dr.  Law,  bishop  of  Carlisle^ 
in   his   *^  Considerations  on  the  theory  of  religion,"  an4 
which,  from  the  well-known  candour  of  that  prelate^  may 
be  adopted  with  safety.     "  Chubb,"  says  Dr.  Law,  **  not* 
withstanding  a  tolerably  clear  head,    and  strong  natural 
parts,  yet,  by  ever  aiming  at  things  far  beyond  his  reach^ 
by  attempting  a  v^iety  of  subjects,  for  which  his  narrow 
circumstances^  and  small  compass  of  reading  and  know* 
ledge,  had  in  a  great  measure  disqualified  him ;  from  ^ 
fashionable,    but  a  fallacious  kind  of  philosophy,    (with 
which  he  set  out,  and  by  which  one  of  his  education  might 
very  easily  be  misled),  fell  by  degrees  to  suph  confusion 
in  diyinlt^^  to  siich  low  quibbling  on  some  obscure  p^issi^s 
iu  our  translation  of  tha  Bible,  and  was  reduced  to  ^uch 
wretched  cavils  as^  to  several  historical  facts  and  circum* 
Stances,  i;vherein  a  small  flkiU  either  in  the  languages  or 


Ji       ♦     • 

S12  CHUBB. 

sciences,  might  bare  set  him  right ;  or  a  small  share  of 
real  modesty  would  have  supplied  the  want  of  them,  by 
putting  him  upon  consulting  those  who  could  and  would 
have  given  him  proper  assistance  ;-^that  he  seems  to  have 
fallen  at  last  into  an  almost  universal  scepticism;  and  quit* 
ting  that  former  serious  and  sedate  sobriety  which  gave 
him  credit,  contents  himself  wirh  carrying  on  a  mere  farce 
for  some  time  ;  acts  the  part  of  a  solemn  ^i^rave  buffoon  ; 
sneers  at  all  things  he  does  not  understand  ;  and  after,  all 
his  fair  professions,  and  the  caveat  he  has  entered  agaiiist 
auch  a  charge,  must  unavoidably  be  set  down  in  the  seat 
of  the  scorner.'*  Every  point  in  this  charge  is  fully  proved 
in  the  thirteenth  and  fourteenth  chapters  of  Dr.  Leland^» 
View  of  Deistical  Writers.  * 

CHUPLEIGH  (Lady  Mary),  who  had  the  character^of 
a  very  philosophic  and  poetic  lady,  was  born  in  1^56,  and 
was  the  daughter  of  Richard  Lee,  of  Winsloder,  ia  De- 
vonshire, esq.  She  was  married  to  sir  George  Chudleigh, 
bart.  by  whom  she  had  several  children  ;  among  the  rest, 
Eliza-Maria,  who  dying  in  the  bloom  of  life,  was  lamented 
by  her  mother  in  a  poem  entitled  "  A  Dialogue  between 
Lucinda  and  Marissa."  She  wrote  another  poem  called 
••  The  Ladies  Defence,"  occasioned  by  an  angry  sermon 
preached  against  the  fair  sex.  These,  with  many  others, 
were  collected  intd  a  volume  in  1703,  and  printed  a  third 
time  in  1722.  She  published  also  a  volume  of  Essays  upon 
various  subjects  in  verse  and  prose,  in  17  iO,  which  have 
been  much  admired  for  delicacy  of  style.  These  were  de- 
dicated to  her  royal  highness  the  princess  Sophia,  electress 
and  duchess  dowager  of  Brunswick;  on  which  occasion 
that  princess,  then  in  her  eightieth  year,  honoured  lier 
with  a  very  polite  epistle. 

'  This  lady  is  said  to  have  written  other  things,  as  tra- 
gedies, operas,  masques,  &c.  which,  though  not  printed, 
are  preser\'ed  in  her  family.  She  died  in  1710,  in  -her 
£fty-^fifth  year.  She  was  a  woman  of  a  sound  understanding, 
but  as  a  poetess,  cannot  be  allowed  to  rank  very  high;.:  It 
was  her  merit,  however,  that  although  she  had  an  educa- 
tion in  which  literature  seemed  but  little  regarded,  being 
taught  no  other  than  her  native  language,  her  fondness 
for  books,  great  application^  and  uncommpn  abilities,  jcn- 
fibled  her  to  figure  among  the  literati  of  her  time.    Amidst 


C  HUD  LEI  G  H/  31$ 

'"  fhe  charms  of  paetry,  in  which  she  took  greai  delight,  she 

'  dedicated  some  part  of  her  time  to  the  severer  studies  of 
phiiosophy.  This  appears  from  her  Essays,  in  which  she 
discovers  a  great  degree  of  piety  and  good  sense.  Seveiail 
of.  her.  letters  are  iu  the  <*  Memoirs  of  Richard  Gwinnett 
and  Mrs.  Thomas,"  1731,  2  vols.  Svo,  and  in  GurU's  Col- 
lection of  Letters,  vol.  III.* 

CHURCH  (Thomas),    D.  D.  was  born  in   1707,   and 
educated  at  Brasen  Nose  college^  Oxford,  where  he  took 

'  his  degree  of  M.  A.  in  1731.  In  1740  he  was  instituted  to 
the  vicarage  of  Battersea,  which,  with  a  prebendal  stall;in 
St.  Paul's  cathedral,  was  the  only  preferment  he  obtained. 
He  distinguished  himself  much  in  the  field  of  controversy^ 
in  which  he  engaged  with  men  of  very  opposite  talents  aafid 

'  pursuits ;  with  Wesley  and  Whitfie)d,  for  their  industry 
in  promoting  methodism,  and  with  Middleton  for  equal 
2eal  in  attacking  the  doctrines  of  Christianity.  Against 
the  latter  he  published  ^*  A  Vindication  of  the  Miraculous 
Powers  which  subsisted  in  the  three*  Centuries  of  the 
Christian  Church,  in  answer  to  Dr.-Middleton's  Freeln«* 
xjuiryi  By  which  it  is  shewn,  that  we  have  no  sufficient 
ieason  to  believe,  from  the  Doctor's  reasonings  and  objec- 
tions, that  no  such  powers  were  continued  to  the  churchy 
after  the  days  of  the  Apostles*  With  a  preface,  containing 
some  observations  on  Dr.  Mead*s  account'  of  the  Demo- 
niacs,  in  his  Medica  Sacra, ^'  1749.  This  was  followed 
about  a  year  after,  by  **  An  Appeal  to  the  serious  and  un- 
prejudiced, or  a  8econd  Vindication,  &c."  These  were 
so  highly  approved  of,  that  the  university  of  Oxford  con* 
ferred  on  him  the  degree  of  D.  D.  by  diploma.     He  was 

:  also  too  zealously  attached  to  religion  to  let  the  opinfi^ns 
of  lord  Bolingbroke  pass  unnoticed,  notwithstanding  he 
had  been  bis  patron.  His  publication  upon  this- subjecdt 
however,  was  anonymous,  **  An  Analysis  of  the  Phibso* 
J)hical  Works  of  the  late  lord  Bolingbroke,"   1755.     Dr. 

;  Church  published  eight  single  sermons  between  1748  and 
2756,  in  whieh  last  year  he  died.' 

CHURCHIIL  (Charles),  an  English  poet  of  unques* 

•  cionable'  genius,  was  bom  in  Vine-street,  in  the  parish  of 
St.  John  the  Evangelist,  Westminster,  some  time  in  Fb* 
4)niary,  1731.     His  lather  was  for  many  years  eurate  and 

•--•■•■•'        •■•'••  .-    • 

1  Ballard's  Memoirs.-— Gibber's  Lives. 

f  Lyso^s's  ^Bvirons*-— NichpU't  Bowysr,  vol*  II. 

S;14  C  H  U  R  C  H  I  L  L. 

lecturer  of  that  parish,  j&nd  rector  of  Rainbam,  near  Grays^ 
ill  Essex.  .  He  placed  his  son,  when  about  eight  year;;  of 
age/at  Westminster-school,  which  w^s  tben  superintended 
by  X>r.  Nichols  and  Dr.  Pierson  Lloyd.     His  pit>6cieacy  a^ 
school,  although  not  inconsiderable,  was  less  renaart^able  • 
than  his  irregularities.    i3n  entering  his  nineteenth  year  he 
applied  for  matriculation  at  the  university  of  Oxford,.  whe;r^  . 
it  is  reported  by  some,  he  was  rejected  on  account  of  his 
deficiency  in  the  learned  languages,  and  by  others,  thai 
be .  was  hurt  at  the  trifling  and  childish  questions  ppt  to  . 
him,  and  answered  tb^  e^aniiner  with  a  cpptempt  vifhich 
was  mistaken  for  ignorance/    It  is.iiot  easy  to. reconcile 
these  -  accounts,  and,,  perhaps,  |iot  of  great  impprtancef  : 
Churchill,  however,  was  afterwards  admitted  of.  Triiiit^. 
college,  Cambridge,  hut  i^vmediately  returned, to  liOodopi ." 
and  never  visited  the  universHy^ny  more.  .>     .  ^  . 

The  reason  of  his  abandoning  the  university  ipay.  have 
bMn  an  attachment  which  he  formed  while  at,  Westi)[iin^^x:-r  ' 
school,  and  which  ended  in  a  clandestine^ marriage  at  tb^  ' 
Fleet.     This  was  a  severe  disappointn;)^nt  to  his  fatber*$  . 
hopes^  but  he  wisely  became  recoil ciled  to  what  was  ^ih 
avoidable,  and  entertained  the  young  couple  in  his  housiQ 
about  a  year,  during  which  his  /soiu's  conduct  was  inre* . 
proachable.     In  1751   he  retired  to   Sunderland,,  in  ^e, 
north  of  Ei>g]and,  where  he  applied  hipiself,):o.  such  $tudiie$ 
aa  might  qualify  him  for  the  church,  and  at  the  customafy^ 
age  he  received  deacon's^  orders  froqii  'Dr.  Wille$>,bishQP'; 
of  Bath,  and  Wells, -ajid  in  1756  was  or4aiue4  priest  .by; 
Dr.  Sherlock,  .bishop  of  LondQU*     He  ii;b^p  exerpised  bi^ 
clerical  functions  $t  Cadbury  in   Somersetshire,  and  i^t 
JUJH^ham^  his /atber^s  living,  but  i^  what  nianner,  or  wit]|;^. 
«i^at  display  of  abilities,  is  not  remembered*    A  story  wimi: 
onrrent  some  time  after  his  dearth  that  he  received  a  cura<;:y;: 
of  30/.  a  year  in  Wales,  and  kept  a  public  hpuse  to  SHF|3tly 
kb  deficiencies,  but  for  this  there  appears.^o  have  )>een  jdo^ 
i^tber  foundation .  than  what  the  irregularities  of  hjbi  iQpre . 
advanced  life  supplied.     So  regardless  was  he  of  chai^tei> 
thsa^his  enemies  found  ready  credit  for  any  fiction  ^i  his:^ 
eKpence.     While  at  Rainharo,.  he  endeavoured  to. provide* 
for  his  family  by  teaching  the  youth  of  the  ne^hbourhood^. 
an  occupation  which  i^eciessity  rendered  eligible,  and  habi^ . 
might  have  made  pleasing ;  but  in  1758  bis  father^s  death, 
opened  a  more  flattering  prospect  to  him  in  the  metropolis^^ 
lihere  he  was  chosen  bis  successor  in  the  curacy  and  fee- 



tureship  of  St  JoWs.  ¥iX  some  time  he  perforined  the 
duties  of  these  offices  with  external  decency  at  least,  and 
employed  his  leisure  hours  in  the  instruction  of  some  pu^ 
pits  in  the  learned  languages,  and  was  also  engaged  as  a 
teacher  at  a  ladies^  boarding-school. 

He  was  in  his  twenty-seventh  year  when  he  began  lo 
relax  from  the  obligations  of  virtue,  and  more  openly  to 
enter  into  thbse  dissipations,  which,  while  they  ruitied-  bis  ' 
character  and  im))aired  his  health,  were,  not  indirectly^ 
the  precursors  to  his  celebrity  in  public  life.  He  was  im«- 
moderately  fond  of  pleasure ;  a  constant  attendant  at  tha 
theatres,  and  the  associate,  of  men  who  united  wit  and 
profligacy;  and  qualified  themselves  for  moral  teachers  by 
practising  the  vices  they  censured  in  others.  Lloyd,  tbii 
poet,  had  been  one  of  his  school-fellows  at  Westminster^ 
and  their  intimacy,  renewed  afresh,  became  now  a.  close 
partnership  in  debt  and  dissipation.  In  one  respect  this 
proved  beneficial  to  Churchill.  Dr.  Lloyd^  his  coropa^ 
Atones  father,  persuaded  Churchiirs  creditors  to  accept  of 
£ve  shillings  in  the  pound,  and  to  grant  releases;  nor- 
ought  it  to  be  concealed,  that  there  is  somre  reason  lot 
believing  that  Churchill,  as  soon  as  he  had  acquired  money 
by  his  publications,  voluntarily  paid  the  full  amount  of  the 
original  debts. 

At  what  period  be  made  the  first  experiinedt  of  his  pot 
eJtical  talents  is  not  known.  He  bad,  in  conjunction  with' 
Lloyd,  the  care  of  the  poetical  department  in  the  ^^Th0 
Library,"  a  kind  of  magazine,  of  which  Dr.  Kippis  was^ 
editof,  and  he  probably  wrote  some  small  pieces  in  thai 
work,  but  they  cannot  now  be  distinguished.  About  the 
year  1759  or  1760,  he  wrote  a  poem  of  some  length,  en-* 
titled  ^*  The  Bard,'*  which  was  rejected  by  an  eminent 
bookseller,  perhaps  justly,  as  the  author  did  not  publish  it 
afterwards,  when  it  might  have  had  the  protection  of  hit 
name.  He  wrote  also  "  The  Conclave,'"  a  satire  levelled 
at  the  dean  and  chapter  of  Westminster,  which  bis  firiendt 
prevailed  upon  him  to  suppress.  Thus  .disappointed  in 
his  first  two  proddctions,  his^  constant  attendance  at^  the 
theatres  suggeisted' a  third,  levi^lled  at  the  players.  This 
was  his  celebrated  '^  Rosciad,'*  in  which  the  pnfessionai 
characters  of  the  performer^  of  Drury  Lane-  and  Govent 
Garden ,  theatres  were  examined  with  a  severity,  ys^t  With* 
an  acuteness  of  criticism,  and  easy  flow  of  humour  and^ 
sarcasm^  which  retidered  what4ie  probably  considered  as  i 

3U  C  H  U  R  CHILL 

temporal^  trifle,  a  publication  of  uncommon  popularit}**. 
He  bad,  however,  so  little  encouragement  in  bringing  this 
poem  forward,  that  five  guineas  were  refused  as  the  price 
he  valued  it  at ;  and  he  printed  it  at  his  own  risk  when  he 
had  scarcely  ready  money  enough  to  pay  for  the  necessary 
advenisements.     It  was  published  in  March  1761,  and  its 

'  sale  exceeded  all  expectation,  but  as  his  name  did  not 
appear  to  the  first  edition,  and  Lloyd  had  not  long  beibre 
published  "  The  Actor,'*  a  poem  on  the  same  subject,  the 
Rosciad  was  generally  supposed  to  be  the  production  of 
the  same  writer;  while,  by  others,  it  was  attributed  to 
those  confederate  wits,  Colman  and  Thornton.  Churchill, 
however,  soon  avowed  a  poem  which  promised  so  much 
feme  and  profit,  and  as  it  had  been  not  only  severely 
handled  in  the  Critical  Review,  but  positively  attributed  to 
another  pen,  he  published  "  The  Apology :  addressed  to 
the  Critical  Reviewers,''  1761.  In  this  he  retaliated  with 
great  bitterness  of  personal  satire. 

:  The  success^  of  the  **  Rosciad,"  and  of  **  The  Apology,** 
opened  new  prospects  to  their  author.  He  saw  in  his 
genius  a  source  of  plentiful  emolument,  but  unfortunately 
also  be  contemplated  it  as  an  object  of  terror,  which  might 
be  employed  against  the  friends  of  virtue,  with  whom  he 
BO  longer  thought  it  necessary  to  keep  any  terms.  Mfhile 
insulting  public  decency  by  ♦the  grossest  immorality,  he 
aimed  his  vengeance  on  those  who  censured  him,  with  ar 
sprightliness  of  malignity  and  force  of  ridicule  which  he 
deemed  irresistible.  His  conduct,  as  a  clergyman,  had 
long  shocked  bis  parishioners,  and  incurred  at  length  the 
displeasure  of  Dr.  Pearce,  the  dean  of  Westminster,  who 
remonstrated  as  became  his  station.  But  Churchill  was 
ifOw  too  far  gone  in  profligacy,  and  being,  as  his  friends 

;  have  been  pleased  to  say^  too  honest  to  dissemble,  he  re* 
aigned  his  curacy  and  lectureship  ^,  and  with  thi§  acknow- 

i  tedged  sacrifice  to  depravity,  threw  off  all  the  external 

^  restraints  which  his  former  character  might  be  thought  to 
impose.  That  his  contempt  for  the  clerical  dress  might  be 
more  notorious,  he  was  seen  at  all  public  places  habited 
in  a  blue  coat  with  metal  buttons,  a  goIdJaced  waistcoat,' 
a  gold-laced  hat,  and  ruffles. 

In  February  1761  a  separation  took  place  between  liim 
and  his  wife,  whose  imprudence. is  said  to  have  kept  pace 

«  ■>  * 

>i^  See  a  letter  from  btm  on  this  subject,  in  the  Gent  Mag.vpl.  XtVIlI.  p.  47U 


tvkh  bis  own  * ;  but  from  a  licentious  passage  in  one  csif 
his  letters  to  Wilkes,  it  appears  that  he  was  tired  of  her 
person,  and  probably  neglected  her  in  pursait.of  vagrant 
amours.  As  his  conduct  in  this  and  other  matters  was  too 
notorious  to  pass  without  animadversion,  he  endeavoured 
to  vindicate  it  in  a  poem  entitled  *'  Night,''  addressed  to 
his  wretched  partner  Lloyd.  The  poetical  beauties  of  this 
poem,  which  are  very  striking,  can  never  atone  ■■.  for  the 
absurdity  as  well  as  immorality  of  his  main  argument,  that 
avowed  vice  is  more  harmless  than  concealed ;  and  did  not 
prevent  his-  readers  from  perceiving,  that  lie  who  ipaiataias 
it,  must  have  lost  shame  as  well  as  virtue* 

His  next  publication  was  ^  The  Ghost,''  1762,  ex* 
tended,  at  irregular  intervals,  to  four  books.  This  wai 
founded  on  the  weH-knowa  imposture  of  a  ghost  having 
disturbed  a  family  in  Cock-lane ;  but  our  poet  contrived  to 
render  it  the  vehicle  of  many  characteristic  sketches,  and 
desultory  thoughts  on  various  subjects  unconnected  with 
its  title.  About  this  time  he  appears  to  have  formed  a 
connection  with  the  celebrated  John  Wilkes,  an  impostor 
qi  more  ingenuity,  who  encouraged  him  to  add  faction  to^; 
profligacy^  and  increase  the  number  of  his  enemies  by  re* 
Tiling  every  person  of  rank  or  distinction  with  whom-WUkes 
chose  to  be  at  variance.  His  pen  is  said  to  have  been  aUo 
employed  in  Wilkes's  "  North  Briton,"  and  in  ".  The 
Prophecy  of  Famine."  Churchill's  next  production  was- 
originally  sketched  in  prose  for  that  paper^  What  other 
contributions  he*  made  cannot  now  be  ascertained,  buL  it 
may  be  suspected  that  Churchiirs  satirical  talent  would  ill 
submit  to  the  tameness  of  prose,  nor  indeed  was  such  aa 
employment  worthy  of  the  author  of  ^^  The  Rosciad,"  and 
*^  The  Apology." — Wilkes  suggested  "  The  Prophecy  of 
Famine,"  as  a  more  suitable  vehicle  for  the  bitterness  of 
national  scurrility,  and  he  was  not  mistaken.  * 

The  ^^  Epistle  to  Hogarth"  which  followed,  was  occac- 
sioned  by  that  artist's  having  talten  some  liberties  in  his 
political  engravings,  with  the  characters  of  the  earls. Teo>> 
pie  and  Chatham.^  *  The  only  revenge  he  now  took  was  a 
paltry  print  representing  Churchill  as  a  Russian  bear, 
but  whether  this  preceded  or,  followed  the  '^  Epistle"  is 
not  (][uite  clear.    The  parties  had  been  once  intimate^  and 

*  This  has  been  denied.  She  survived  htm,  l^owever^  and  he  btqueathtrd  to 
fier  an  annuity  of  60/.  a  year. 

SfS  C  H  U  R  C  H  I  L  L. 

Chorchfll  pud  dae  reverence  to  the  talent^  of  Hogmrtb,  bctr 
in  bis  present  humour  he  stuck  at  nothing  which  coold 
vex  and  irritates  Hogarth  died  soon  after,  and  some  of 
Churchill's  friends  asserted,  with  malicious  satisfactioft, 
that  the  poem  had  accelerated  that  event.  .  Mr.  Nichols, 
in  his  eopious  life  of  Hogarth,  starts  some  reasonable  doubts 
on  this  subject. 

In  i  7 63  Churchill  formed  an  intimacy  with  the  daughter 
of  a  tradesman^  in  Westminster,  and  prevailed  with  her 
to  live  with  him,  but  within  a  fortnight  his  passion  was 
satiated,  and  she  had  leisure  to  repent.  Her  father  re* 
ceived  her  back,  and  she  might  probably  have  been  re^ 
formed  had  she  not  been  insulted  by  a  sister,  and  her  .si- 
tuation rendered  so  disagreeable  that  she  preferred  the 
company  of  her  seducer.  Churchill  thought  him^lf  bound 
in  honour  and  gratitude  to  receive  her,  and  perpetuate  her 
wretchedness  by  a  more  lengthened  connexion.  While 
this  afiair  was  the  general  subject  of  public  indignatioa^  be 
iwrote  ^^  The  Conference,''  in  which  he  assumes  the  lao* 
piage  of  repentance  and  atonement  ^with  such  psthetie 
effect,  that  every  reader  most  hope  he  was  sincere-^ 

The  duel  which  took  place  between  Wilkes  and  Martin 
gave  rise  to  ^*  The  Duellist,"  1763,  which  he  extended  to 
three  books,  and  diversified,  as  usual,  by  much  personal 
satire;     In  *'  The  Author,"  published  about  the  end  of  the 
same  year,  he  gave  more  general  satisfaction,  as  the  topics 
were  of  a  more  general  satire.     His  first  publication  in 
17^4  was  ^'  Gotham,"  which,  without  a  definite-object,  or 
much  connexion  of  parts^.  contains  many  passages. of  ster.^ 
ling  merit.    The  **  Candidate"  was  written  soon  after,  to 
expose  lord  Sandwich,  who  was  a  candidate  for  the  o£Bce  of 
high  steward  of  the  university  of  Cambridge.     His  lord-^ 
shipV  deficiencies  in  moral  conduct  were  perhaps  no  unfair 
objects  for  satire ;  but  this  from  the  pen  of  a  man  now  de^ 
biUtated  by  habitual  excess,,  served  only  to  prove  that 
Churchill  was  a  profligate  in  contempt  of  knowledge  and 

The  «  Farewell,"  <<  The  Times,"  and  « Indqiendence,**^ 
were  hasty  compositions  that  added  little  to  his  fame ;  andy 
except  perhaps  ^<  The  Times,''  announced  the  deolioeof 

*  Of  a  celebrated  statuary,  says  Mr.  "  spinster**  mentioned    in  ChurchilPf 

Cole,  who  was  knighted  by  bi»  majesty  will,  and  who  was,  if  we  are  not  mis- 

•ome  yean  before.    Mr.  Cole  adds  the  taken,  the  lady  he  sedaaed.*T-Gole> 

tiame»  but  it  it  uM  tiie  ttame  of  a  MS.  Athei»  jh  BriU  Mift. 

C  H  UB  C  HI  L  L-  S19 

^hn  ]^i^er9«     *^  Independence^'  appeared   in    September, 
I7€4y  and  was  tbe  last  of  his  prodactions  published  in  his 
'ttfe«-tifne.  "  The  Journey,"  and  "The  Fragment  of  a  Dedi- 
cation to  Dr.  Warburton,"  were  brought  to  Hgiit  by  his 
friends  soon  after  his  death, 

^  Towards  the  end  of  October,  1764,  he  accompanied 
Humphrey  Cotes,  one  of  Wilkes^s  dupes,  to'vtsit  this  pa* 
triotin  his  Toiuntary  exile  in  France.  The  party  met  at 
Boulogne,  where  Churchill,  imniediately  on  his  arrival,  *was 
-attacked  by  a  miliary  fever,  which  terminated  bts  life^ 
Nov.  4,  in  the  thirty-fourth  year  of  his  age.  It  was  t«« 
ported^  that  his  last  words  were,  **  What  a  fool  have  I  been !  •  ^ 
but  'Wilkes,  who  was  present,  thought  it  bis  duty,  oii  ail 
obca^tons^  to  contradict  this.  He  considered  it  asacalnmny 
on  a  inan  ^whose  ^*  fyrnmess  of  philosophy,^*  be  gravely  io^ 
fermsus,  ^' shone  inftili  lustre  during  the  whole  time  of 
his  very  severe  ilkiess."  His'  body  was  brought  from  Bou*^ 
iogne  for  interment  at  Dover,  where  it  was  deposited  in 
the  old  cbdi^h^yard,  former^  betongiog  to  the  collegiacift 
ebureii^  of  St.  Martin.  A  stone  was  afterwardis  placed  ea 
bis  grave,  on  which  are  inscribed  bis- age^  the  time  of  his 
death^  and  tius  line  ftotn  his  wodts: 

.        "  life  to  the  last  enjoy'd,  here  Churchill  lies/^       .        ' 

"  Of  the  nature  of  his 'life  and  its  enjoyments,  enougb  lias 
been  said.— ^He  ieh  two  sons,  Charles  and  John,  the  chai^ 
of  .whose  education '  was    generously  undertaken  by  sir 
Richard  Jebb ;  but  they  soon  died,  like  their  father,  victims . 
to  imprudenoe  and  intempenuice. . 

Tbe  year  after  his  death,  a  volume  of  Sermons  wia^iib* 
lished;  which  he  is  said  to  have  prepared  for  the  pressy  but 
this  seems  wholly  ^  improbable.  Tliey  bear  no  marks  vol 
1^  composition  idXsA  it  has  been  conjectured  by  tbe  editor 
of  tbe  Biogtaphia,  that  they  ware  some  of  his  father's,  which 
he  had  copied  forhis  own  use.  Churchill  was  not  a  hypo^ 
erite,'and  woold  not  have  imblisbed  sermons,  for  a  serious 
purpose ;  nor  could  he  be  tempted  by  necessity  to  avail 
Biftisel^  of  tpbUic' curiosity.  His  poetry,  supplied  all  his 
wants ;  and  if  we'  nky  credit  his  will,  he  left  behind  bun  a 
Considerable  ium'iif  money.'     ^ 

The  jneri^of  Churchill,  as  a  poet,  has  but  lately  been 
appre^iaj^ed  wi£|;ij.ri^H>3^rtiaUty.  During  his  life,  his  works 
were  popular  be}rond  all  competition.  While  he  continued 
to  supply  thdt  fliidci^s  6f  entertainment  which  is  more^enc- 

32a  C  IT  U  H  C  H  I  L  L: 

rally  gratifying  than  a  good  mind  can  conceive,  pra  bad  diie^i 
will  acknoAvtedge^  he  was  more  eagerly  andmore  frequently  - 
read  than  any  of  bis  contemporaries*  CtnirchiU  was  ad<- 
mirably  suited  to  the  time  in.  vvhich  he  Uved.  But  if  his^ 
poems  were  popular  with  those  who  love  to  see  worth  de« 
preciated,  and  distinctions  levelled^  with  the  vulgar,  the 
envious,  and  the  malignant,  they  were  no  less  held  in  ab-> 
horrence  by  those  who  were  as  much  hurt  at  the  prostitu«> 
tioD,  as  charmed  by  the  excellence  of  his  talents,  .ai>d  who 
were  afraid  to  praise  his  genius  lest  they  should  propagate 
his  writings.  Few  men,  therefore,  made  so  much  noise 
during  their  lives,  or  so  little  after  their  deaths.  His  part^ 
ners  in  vice  and  faction  shrunk  from  the  task  of  popetuating 
his  memory,  either  from  the  fear  of  an  alliance  with  a  cbawi 
racter  so  obnoxious  as  to  injure  their  party,  orfrom  the^ 
meglect  with  which  bad  men  usually  treat  their  associates,* 
when  they  can  be  no  longer  useful.  .  Lloyd,  to  whom  be 
bad  been  more  kind  than  Colman  or  Thornton,  did  not 
aurvive  him  above  a  month.  Colman  and  Thornton  preserved 
a  cautious  silence  about  a  man  whom  to  praise  was  to  en- 
gage with  the  many  enemies  be  had  created ;  and  Wilkes/ 
to  whom  he  bequeathed  the  editorship  and  illustration  ol 
his  poems  by  notes^  &c.  neglected  the  task,  until  he  had 
succeeded  in  his  ambitious  manoeuvres,  became  ashamed 
of  the  agents  who  had  supported  him,  and  left  his  poorer 
partizans  to  shift  for  themselves.  Even  when  Dr.  Kippis 
apphed  to  him  for  such  information  as  might  supply  a  life 
of  Churchill  for  the  Biographia,  he  seemed  unwilling  err 
unableto  contribute  much ;  and  a  comparison  of  that  lilor: 
with  the  scattered  accounts  previously  published,  may  con- 
vince the  reader  that  Dr.  Kippis  thanked  him  for  more  as« 
sistance  than  he  received. 

While  the  friends  of  ChnrcfaiU  were  thn^  negligent  of  his 
fame,  it  was  not  to  be  expected  that  his  enemies  would-be* 
very  eager  to  perpetuate  the  memory  of  a  man  by  whoni 
they  had  suffered  so  severely.  Perhaps  no  writer  etei? 
made  so  many  enemies,  or  carried  his  hostilities  into  so 
many  quarters,  without  provocation.  If  we  except  the 
case  of  Hogarth,  it  is  doubtful  whether  he  ever  attacked 
the  character  of  one  individual  who  did  him  an  injury,  or 
stood  in  his  way.  Such  wantonness  of  detraction  must. 
have  naturally  led  to  the  general  wish  that  his  name  s^nd 
works  might  b&  speedily  consigned  to  oblivion.  Bis  wri* 
tings,  however^  may  now  be  read  with  more  calmt)ei$s^  and 



hi^  rank  asa  poet  assigned  with  the  regards  due  to  genius^ 
however  misapplied.     If  those  passages  in  which  his  genius 
shines  most  conspicuously  were  to  be  selected  from  the 
mass  of  defamation  by  which  they  are  surrounded^  he  might 
be  allowed  to  approach  to  Pope  in  every  thing  but  correct- 
ness ;   and  even   of  his  failure  in  this  respect,  it  may  be 
justly  said  that  be  evinces  carelessness  rather  than  want  of 
taste.     But